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To a question of social elite & #34; medal государства" (on materials of the Livonian landtag of the end of the XV beginning of the 16th centuries)

seriya History. Political science. Economy. Computer science. 2010. No. 7 (78). Release 14

UDC 940.19







The research is devoted to search of additional definitions of "the medal state". The author recognizes a thought that his typological features are defined not only by the nature of government institutions, but also specifics of social surroundings, especially its ruling elite. The dispassionateness of the Estonian knights, the most politically active elite division of Livonia, from the highest state positions replaced only by knights of an award contributed to the development in this environment of the indifferent relation to nation-wide problems which was shown on landtaga of a boundary of HU-HU! centuries

The socio-political subject is high on the list in a historiography of medieval Livonia. Baltic historians of XIX stood at the origins of tradition there are a head of the 20th century whose efforts focused on preservation of the legal bases of ostzeysky autonomy presented by a complex of noble and burgher privileges. The knights of "Old Livonia" presented by lennik of the Livonian award, the Riga archbishop, bishops Derpt (Tartu) of Kurland and the ezel-viksky (Saar-lyanensky) diocese became therefore one of the main objects of a research. The publication of documents on knightly land tenure, the history of Livonia, Estonia, Kurland and recesses (protocol records) Livonian landagov1 created at a boundary for the 19-20th centuries great base for study temy2, however from 30th of the 20th century interest in the Baltic nobility of the German origin becomes dull. Long time it proved only in a circle of the Baltic Germans emigrating in ermaniyu3.

Meanwhile studying knights of medieval Livonia is not exhausted. German-Baltic historians imagined knights the social "organism" interacting with citizens, peasants or with Vlast (state) 4. Meanwhile in the conditions of Livonia it was talked not just of the state, and of "the medal state" which occupied over 67% of its territory and was the leader of the Livonian state community. "The medal states" (Ordensstaaten) of the German (Teutonic) award in Prussia and Livonia, represented special type of medieval statehood. Its form-building element was the spiritual and knightly award. Having the structures characteristic for go-

* Work is performed with assistance of RGNF, a grant 09-01-95105 and / E.

1 Est-und Livlandische Brieflade. Abt.1. Reval, 1856-1857; Curlandische Guter-Chronik. Mitau, 18561894; Kurlandische Guter-Chronike. Bd.1. Mitau, 1895; Neue Kurlandische Guter-Chroniken. Mitau, 19001905; Livlandische Guter-Urkunde. Riga, 1908; Liv-, Est-und Kurlandische Urkundenbuch. Abt. 2 (LEKUB 2). 3 Bd. Riga, Moskau, 1900-1914; Akten und Rezesse der livlandischen Standetage (AR). Abt. 3. Riga, 1910.
2 Fahne A. Livland und seine Geschlechter. Koln, 1875-1876; Gernet A. Forschungen zur Geschichte des baltishen Adels. 2 Bd. Reval, 1893-1895; Transehe-Roseneck A. Zur Geschichte des Lehenwesens in Livland//Mitteilungen aus der livlandischen Geschichte. Bd. 18. Riga, 1908; Svabe A. Grundrifi der Agrargeschichte Lettlands. Riga, 1928.
3 Muhlen H. v. zur. Tiesenhausen, Vassalengeschlecht in Livland//Lexikon des Mittelalters. Bd. 8. 1997; Paravicini W. Zeitenwende. Edelleute aus dem Ordensland Preufien und Livland im Westeuropa des 15. Jahrhunderts//Reich, Regionen und Europa im Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Berlin, 2000.
4 Schirren K. Walter von Plettenberg. Riga, 1908.

sudarstvo of Modern times - constant army and the centralized hozyaystvennoadministrativny organization, - it kept at the same time prerogatives of the feudal "territorial governor" - a landsgerr and could instead of the world and justice which he guaranteed to the citizens, to count on execution of various duties by them. The combination of so different manifestations of etatism strengthened by an ideological component also reported to "the medal state" that uniqueness which distinguishes it among the medieval states.

The specifics of an award were shown not only in power institutions, but also in the nature of social surroundings. There was no Wednesday to which the concept "aristocracy" is applicable and which is identified by existence of a complex of the etikopovedenchesky characteristics granting the right for the power.

The basis of the social organization of medieval Livonii5 arose in the 13th century, during an era military kolonizatsionnogo development by Germans of East Baltics. Social disengagement of its population was made then, mainly, on ethno-confessional signs. The German community was perceived as the homogeneous environment uniting "all people of a Christian name" (allen Menschen christlichen Namen) or just "our" (nostros) that complicates exarticulation in the lump of crusaders and colonists noble elementa6. Active participation of the German knights in conquest of East Baltics is guessed on fine military preparation and hardware krestonostsev7 and also on that skill which spiritual and knightly awards - the Award of sword-bearers (1202-1237) and the Livonian award (1237-1561), - showed at arrangement of locks and castle districts (Gebieten). In all this administrative and military experience of imperial mi-nisterial which were used by medieval German sovereigns as military servants, soldiers of garrisons and managers of the lowest and average link is distinctly felt. The vast majority of knights of an award and the Livonian vassals came from this sredy8, and therefore could not brag of either eminence of origin, or titles, or wealth, or education, or participation in courtois knightly culture, - a word, all what during an era of the High Middle Ages served as attributes of aristocratism.

The lack in Livonia of a natural aristocratic element was filled with presence of other elite - first of all, knights of an award rather of their darkness them who was related to power structures of "the medal state". Presence of an award as "the collective sovereign" defined the specific nature of social disengagement of the Livonian society - not between "noble" and "ignoble", and between knights of an award and all categories of his citizens, including vassals of the German origin. Even the richest and influential vassal was called not differently as "kind true" (liebe getreuwe), at that time the rank "Lords" (heren)9 was assigned to knights of an award from 14th century. Multipurpose administrative structures of "the medal state" offered a wide range of possibilities for vital arrangement of natives of knightly families of Germany which considered the state positions as an instrument for ensuring of own material and social inquiries. The threat of glut of an award of knightly shots forced the management of an award osushchestv-

5 Angermann N. Livland im ausgehenden Mittelalter//Wolter von Plettenberg, der grofite Or-densmeister Livlands. Luneburg, 1985. S. 9-21.
6 M.B. Bessudnova. Knights of medieval Livonia / / Odysseys. Person in the history. M, 2004. Page 86.
7 Mugurevic E. Die militarische Tatigkeit des Schwertbuderordens (1202-1236)//Das Kriegswesen der Ritterorden im Mittelalter. Torun, 1991. S. 125-132.
8 Neitmann S. Von der Grafschaft Mark nach Livland. Ritterbruder aus Westfalen im livlandischen Deutschorden. Koln, Weimar, Wien, 1993.
9 M.B. Bessudnova. Knights of medieval Livonia. Page 84-97.

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lyat a rigid regulation owing to what the rank of brothers knights of the Livonian award was strongly reserved for noblemen from Vestfalii10. This circumstance promoted dissociation of members of an award from his German vassals for whom access to an award was closed.

Among vassals of the Livonian award the special group was made by lennik of the Estonian Garriya areas of (Harjumaa) and Virlyand (Virumaa) which were allocated with the economic solvency and political activity. Formation of this estate happened during the Danish dominion over Estonia, XIII - 1 floor. 14th century when the Danish kings along with land possession favored to the vassals various privileges which formed fundamentals of local feudal law. In 1347 Denmark ceded Estonia to the German award as whose plenipotentiary in Estonia the Livonian master was considered. The management of an award did not attempt upon the privileges of the Estonian vassals, and therefore for the 14-15th centuries the Estonian knights could not only keep, but also increase the situation. Having concentrated a considerable part of land fund in the hands, it began to play the leading role in export of agricultural products, profit on which allowed it to get own military groups and locks that together with legal security gave them noticeable positions in local management and on the Livonian landtaga.

Thus, the Livonian "medal state" had, as a matter of fact, two elite formation. One of them - the medal brotherhood headed by regional masters possessed prerogatives of a landsgerr; the second - the garriysko-virlyandsky knights held exclusive position owing to possession of land property and privileges. Their relationship was carried out in the conditions of the accruing confrontation, especially in the 15th century when the arena of political fights became Livonian landtag. Being body of class representation (gemeiner Landtag, generalis congregation prelatorum, praeceptorum ordinis nostri, nobelium et communitatum terrarium Livoniae), landtag arose as association of all oppositional to an award of political forces, but finally the landsger-ditch and "estates" 11 became a form of a peculiar cooperation. The behavior of the Estonian vassals of an award on landtaga is very indicative, and therefore it can be used for identification of this social enclave. Its nature proved most distinctly in unusual, conflict situations when discussion of the delicate questions which were not assuming compromise solutions was conducted. The interests of estate protected on a landtaga during the brisk debate by his representatives act extremely boldly. Especially often such situations took place at a boundary of the 15th and 16th centuries in the conditions of the erupting conflict of Livonia with the Moscow state.

responsibility for escalation of tension in East Baltics is traditionally conferred by

In a domestic historiography on the Livonian award and its master Voltaire von Plettenberg (1494-1535)12 though the provision of an award, as well as Livonia which endured a series of political and economic crises in the 2nd half of century was not blestyashchim13. Under such circumstances war with such strong opponent as the Moscow state, was for Livonia extremely undesirable, in any case, for such clever and careful politician with what

10 Neitmann S. Westfalen als Rekrutierungsgebiet des Deutschen Ordens in Livland//Wolter von Plet-tenberg und das mittelalterische Livland. Luneburg, 2001. S. 113-128.
11 Misans I. Wolter von Plettenberg und der livlandische Landtag//Wolter von Plettenberg. S. 55.
12 V.K. Bazilevich. Foreign policy of the Russian centralized state of the second half of the 15th century of M., 1952; N.A. Kazakova. Russian-Livonian and Russian-Hanseatic relations. The end of XIV - the beginning of the 16th century. L., 1975.
13 M.B. Bessudnova. The Livonian award at the end of the 15th century: myth and reality / / History of public consciousness: formation and evolution. Voronezh, 2008. Page 54-58.

there was a master Livonian ordena14. At the same time on him the main burden of responsibility for defense capability of the country lay and therefore the deterioration in the relations with Moscow which was followed by concentration of the Russian troops near the Russian-Livonian border, the armed attacks on the Livonian lands and also inaction of grand-ducal administration in Novgorod and Moscow, extremely disturbed him. News of closing in Veliky Novgorod of Hanseatic office (German farmstead) and arrest of Hanseatic merchants after whom in Livonia rumors about the fast beginning of war with Rossiyey15 began to be spread forced Plettenberg to handle on November 6, 1494 - though without notable result, - a request for providing military and financial aid to Livonia to the Supreme master, the European sovereigns and Ganze16.

The problem of preparation of the country for defense was constantly discussed on landtaga of pre-war years (1494-1500) and during the Russian-Livonian war of 1501-1503. The first of them was called by the master Plettenberg in March, 1495 to the cities of Valque (rolls/Valga) and passed relatively spokoyno17, however already following (on July 3-6, 1498) was more intense. In February of this year the Russian-Livonian talks in Narva ended with a failure then, since April, the Livonian territory began to be attacked by the Russians armed otryadov18. War with the Moscow state came nearer, and the help from Europe was not. The management of the German award after the award got beaten in Walachia, itself needed in pomoshchi19; from all Hanseatic cities only Lubeck and the vendsky cities agreed to render to Livonia material podderzhku20; the emperor Maximilian Habsburg in every possible way tightened the solution of a question of contributions to advantage of Livonia from imperial kazny21, - a word, by the end of the 90th years it became clear to Plettenberg that in the forthcoming war of Livonia it is necessary to count only on himself, and in his consciousness the idea of strengthening of military capacity of the country by means of mobilization of its internal resources was created.

The master also submitted this idea for discussion of a landtag. On July 5 he personally addressed representatives of estates with the speech in which he reported to the audience about borderline cases, attacks of Russians on the Livonian lands, about disturbing reports of spies and retold the matter of the offensive letter received by it from Pskova22. In the performance the master put special emphasis on need not only mediated, through payment of a certain monetary quota, but also personal participation of each Lebanese in defense of the country. He opposed introduction of monetary compensation to 20 brands which should have been paid the land owner for each undersupplied recruit, having noticed at the same time that "money of the opponent alone it is impossible to reflect" 23. And though the address of the master was addressed to exclusively Livonian Germans and did not concern representatives of indigenous people, Undeutsche, it was the first case when one of the Livonian sovereigns, addressing citizens, appealed not to the vassal's debt concerning the señor, and to patriotic feelings of "the Livonian nation".

However, as it turned out, the Livonian estates were not able to apprehend the similar idea. Against the idea of individual share in preparation of the country for defense

14 M.B. Bessudnova. "Careful wisdom" of Voltaire von Plettenberg: about a ratio of conservatism and innovation in domestic policy of the master of the Livonian award at the beginning of the 16th century//Historical notes. Scientific works of department of history of VSU. Issue 9. Voronezh, 2004. Page 157-174.

>! 5 LEKUB2. Bd. 1. No. 83.

16 Kentmann R. Livland im russisch-litauschen Konflikt. Die Grundlegung seiner Neutralitatspolitik. 1494-1514. Marburg, 1929. S. 1-20.
17 AR. No. 2. § 2. S. 3.
18 AR. No. 10, § 16.
19 LEKUB 2. Bd.1. No. 624, 625, 644,
20 LEKUB 2. Bd.1. No. 680.
21 LEKUB 2. Bd.1. No. 599, 605, 611, 624, 701.
22 AR. No. 10, § 16.
23 AR. No. 10. § 13, S. 13.

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nobody objected, but here the sizes of quotas as the contents of the protocol (recess) testify, caused a brisk debate. The knights, in return, were extremely anxious with the shortage of working hands, inevitable at recruitments, in estates, and for this reason between two of its fractions, Estonian and Latgale, a debate began. Latgaltsa demanded to consider wealth of garriysko-virlyandsky vassals and big density of population of their estates when determining number of the recruits delivered by landowners and finally achieved the. According to the resolution of a landtag, they have to give to army of every 20th of the peasants belonging to them while garriyets and virlyandets gave everyone 15-go24. However, knights stood together against the cities, insisting that their own participation in payment of a war tax was estimated in the smaller sum on the ground that war threatens Livonia because of the cities - because of closing of Hanseatic office in Novgorod in 1494 25. As a result the amount of a war tax approved landtagy was 4-6 times lower than that on which the master counted, and it was obviously not enough for a covering coming raskhodov26.

In a German-Baltic historiography of an event, connected with landtagy 1498, were perceived enthusiastically, and Plettenberg was represented by "the chivalrous defender of Livonia" who managed to unite Livonian "nation" on defeat vraga27. The similar conclusions, however, were true a little. Interclass and intra class contradictions which were accurately designated on a landtaga of 1498 were too strong, and on the eve of the Russian-Livonian war the master did not manage to cause in Livonia of mass patriotic feeling. At a class meeting of vassals of Estonia (mantag) which took place soon after completion of work of a landtag, the decisions made by it were ratified. However the representatives of garriysko-virlyandsky knights who gathered there did not fail to notice that the master should think of the fastest return of their mobilized peasants vladeltsam28. The discontent from loss of working hands which was felt by knights of Estonia proved subsequently more than once. When, for example, in 1501 Plettenberg, having concluded the alliance with the grand duke Lithuanian Alexander (1492-1506), began to prepare for war with the Moscow state, the Estonian vassals of an award said to it that "they do not process an arable land, so, will not be able to follow mister master in a campaign when it becomes necessary as in this case they will not preserve the peasants" 29. Concern of knights in the shortage of working hands in their estates was complemented with their frank unwillingness to fulfill a duty of the vassal and, going to war, to leave the lands without master's supervision. The maintenance of recesses, thus, demonstrates loss by the Estonian knights of signs of military estate and its final transformation into estate of the land owners using the lands and belonging to them serfs for development of folvarochny economy.

From the beginning of the Russian-Livonian war the discontent of vassals became prompt to increase. The campaign to Pskovshchina undertaken by Plettenberg at the end of summer of 1501 of "cum tota terra Livonica" 30 tore off vassals from their estates and in literal sense them became deserted. So, according to Fellin (Vilyandi) Delwig's komtur, the master's shtatgalter for the period of his absence, at the end of summer - i.e. in the period of a harvest, -

24 AR. No. 10. § 18.
25 AR. No. 10. §§ 12, 13, 15. S. 12-13.
26 AR. No. 10. § 11.
27 Rutenberg O. Geschichte von Ostseeprovinzen Liv-, Est-und Kurland. Leipzig, 1860. Bd. 2. S. 281.
28 AR. No. 11. S. 16.
29 LEKUB 2. Bd. 1. No. 1023a.
30 M.B. Bessudnova. Campaigns of the master Voltaire von Plettenberg to Pskovshchina in 1501 and 1502 (according to the Livonian sources) / / Archeology and the history of Pskov and the Pskov earth. Pskov, 2007. Page 157-184.

in the district of Revel "it was empty, and in locks absolutely was nobody" 31. The campaign was very heavy. In battle on the Seritsa River a cavalry as a part of which vassals of an award battled, having come under shelling of the opponent, incurred the main poteri32. Later many participants of a campaign died because of extended in army epidemii33.

Detonation of indignation happened nevertheless a bit later after in November-December of the same 1501 across Livonia from Mariyenburg (Aluksne) towards Ivangorod, ruining everything on the way and taking away a large number of prisoners, passed raid the Russian troops. The authority of Plettenberg who on could prevent invasion those days promptly fell, and in eyes said to him that supposedly it is time to think of flight "for the sea" 34. Garriysko-virlyandsky knights, whose lands suffered from invasion of the enemy, from the muffled discontent passed to open disobedience. They defiantly refused to take part in a landtag which the master called in January, 1502 for development of the program for overcoming a crisis situation and to strengthening of defense of the country.

The situation in which there took place work of a January landtag of 1502 was extremely serious. According to R. Kentmann, "the Livonian political community was on the verge of crash" 35, and the behavior of garriysko-virlyandsky vassals only complicated her. Their representatives on a landtaga were not, but it did not mean that they remained completely indifferent. The plenipotentiary of the Supreme master Friedrich Saxonski komtur Memelya Drakhenfels, it was entrusted to them to be present at a landtaga and to make the review of the events for the head of the German award, in the report reported: "The chaplain of the archbishop [Riga] told that [people] from Garriya and Virlyand will not arrive to this meeting and the reason is that they, allegedly, do not feel protected by the master [Livonian award]. Besides, they do not want to obey him. They do not recognize over themselves anybody, except the Supreme master of Prussia to whom they swore and on whom lay any hopes. And they do not want to go again with the master [Plettenberg to a campaign] to the enemy as then they will be defenseless. They intend to demand protection only from the Supreme master. If he is not able to protect them, they intend to look for other mister, for example, of the king Danish or Swedish" 36.

Plettenberg realized dramatic nature of the events fully and in a conversation komtury Memelya complained to the same that he does not know, "as to it to treat Garriya and Virlyand as they do not submit to it in anything and as it is heard, intend to pass the enemy [Russians] through the territory" 37. The messenger of the Supreme master had a case personally to make sure of validity of fears of Plettenberg. Garriya and Virlyand's representative, and not from ordinary [people], and from most important (von den wegesten)" which asked a komtur about mediation in communication between it and the Supreme master paid it a visit ". "Besides, he told that he on the friendship can provide [to the great master] 3-4 hundred horses" 38. This generous promise of the anonymous visitor was made in that time when representatives of the Livonian estates headed by the master Plettenberg made the decision on the organization of a new campaign on the Russian territory when in Livonia the order of the master about convocation of a militia continued to work, and evacuation of saddle horses from the country was strictly forbidden. This situation can serve as a fine illustration of that pre-

31 LEKUB 2. Bd. 2. No. 160.
32 Eynne Schonne Hystorie van vunderlyken gescheffthen der herren tho Lyfflanth myth den russen unde tartaren//Archiv fur die Geschichte Liv-, Est-und Kurlands. Bd. 8. Reval, 1861. S. 145-146.
33 Ibidem. S. 146.
34 LEKUB 2. Bd. 2. No. 221.
35 Kentmann R. Op. cit. S. 25.
36 LEKUB 2. Bd. 2. No. 230. S. 161.
37 Ibidem.
38 Ibidem.

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neglect with which Garriya and Virlyand's knights treated Plettenberg. However, the meeting ended without results; komtur Memelya did not begin to aggravate situation - "all of us understood and stopped a further conversation".

The disobedience threat to orders of the master and any refusal of participation in military operations which proceeded at that moment from the garriysko-virlyandsky nobility, meant, in effect, the open front in the north of the country, threat of loss of Narva or maybe Revel. Transition to citizenship from the overseas sovereign could turn back loss of a considerable part of the territory of "the medal state" together with the same Revel and Narva and to the conflict with Denmark that, at best, meant loss of hope for the help of this state in war with Russia for Livonia, and in the worst - pernicious two-front war. But it concerned the Estonian vassals of an award who were not beyond class isolation a little. They continued to think of the traditional categories characteristic for medieval vassal lennykh the relations according to which execution by the vassal of the debt concerning the señor directly depended on that, how effectively the last carries out protection of his interests. Plettenberg in 1501-1502 seemed to the Estonian knights "bad" landsgerry who could be changed for another, whether it be the Supreme master to whom the aria and Virlyand belonged legally, or other overseas sovereign. The attempt of one of leaders of knightly opposition to come into contacts with the Supreme master demonstrates gravity of similar intentions.

Plettenberg in this situation needed only to calm the obstinate citizens. Judging by the sizes of army with which he undertook the next campaign to Pskovshchina in August-September, 1502 - its army totaled only 5 thousand people instead of 80 thousand which it had in 1501 39, - he refused total mobilization though recruitment of mercenaries and their contents cost to it incredible usiliy40. The victory gained by it over the Russian troops on September 13 at the Smolinsky lake near Pskov, and the peace talks begun after that strengthened its position. After the end of war Plettenberg undertook broad distribution lenov41. It could be explained with the need to fill gaps which war left among medal vassals, however practice of transfer of domenialny lands in lenny a continence, having begun in post-war years, proceeded later. She for ages held in remembrance itself in the name "Plettenbergova hooks" ("Plettenbergische Naskep") and allows to speak about the certain calculation of this clever politician caused by different reasons among other things - desire to pacify that explosive environment which was represented by the Estonian vassals of an award. It is also possible to add that on a landtaga of 1507 Plettenberg supported the proposal of Livonian "estates" to exempt peasants from military service, and from now on their participation in military actions came down to payment of the military naloga42.

As for landtag, in 1503 the master developed and applied practice of preliminary meetings to which he invited those in whom saw or felt potential allies, first of all, of representatives of the cities. At these meetings with the master the action program was developed, all difficult moments were considered, necessary amendments were introduced. The result did not keep itself waiting - since 1504 Plettenberg's voice on landtaga became opredelyayushchim43.

39 LEKUB 2. Bd. 2. No. 191, 381.
40 M.B. Bessudnova. The organization of defense of Livonia by the master Plettenberg during an initial stage of its board (the end of XV - the beginning of the 16th centuries) / / Milestones past. Issue 2. Lipetsk, 2000. Page 228-234.
41 M.B. Bessudnova. Vassal lennaya system of the Livonian award. Page 147-164.
42 Blumfeld E. Uber Wehrpflicht der estischen Landesbevolkerung im Mittelalter//Apophoreta Tartu-ensia. Stockholm, 1949. S. 168.
43 Misans I. Op. cit. S. 60-61.

Thus, we see what on landtaga which passed in extremely intense for "the medal state" and all Livonia the period, garriysko-virlyandsky knights which represented one of its the most influential both in economic and in the political relation of social formations showed only small interest in solution of problems of nation-wide value. The reason for that, it appears, should be looked for not only in development of barshchinnomyzny economy with which the Estonian knights connected prospects of own wellbeing, but also with a special form of its existence in the system of "the medal state".

Just it is necessary to answer a question why the German award so firmly adhered to an order of set of knightly shots from of an ermaniya, but already now it is clear that a peculiar differentiation of the same social material presented by natives of the Westphalian noble families which on arrival to Livonia were distributed at two social levels - the sovereign and his citizen turned out to be consequence of this practice. Did not receive an acceptable explanation so far and the fact that vassals of an award did not object to such distribution and did not demand to open for them access to ranks of knights of an award. Perhaps, the sharpness of the moment was dulled with what many representatives of the German knights in Livonia had in an award of the rodstvennikov44 and through them could influence its policy.

At the same time the lack of prospect of penetration into ranks of the authorities and finding of the highest state positions promoted that by the beginning of Modern times the Estonian knights were constituted in estate landowners'. At the same time it did not find ability to think of the state scales and continued to perceive reality through a prism of the relations which were obsolete vassal senyorialnykh. It could not overcome the known indifference concerning the state problems, including tasks of strengthening of defense of the country, and up to liquidation of the Livonian "medal state" in 1562 remained the most influential centrifugal force.


Lipetsk State





The purpose of this article is to seek for additional definitions of an "order state". The author proceeds from the assumption that the typological peculiarities of a state depend not only on the character of governmental institutions, but also on the specific nature of social entourage, primarily demonstrated by ruling elites. Estonian chivalry, most politically active element of Livonia's elite, was not allowed to hold high governmental positions which within the boundaries of the "order state" were occupied only by the order’s knights. This situation contributed to the growth of the chivalry’s indifference towards country-wide problems that showed itself at Landtag meetings at the turn of XV-XVI centuries.


44 Arbusow L. - s. Nachtrag zu den im Deutschen Orden in Livland vertretenen Geschlechter//Jahr-buch fur Genealogie, Heraldik und Sphragistik. 1907/1908. Mitau, 1910. S. 33-64; Ritterbruder im livlandischen Zweig des Deutschen Ordens. Hg. v. L. Fenske und K. Militzer. Koln, 1993.
Cory King
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