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The territorial sanitary organization of the Ufa province at the beginning of the 20th century

a. V. Nikitina


At the beginning of the 20th CENTURY

Work is presented by department of history of the Fatherland and a technique of teaching history of Sterlitamakskoi of the state pedagogical academy. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor D.P. Samorodov

In article the history of development of the territorial sanitary organization of the Ufa province at the beginning of the 20th century is considered. On the basis of contemporary records and the published materials, problems of a sanitary condition of the Ufa province at the beginning of the 20th century, activity of the sanitary organizations, provincial and district zemstvoes in development of the medical and sanitary direction are covered.

The development of the Territorial Sanitary Organisation of the Ufa Guberniya at the beginning of the 20th century is viewed in the article. The problems of sanitary state of the Ufa Guberniya at the beginning of the 20th century, activity of the sanitary organization, provincial and district zemstvos in the development of medical and sanitary spheres are discussed on the basis of archival and published materials.

In development of territorial medicine of the Ufa province N.A. Sherstennikov allocates two periods, for the first (till 1905) extremely moderate expansion of medical and sanitary business also is characteristic of the second (after 1905) - some it ozhivleniye1.

Activization of public health service at the beginning of the 20th century is demonstrated by the fact that territorial meetings increase costs of sanitary and preventive needs and approve sanitary councils, bureau or guardianship. For the organization of public health service there were serious reasons: frequency of epidemic diseases and high mortality among the population. The first the public health service was organized by the Moscow, Vyatka, St. Petersburg zemstvoes. In the Ufa province the sanitary council arose in 1909 where all current questions connected with sanitary and preventive actions were brought. In council, except representatives of zemstvo, learning - health officers and representatives of local medicine elected in counties, as well as representatives of not territorial vra-chebno-sanitary organizations stvovat.

Executive and working body of sanitary council and also a provincial territorial justice were the sanitary bureau of provincial zemstvo (created in 1886) and district health officers. The bureau consisted of 2 doctors: the manager and since 1914 the second doctor-statistika2. In 1909 the bureau was transformed, and the problem of association, coordination and strengthening not only anti-epidemic activity of district zemstvoes, but also all other parties of district territorial medicine was assigned to it; and, besides, comprehensive sanitary and statistical study of the province was entrusted to sanitary bureau. The sanitary bureau developed all questions, concerning a sanitary condition of the province, made reports and reports on the activity for granting to a provincial territorial meeting.

Stat - stichesky materials on province population morbidity had to come to bureau. Here they were developed and published. A number of reviews of infectious diseases, since 1886 an essay of the movement of the population was published (according to the conclusion of a sconce -

The territorial sanitary organization of the Ufa province at the beginning of the 20th century

birth rate and mortality) in 15 years (1897-1911), a province population morbidity essay for 1901. The review of infectious population morbidity and activity of medical personnel since 1896 was published in periodically appearing "Medical and sanitary Chronicle of the Ufa province".

The zemstvo paid special attention to creation of scientific base for fight against epidemics. In 1905 to the Ufa province the zemstvo called three constant anti-epidemic doctors, since 1908 began works provincial and district public health services, funds for the maintenance of sanitary laboratories at district doctors were allocated. Instructions, rules about the sleigh - tare and charitable the trustee-stvakh were developed for health officers.

In Ufa a number of medical institutions opens: the pasterovsky station in 1905, the ospenny calf house in 1906, serumal and diagnostic offices in 1907, veterinary laboratory in 1911, chemical and hygienic office in 1912. Then in 1908 these institutions were united in the Bacteriological institute of the Ufa provincial zemstvo which was releasing various anti-epidemic preparaty3.

For prevention of epidemics extending through drinking water (typhoid, dysentery, cholera), the provincial zemstvo since 1897 began to give funds for improvement of sources of water supply. Since 1910 it will organize systematic inspection of water supply gubernii4. From practical works in this area it is necessary to point to 16 built boring wells, 4 kaptirovanny (equipped) springs and 1 water supply system. Besides, 5 drillings ended neudachey5. In 1913 the sanitary organization started the description of sources of water supply of the province, the most part of counties was surveyed, but not all are described completely and the report of material was not finished.

Since 1913 the provincial zemstvo establishes special hydrotechnical department which since 1916 becomes independent department provincial upravy6 at sanitary bureau.

Since 1911 (partly already earlier) the sanitary organization develops systematic activities for supervision of kumysny trade. To the Ufa province annually there came from 5000 to 7000 kumysnik from all Russia. Supervision of kumysny trade at the beginning of the 20th century was exercised by the special health officer, 4 students, the manager of information bureaus for kumysnik, 7 students disinfectors, 1 doctor and 4 students-veterinarami7. In 1916 the reference book for the readers who are engaged in kumysny trade was made and published.

Despite the measures taken in supervision of kumysny trade, its general level it was insufficient. Supervision almost did not yield practical results. Obligatory resolutions concerned only kumysolechebny institutions, but also here for various reasons (mainly owing to the persistent resistance of owners) were almost not carried out.

On the sanitary organization also matter of distribution in the population of hygienic knowledge lay. For this purpose the sanitary bureau wrote out and distributed the corresponding literature on the province, promoted the device of national readings, and in 1915 started the organization of a mobile anti-epidemic exhibition and assumed to arrange hygienic muzey8.

In 1911-1912 the sanitary bureau and health officers took part in fight against hunger in the province, in 1914 - with disaster from a spring flood of the rivers, organizing for direct work in this area on places district police officers popechitelstva9. These guardianship, again revived during World War I, undertook cares of the families called and refugees. One of important types of activity

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the sanitary organization there was a device of a children's summer day nursery shelters. They were organized by district doctors, fixed assets were allocated for their maintenance by a provincial justice.

It is impossible to ignore also the lot of work performed by the sanitary organization for drawing up the review of the activity and in production of exhibits for hygienic exhibitions in Dresden and Petrograd in 1913 and also in drawing up district reviews for the Pirogovsky collection on history of territorial medicine. Both an exhibition, and Pirogovsky society, finding out setting of matter in certain provinces, thereby promoted association and coordination of medical and sanitary work in all Russia. At the All-Russian hygienic exhibition to the Ufa provincial zemstvo for its activity in the field of sanitation the small gold medal was awarded.

The organization of sanitary and preventive activity was carried out also on places. This task lay in counties on district medical and sanitary councils and health officers: they united and directed work of certain medical sites. District health officers developed all medical and sanitary questions brought in district territorial meetings; they made a number of sanitary inspections, made reports on the activity, were the most directly involved in the organization of sanitary and charitable popechitelstvo, a day nursery shelters, national readings on medicine and hygiene, etc. They conducted sanitary inspection behind schools, behind industrial institutions, water supply sources, watched an ospoprivivaniye, behind emergence of epidemics and helped with fight against them.

However much of the program of activity of the sanitary organization was carried out not as it would be desirable. Fight against epidemics was limited, in effect, to a parcel to counties medical assistant's

go personnel and nurses, is more rare than doctors; patients were visited by them on houses, received drugs, - for the rest remained at a usual house situation, and epidemic diseases had a full opportunity to extend freely. And treatment of patients in the conditions of a country log hut came down almost to zero. The most expedient measure - allocation of patients to infectious barracks (and that) - practiced in poorly adapted rooms seldom, and almost only adults were isolated and practically only at typhus. Children's infections proceeded without influence of medical personnel.

The huge area of medical sites in the Ufa province was the main reason complicating forward development of the sanitary direction of territorial medicine. According to opinion of professor Rein, "the radius of the normal medical site has to be 10 versts, i.e. the area of 315 sq. versts, and the population of 10 thousand people" 10. The average size of the medical site in the Ufa province is equal 1532 sq. versts, i.e. in 5 times more of norm; the average population of the site - 44,133 persons, i.e. are 4.5 times more than norm. Average radius instead of 10 versts 22.3 versts. The normal sanitary organization required implementation of normal network of sites, the equipment of the last by well-planned infectious offices and in general application of isolation of infectious patients, in interests both their, and the surrounding population.

Thus, the analysis of the main aspects of the territorial sanitary organization of the Ufa province of the beginning of the 20th century allows to draw a conclusion that in comparison with the first stage of formation of the sanitary organization of the Ufa province of which its extremely sluggish development was characteristic the second stage tends more dynamic development. However despite active actions of territorial medical personnel, a sanitary state gu-

left much to be desired by a berniya. So, the bodies created for the leadership in sanitary activity differed in bureaucracy. Purposeful work of territorial physicians on fight against epidemics was often slowed down administrative an obstacle -

mi. It concerned as refusal in the required credits and non-confirmation by the governor as the doctors who expressed desire to work in zemstvoes in the period of epidemics, and failure of a number of meetings on discussion of anti-epidemic actions.

of the NOTE

1 N.A. Sherstennikov. Health care in Bashkiria at a tsarism//the Soviet health care. 1945. No. 7-8. Page 45.
2 Report of the Ufa territorial justice of XXXX1 to another Ufa provincial territorial meeting. Report on activity of sanitary bureau and health officers. Ufa, 1915. Page 3.
3 CGIA RB. F. R-4348. Op. 1. 4. L. 66-67.
4 CGIA RB. T. I-132. Op. 1. 481. L. 14-15.
5 CGIA RB. T. I-132. Op. 1. 483. L. 2-3.
6 V.F. Gerasimov. Essay of activity of the Ufa provincial zemstvo. (To the 50 anniversary of introduction of territorial institutions). Ufa, 1914. Page 15.
7 Report No. 60 XXXVI to another Ufa provincial territorial meeting of a provincial justice. Ufa, 1911. Page 9.
8 A short essay of development of territorial medicine in the Ufa province. 1875-1917. Ufa, 1917. Page 12.
9 Minutes of the Ufa provincial territorial meeting of the XXXI regular XXXVII extraordinary session of 1905-1906 and reports of a justice. Ufa, 1906. Page 501.
10 E.I. Gikkel. The short review of a condition of territorial medicine and infectious diseases in the Ufa province in 1914. Ufa, 1914. Page 2.
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