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Formation of moral and combat qualities of the military personnel of the Russian army during combat training (a game. The XVIII head 19th V.)

A.K. Tazhiyev


"to train the known principle in what is necessary in the war" it is accepted to connect with the beginning of JUNTAS of century Peter I, creating regular army, paid much attention to improvement of fighting training of staff, introduction of a new rekrutsky system of completing, maintenance in troops of organization, discipline and order. In 1694, at the initiative of the tsar, bilateral drills in the situation recreating psychological perception of a situation of real fight were for the first time staged. These exercises are in the history recorded under the name "Big Kozhukhovsky Campaign". The plan of these exercises consisted in capture of specially constructed fortress which was defended by streletsky regiments, and stormed young household troops and regiments of "a new system".

This approach to training of troops gained the fixing and further development in stay of the empress Catherine II when exercises of troops corresponded to applied character [1, page 22]. The ideas put by Peter I developed further under the influence of views of P.A Rumyantsev, G.A. Potemkin, A.V. Suvorov, M.I. Kutuzov, M.S. Vorontsov and other famous military leaders of Russia.

The successor of Petrovsky traditions A.V. Suvorov, relying on century military traditions of Russia, developed progressive lines of Petrovsky army in the field of the organization, combat training and military art. Voyennoteoretichesky and practical activities of Suvorov are reflected in his huge literary, documentary and epistolary heritage including & #34; Regimental учреждение" & #34; Science побеждать" various manuals, instructions, orders, dispositions, memoranda, correspondence with military and statesmen. It characterizes Suvorov as the outstanding military theorist, the strategist and tactics who was deeply understanding problems of the military science which in many respects outstripped the time, which created an original frame of reference on ways of the warfare and fight, training and education of troops which founded the progressive school of military art.

In 1799, A.V. Suvorov developed "Rules of conducting military operations in mountains", began training of the soldiers "in any capable time" (peace and in -

unlimited), the principle persistently carried out to practice of training of troops: "it is easy in the doctrine — hard in a campaign, it is heavy in the doctrine — easily in a campaign". In combat training it entered "the through attacks", that is bilateral maneuvers of army during which were fulfilled approach, defense, encounter attack, actions on the cross-country terrain, prosecution, etc.

Not only to officers, but also corporals and soldiers it was reported about the plan of the forthcoming actions as "each soldier has to understand the maneuver". In a difficult campaign A.V. Suvorov inspired with the eloquence and humour soldiers, caring for high moral and combat spirit of troops. Methods of work of A.V. Suvorov were directed to education at the military personnel of feeling of solidarity, professional advantage. He took care of a martial bearing, neatness and morality of soldiers, opposed a senseless mushtra and them abuse, demanded from subordinates of literacy and ingenuity, did not suffer "lenoumiya" and "nemoguznaystvo".

Training of troops directly in the field was important for formation of high moral and combat qualities and psychological firmness. It had a talk with the fact that only actions on the area gave to the military personnel the most complete idea of modern fight.

Camp collecting, exercises and maneuvers on which fighting skills were formed remained necessary main forms of study directly in the field during the studied period, conditions for formation at the military personnel of necessary high moral and combat qualities and psychological stability which were an important condition of achievement of a victory in fight were created.

It should be noted that at the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century there was a derogation from the existing traditions of training of troops of the Russian army. Supporters of the Prussian discipline of the rod Paul I, then Alexander I and Nicholas I generated the negative phenomena the parade-ground front doors of traditions in the Russian army which negatively affected a moral and psychological condition of troops that led to defeat of the Russian state in the Crimean war of 1853-1856

The Pavlovsk system of moral and psychological preparation was almost inexpedient. According to scientists, it resulted in exhaustion of troops on senseless exercises, vakhtparada, in guard. "Difficult constructions and maneuverings which caused bewilderment of supporters and contemporaries Potemkin, Rumyantsev, Suvorov were entered into training of troops" — A. Pet-rushevsky noted [2, with 217].

Coming to power of Alexander I at the beginning of the 19th century in Russia was marked by transformations to areas of an educational system. Though formally up to 1809 the army continued to be guided by the front charters of the period of government of Paul I excluding an initiative many officers trained soldiers at practice in a Suvorov way that gave the chance to gain victories over enemies. The democratic processes happening in Russia promoted emergence in the officer environment of progressive views of training and the practice of education of soldiers corresponding to it.

At the beginning of the 19th century for the organization and carrying out summer study ground forces had three large training centers. Except the Krasnoselsky camp entered this number the Hodynsky field (near Moscow) and the Cloth settlement (near Kazan) [1, page 27].

At the same time to the winter period the single training of young soldiers, their psychological adaptation to conditions of military service were carried out in permanent locations. And classes in summertime were given in summer camps on collecting which consisted of two stages: regimental collecting and collecting all childbirth of weapon. In the course of regimental collecting in infantry parts fulfilled educational tasks as a part of a company, battalion and on the scale of a regiment. Along with it collecting other childbirth of weapon was carried out by large-scale maneuvers. Time and the place of the organization of camp collecting were developed in & #34; The Schedule of gatherings of troops for summer занятий".

For field study the set of military units, artillery, the suppressing part of infantry and a cavalry were attracted. Improvement and development of this form of preparation happened by change in the content of field study, exercises and maneuvers.

At the same time the new infantry charter drafted in 1816 and Cavalry - 1818, are overflowed with various difficult evolutions, a set of petty details, in them there was almost nothing, belonging to the most combat training. Giving to linear exercises and preparation for them all the time, troops had already no time for such important discipline as firing though in the charter it is stated rather impressively "... there is no need to prove, how important and it is necessary that soldiers were trained to shoot wholly. Experiments nauchat, as the progress in military operations much in this art depends on perfection". In the charter it is precisely specified: "Annually in school hours of all

to train corporals and soldiers to a regiment to shoot at the purpose, using for this only the most part of the gunpowder, for the doctrine appointed" [3].

Developed in 1818. "Rules of a loose system or Manual about loose action of infantry" supply with very expedient information concerning value of fire in fight. This system very corresponds to infantry arms because force it mainly consists in its fire, but in integrity of shots; scattered position of infantry gives more comfortable position to shoot wholly; in a loose system still that advantage opens that roughnesses of the earth and a set of the objects ennobled on the earth almost always present protection to the shattered parts or single people. Besides, in troops there were many faulty guns.

Due to the increased fire role the new principles of conducting fight taking into account the developed situation on the area were included in the new Charter. They caused improvement of quality of training of the serviceman, psychological stability in the battlefield.

Tactics of training of troops directly in the field was carried out also in the years of the Caucasian and Crimean wars. Features were that training of troops began to be carried out in areas of fighting where the moral and psychological qualities necessary for successful performance of tasks in the conditions of fighting were formed at the military personnel.

It should be noted that war in the Caucasus demanded changes in combat training of the Russian army. If earlier all training of the Russian army was based on the principles of conducting military operations in flat territories, then in the Caucasus it was necessary to conduct fighting in the mountains of Dagestan and in forests of Chechnya though broad offensive actions with active application of artillery were characteristic of tactics of the Russian army.

Long war revealed need of conducting combat operations according to conditions of a situation, development of a bigger initiative and independence in the military personnel that demanded a bigger attention to moral and psychological qualities of soldiers.

The Crimean war of 1853-1856 showed perversity of views of use of infantry in close systems and demanded strengthening in field training of divisions of orientation on actions in a loose system. This phenomenon in turn left the print in the organization of moral and psychological training of the military personnel.

During conducting combat operations the expansion of a chain in relation to the conditions developing area situations became successful to be applied to training in movements, dashes in combination with fire, to carrying out the attack, reflection of the carried-out counterattacks. Changes in tactics of action of troops demanded to raise the level of moral psychological preparation in which each soldier knew the maneuver. Plans of combat training included subjects for conducting company tactical maneuvers in special conditions: on strongly stopped area, in settlements, in the forest, on water barriers, etc. Bilateral tactical maneuvers as a part of battalion are entered.

In the course of the exercises the commanders of parts and divisions had to interchange the position of the coming and defending parties and also to replace officers, it is obligatory to make working off of all receptions reducing losses, to use maneuver by a fighting order [4, l. 634].

During training the attention to training in all necessary in war was paid: difficult tactical tasks were divided into a number of elementary practical receptions; difficulties in training, in working off of all receptions were specially created; classes were given with the full calculation; any occupation and training practiced to finish with short lecture [5, l. 31.33].

Thus, in the course of tactical maneuvers, fighting skills were improved, conditions for formation at the military personnel of necessary moral and combat qualities and the psychological stability which was an important factor for successful conducting combat operations were created.

The purpose of training of the military personnel was expressed by the next lines: "Having trained each soldier it is correct to stand, own and work with a gun, to march and do turns, and in general all movements, it will be very easy to bring to perfection in training of a company on which the perfection of battalion and a regiment depends; for this regimental and to battalion commanders as it is possible to look more diligently for company commanders that when training soldiers one by one, to everyone it is clear, with patience and without punishments, interpreted all belonging rules, showing as how to execute; to use severity at the doctrine only for careless, but also here to arrive with moderation and care. The Popechitelny and skillful chief can lodge in the subordinates hunting to service and obedience; to try to lead up also soldiers that esteemed for shame and the self-slightest punishment" [5, l. 34].

Unfortunately, these good indications of Army regulations in which drawing up eminent persons of the past wars took part were buried in oblivion soon. Arakcheev's influence carefully swept out any ideological party of training, and viewing requirements of the highest administration forced regimental, battalion and company commanders to think only of a fast mushtra at which "the severity at the doctrine" had to be applied not only to careless, but also to all; it is clear, that not many company commanders at the same time were able "to arrive with moderation and care".

The war hero of 1812, D.V. Davydov, said that "concerning an alignment of ranks and a vydelyvaniye of rates our army, undoubtedly, surpasses all others. But what most of generals and officers, in which is killed aspiration to education owing to what they hate any science! Isty fans of graceful remeshkovy service believe in knowledge of the that war, weakening the front data acquired by army in peace time, is harmful only to it. As though the army studies not for war, but only for peace ekzertsition at the Field of Mars. Thus, it is possible to reach only the following: the dull ignoramuses differing in the narrowest understanding finally expel from everywhere capable people who, killed with senseless requirements, will not have an opportunity to develop for independent action and certainly will obey to the majority" [3, page 352].

During the studied period one of the troops making moralnopsikhologichesky preparation of activity on formation of high moral and combat qualities of the military personnel. At the same time the heroism which was manifestation of results of moral and psychological training of troops for fight was the most important of them. Such moral and combat qualities as dedication, heroism, courage, aspiration and will to achievement of a victory were the final result of realization of tasks of educational work in the Russian army.

The essence of tradition of heroism came down to set of the moral and combat qualities of the Russian soldiers and officers which historically developed, passing from father to son. They found the expression in readiness to sacrifice own interests and also the life for the sake of the interests of the state, Fatherland and Homeland.

In the majority the military personnel of the Russian state even in times, hard for them, showed the best fighting qualities not for fear

or blind fanaticism, and on a debt of honor and conscience, with nobility of thoughts to sacrifice itself in glory of the Russian weapon, in glory of the Fatherland.

One of the imposed requirements to the military personnel of the Russian army - always to be brave and courageous. These qualities were fixed by the basic military laws, manuals and orders. The military oath developed by Peter I and which kept the contents without changes prior to the beginning of the 19th century ordered to all military personnel "to enemies of his Imperial Majesty and its lands, brave and strong to repair resistance a body and blood, in everything to behave and arrive as to the brave and prompt soldier" [6, page 54].

For improvement of army of the Russian state similar qualities of the military personnel as bravery and dedication, it was required to show and further. "The victory is gained only by that army, - it was noted in the soldier's duties in wartime, - soldiers of which go bravely a wall forward, despising death and observing an order and a peace of mind" [7, page 162].

In the course of reduction of term of active duty formation at the military personnel of heroism and conscientious execution of the military duty acquired relevance in connection with improvement of types of arms, with expansion of scales, duration and bitterness of fights and battles.

Along with traditions an important role in educational process was played by military rituals. The Russian military rituals arose and developed in the course of education and development of the state and its armed forces. A stage in their formation was creation of regular Russian army. With high-quality transformation of armed forces also the system of military rituals which in the subsequent became gradually stronger, developed and improved was formed. Thanks to efforts of bodies of the public and military administration on systematization and giving to rituals of bigger efficiency by the beginning of the 19th century the Russian army had the harmonious system of rituals which became an important link in military training, education, strengthening of military discipline [8, page 15].

During the studied period it is possible to carry to number of the known rituals "Front reviews", "A divorce and changing of the guard", "An afterfeast of military valor", "A morning and evening dawn", "Execution of a prayer", "Adoption of the oath", "Parade", "A church parade", the military rituals held at encouragement and punishment of soldiers, parts and divisions and also various ceremonies and ceremonies connected with an afterfeast of military honors at burial of the military personnel.

Thus, at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th century the special place in development of components of moral and psychological training of soldiers was allocated to combat training. It was caused by the fact that combat training of the military personnel acted as the main leading factor of formation of high moral and combat and psychological qualities, psychological readiness of the soldier for fight, improvement of knowledge, skills and abilities at soldiers.

The important direction of moral and psychological training of the military personnel of the Russian army was formation of high moral and combat qualities. The great value was attached to combat training, education on fighting traditions and to military rituals. Considerable influence on development and improvement of a system of formation of high moral and combat qualities of the military personnel rendered wars.

1. N. Glinoyetsky. Some data on training of the Russian troops in the second half of the last century//the Military collection. 1871. No. 11.
2. Petrushevsky.F. Generalissimo prince Suvorov: In 3 t. SPb., 1884. T. 3.
3. History of the Russian army. The Russian army by the end of reign of Alexander I. M.: EKSMO, 2007. 353 pages
4. RGVIA, t. 2581, op. 2, 185.
5. RGVIA, t. 2003, op. 1, 112.
6. Form of oath of allegiance of service person of Christian religions//S.V.P. 1869. the 2nd prod. SPb., 1907. Part II. Prince 6.
7. The soldier's duties in wartime//Page V. P.1838. H Sh. of Prince 1.
8. Miner V.L. Military rituals Russian armies in XIX- the beginning of the 20th centuries: Yew. .kand.

east. sciences. M, 1997.

Anthony Jacob
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