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ACTIVITIES of STAFF of ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS of SIBERIA FOR INTRODUCTION IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS of TECHNICAL MEANS of TRAINING And ELEKTRONNO9VYChISLITELNOY of the EQUIPMENT IN the SECOND HALF of the 609th - the BEGINNING of the 909th of the 20th century. (Historical ASPECT)



i Polish exiled, to distribution of progressive ideas. Obviously, bad knowledge to Poles of Russian narrowed to some extent possibilities of their communication with local community.

The considered material allows to draw a conclusion that stay of the Polish political exiled in the 60th of the 19th century in Altai is a component of history of Poles in Western Siberia. Certainly, the provided data are not exhaustive, and the problem needs a further research thanks to attraction of new istochnikovy materials that, undoubtedly, will promote reconstruction of a full picture of the Polish reference in Altai and in general in Western Siberia in the 19th century. At the same time it is one of the most interesting pages of folding of bases rossiys-

to - the Polish relationship, contacts and communications in practical communication in the Siberian region, supplementing one of aspects of a versatile problem of the Russian-Polish relations of the 19th century which did not lose the relevance now in the conditions of emergence of real opportunities for further cooperation of Russia and Poland.

It should be noted that descendants of Poles in Altai did not forget the roots. They create natsionalnokulturny educational societies and the centers. Activity of the Polish society in Barnaul (chairman V.S. Anis-kevich) can be an example of that, the active help to whom is rendered by the regional Center of the international cooperation of higher education institutions of Western Siberia organized in AltGTU of I.I. Polzunov (director N.M. Nikonov).

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. G.S. Sapargaliyev, Clerks of V. A. Social and political activity of exiled of Poles in pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan. - Alma-Ata: Science, 1971.-252 pages
2. State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). — T. 109. — 4 ex-items of 1864 — 171. — 84 l.
3. Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). — T. 1286. — Op. 25. — 1391. — 94 l.
4. V.V. Bervi. Memoirs//Voice of past. — 1915. — No. 6 —
8. — Page 110-126.
5. E.I. Bervi. From memoirs//the Voice of past. — 1915. — No. 7-8. — Page 127-142.
6. A.P. Borodavkin. Reform of 1861 in Altai. — Tomsk: TGU, 1972.

— 284 pages

7. State Archive of the Omsk Region (SAOR). — T. 3. — Op. 4. — 6314. — 57 l.
8. State Archive of the Omsk Region (SAOR). — T. 3. — Op. 6. — 7784. — 29 l.
9. A. Kappeler Russia is the multinational empire. — M.: Progress-Tradition, 2000. — 344 pages
10. State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). — T. 109. — 1 ex-items of 1864 — 277. — 21 l.
11. State Archive of the Omsk Region (SAOR). — T. 3. — Op. 4. — 6318. — 42 l.
12. Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). — T. 821. — Op. 3. — 427. — 37 l.
13. Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). — T. 821. — Op. 3. — 177. — 20 l.
14. Center of Storage of Archival Fund of Altai Krai (CHAF of joint stock company). — T. 170. — Op. 1. — Of a 730-. — 114 l.
15. B. Gerasimov. Exiled Poles in the Semipalatinsk region (Short historical essay)//Notes of the Semipalatinsk section of the West Siberian department of the Russian Geographical Society. — Issue 12. — Semipalatinsk, 1918. — 109 pages
16. Mitino N.P. In depth of the Siberian ores. — M.: Science, 1966. — 143 pages
17. L.F. Panteleev. Memoirs. — L.: Goslitizdat, 1958. — 847 pages

UDC 378:62:681.3 (571)

ACTIVITIES of STAFF of ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS of SIBERIA FOR INTRODUCTION IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS of TECHNICAL MEANS of TRAINING AND ELECTRONIC COMPUTER FACILITIES IN the SECOND HALF of the 60th — the BEGINNING of the 90th of the 20th century. (Historical ASPECT)

V.V. Petrik

Tomsk Polytechnic University Ph.: (382-2)-56-34 - 02

Activities of staff of the Siberian higher education institutions of an engineering profile for introduction in educational process of technical means of training and electronic computer facilities in the second half of the 1960th — the beginning of the 1990th are investigated. On the basis of archival documents the reasons of an acute shortage in most institutions of higher education of the region of the modern educational equipment are analyzed.

The quality of educational process, efficiency of research work in many respects depend on the level of hardware of higher education institutions. Importance to modernization vys-

necks of school it was given by the country leaders in the second half of the 1960th — the beginning of the 1990th [1 — 3]. Before the central administrative structures of a scientific and educational complex, local

authorities, high school staff, the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR, set tasks of further improvement of hardware of classroom and laboratory fund by use in the course of training of cinema and television, creation of the automated training systems of collective use, broader application in educational process and scientific operation of the electronic computers (EC) and the microprocessor equipment.

During the considered time period many engineering higher education institutions of Siberia sought to buy the most unique equipment. For example, at the Novosibirsk electrotechnical institute (NETI) in the late fifties — the 1960th a lot of work on a kinofikation of educational process was conducted, the TV channel which connected higher education institution with scientific center in the Campus of Novosibirsk was organized. Since 1964 when the computer center of NETI was created, active use of computer facilities in scientific research and educational process began [4].

At the Tomsk institute of automated control systems and radio electronics (TIASURE) the technical means of training (TMT) were widely used. All departments of higher education institution applied epidiaskopa, filmstrips, movies, used the class TSO equipped with K-54 cars (24 cars) working as in the mode & #34; контроль" and in the mode & #34; обучение". Besides, in TIASURE in 1971/72 uch. 4 television audiences on 550 places and the television center working on the closed system [5] were equipped.

In 1970 at department & #34; Metrology and приборостроение" The Omsk polytechnical institute under the leadership of professor V.V. Kondashevsky the stereolaboratory which worked on application of a stereoprojection in educational process was organized. Works of this laboratory became widely known in the USSR. For development of the stereoequipment for educational process by laboratory a large number of medals of ENEA of the USSR of different advantage is got [6].

Also the technical equipment of the Krasnoyarsk polytechnical institute improved. At a meeting of Council of KrasPI of December 24, 1971 the report of the vice rector for study, associate professor M.I. Kiselyov according to whom equipment of departments technical means of training went pretty fast, they & #34 was heard; were used in laboratory works, course and degree проектировании" etc. & #34; The Greatest value in our engineering higher education institution — the speaker noted — demonstration of movies of both purely educational, and all-informative direction received. Almost all departments with rare exception use demonstration of movies. The leading place on a kinofikation of classes is taken by department of history of the CPSU which covers film screenings as much students, how many other departments combined from year to year. For this calendar year (1971 — the note of the author) was

seventy displays of movies which looked at 7464 students are carried out. Demonstration of educational movies at department & #34 is regularly used; Technology металлов". Technologists of movies have more than 50 parts under all four sections of a course. Through all-institute service of a kinofikation it is carried out in 1971 calendar year of 595 displays from which 415 tapes specially educational. From this number of movies 345 are received from regional film distribution, 78 of film libraries of other ministries and departments. Rather big (143 names) the number of movies is available in a kinoteka of institute and considerable quantity — directly on кафедрах"

A number of engineering higher education institutions of Siberia in the 1970th — the first half of the 1980th continued to develop the automated systems of the higher school — information, the managing directors training (AIS, ACS, ASO). Most effectively in this direction of work were conducted in Tomsk, Omsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk polytechnical, Novosibirsk electrotechnical institutes and the Tomsk institute of automated control systems and radio electronics [8, 9]. So, in the first half of the 1970th, the staff of the Tomsk polytechnical institute carried out development, trial operation and introduction of the first stage of ACS of TPI. In its structure subsystems began to function: & #34; Абитуриент" & #34; Organization educational процесса" & #34; Current progress and посещаемость" & #34; Сессия" & #34; Аспирант" & #34; НИР" & #34; Analysis of results and planning of activity educational and scientific подразделений" and also the TSO complex on the basis of the COMPUTER & #34; Минск-32" both information and software of a system. Within the performed works also universal software for automation of process of maintaining a databank, search and issue of information on inquiries of heads were created. For the purpose of performance of objectives in TPI the complex research and production collective which united in the structure laboratory of management and data processing center of institute [10] was created.

Creation of the television training systems of internal use successfully took place in Altai polytechnical, Novosibirsk electrotechnical, East Siberian technological institutes, the Tomsk institute of automated control systems and radio electronics and the Novosibirsk electrotechnical institute of communication [11].

The Tyumen industrial institute (TyuII) developed the project of the standard equipment of the educational television station presented at the second All-Union conference on educational television. The TyuII group prepared the offer on creation of the closed system of educational television of Western Siberia and the Urals [12].

One of the major directions in activity of staff of engineering higher education institutions of the region on

to technical re-equipment of educational process there was a wide use of modern devices and first of all electronic computer facilities.

For the purpose of improvement of providing the higher school with the modern, unique, expensive equipment and COMPUTER the administrations sought to establish direct connections with the enterprises on the basis of performance of economic contractual works from which higher education institutions used a part of profit on strengthening of own educational material resources [13, 14].

During the considered period many higher educational institutions of Siberia accumulated certain experience in this plan. Thanks to development of economic contractual subject it was significantly expanded the COMPUTER park in Altai, Kuzbass, Omsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk polytechnical, Novosibirsk electrotechnical, Siberian avtomobilnodorozhny, Tyumen industrial, East Siberian technological institutes. In the second half of the 1980th — the beginning of the 1990th a significant amount of new high-performance & #34 cars appeared here; The Spark — 1030" & #34; Electronics — 60" & #34; Electronics — 85" & #34; A robothrone — 1910" & #34; Ямаха" etc. [15].

Substantial support in modernization of educational material resources of higher education institutions was given by the industrial enterprises of Abakan, Barnaul, Kemerovo, Bratsk, Novokuznetsk, Omsk, Krasnoyarsk, Rubtsovsk, Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Chita. For example, close contacts with the industrial enterprises and the organizations of Krasnoyarsk Krai, such as production association & #34; Красноярскуголь" the Divnogorye plant of the low-voltage equipment, Krasnoyarsk Metallurgical Plant, Institute of mining FROM Academy of Sciences of the USSR were adjusted by administration of the Krasnoyarsk institute of non-ferrous metals (KRASITSM). These enterprises gave to higher education institution the necessary financial support which allowed it to improve in a certain way the financial position. If in 1962 KrasITsM was acquired the unique and expensive equipment for the sum about 65 thousand rubles, then by the beginning of the 1990th it spent for these needs about 2 million rubles a year [16].

In 1981. The help in equipment of departments by the educational and scientific equipment by such organizations as & #34 was rendered to the Tyumen industrial institute; Главтюменьгеология" & #34; Главтюменьнефте-газ" and & #34; СибНИИНП" for the sum more than 667 thousand rubles. Among its names — COMPUTER EU-1022, the AE-72 device, the printer, a set of the television equipment, the puncher, cars GAZ-52 and GAZ-66, the chromocount and the NO-2 [17] generator.

As a result of contracts with the enterprises material, methodical and organizational support of educational process at the Krasnoyarsk polytechnical institute (Kraspi) improved. In 1985 the higher education institution was given the computer system on the basis of the SM-4, car COMPUTER -

matizirovanny jobs & #34; Экран-4" APM-K, the machine with numerical program control. Also the first stage of an educational and research complex with participation of the industrial enterprises was created, the intercathedral laboratory on robotics is put into operation. Besides, five branches of departments successfully worked at the basic enterprises where leading experts of production widely were involved in training. For increase in efficiency of the leadership in educational process, reduction of routine work the automated control system on the basis of ASOD MARS in the environment of OS of the EU with the system of teleaccess FOCUS developed. In general, KrasPI was transferred by various industries for 1984 — 1988 the latest equipment to the sum of 4 million rubles (in the prices of the middle of the 1980th) [18, 19].

In rather representative group of the technical colleges of a system of the Ministry of the higher and secondary vocational education of RSFSR in Siberia (21 institutes) performing the main volume of research work of the higher school of the region, COMPUTER number in the 1980th — the beginning of the 1990th looked as follows (table) [20].

As the table shows, the computer facilities on the Siberian higher education institutions of an engineering profile were distributed unevenly. If for the first half of the 1980th its quantity increased more than twice, then by the end of the studied period, in comparison with 1985 — almost five times.

From the table it is also visible that the most intensive growth of the park of electronic computers is the share of the second half of the 1980th — the 1990th. It was connected, first of all, with the increased requirements of the higher school on an intensification of educational process and research work.

However, despite significant increase in number of the computer equipment, it nevertheless was not enough, especially it concerns the COMPUTER of the last generation. Only six higher educational institutions of the region (IPI, KrasPI, NETI, OmPI, TPI and the THIARMS) possessed expensive and high-performance cars of the I and II groups, to other less large higher education institutions, such acquisitions were too much.

Besides, the being available computer facilities were operated insufficiently effectively, its average daily loading did not exceed 9.5 h, and in Altai, Kuzbass and Chita polytechnical, Siberian metallurgical, Tomsk construction institutes these indicators were even lower — less than 6 h a day. A little less half of machine time was allowed for educational process and research work.

It is also necessary to mean that the considerable part of the COMPUTER park morally and became physically outdated. Unfortunately, the data used in the table do not reflect such important aspect as term

Table. The COMPUTER park in engineering higher education institutions of the Minvuza system of RSFSR in the territory of Siberia in 1980 — 1991

Higher education institutions 1980 1985 1991

All cars Including in this year it is acquired All cars Including in this year it is acquired All cars Including in this year it is acquired

Altai politekhn. in-t 4 1 9 4 69 37

East Sib. technologist. in-t 3 0 10 5 86 42

Irkutsk politekhn. in-t 17 5 24 15 138 45

Brotherly industr. in-t 4 0 8 5 47 22

Krasnoyarsk in-t tsvetn. metals 4 2 11 8 58 30

Krasnoyarsk politekhn. in-t 15 7 23 7 75 35

Kuzbass politekhn. in-t 3 1 5 2 64 29

Siberian metallurgist. in-t 1 0 1 0 35 11

Siberian technologist. in-t 2 0 5 3 45 22

Novosibirsk in-t of geodesy, aerial photography and cartography 1 0 3 1 36 10

The Novosibirsk engineering builds. in-t 3 1 6 3 49 23

Novosibirsk elektrotekhn. in-t 12 6 42 29 156 44

Norilsk evening. industr. in-t 5 2 10 5 41 26

Omsk politekhn. in-t 13 7 66 38 146 43

Siberian avtomobilnodorozhny in-t 2 1 9 3 64 32

Tomsk politekhn. in-t 3 2 35 18 125 52

Tomsk in-t automatic machine. control systems and radio electronics 2 1 26 20 89 45

The Tomsk engineering builds. in-t 1 0 5 4 67 34

Tyumen industr. in-t 1 0 5 2 73 39

The Tyumen engineering builds. in-t 2 0 4 2 42 25

Chita politekhn. in-t 17 8 22 4 58 23

Only 115 44 329 178 1563 669

services of high school COMPUTERS. According to the chief of Head department of that time on technological providing Minvuz of the USSR L.M. Tereshchenko to tell that the high school equipment became outdated — meant, in fact, not to tell anything [21].

Because if the educational and scientific equipment even corresponded to the level of development of the domestic industry, (and it on many industries, especially on the latest — electronic engineers, electricians, etc. did not meet the global standards) and that, it would not be optimum. However, vu-

zy, especially peripheral were not equipped on the requirements and such equipment [22].

Summing up the general result of told, we will note that in general the level of technical equipment of educational process, during the considered time period, remained low. The Siberian higher education institutions of an engineering profile, despite the measures undertaken by their collectives, experienced serious difficulties in equipment of departments and offices new devices and the equipment. In many respects it was caused by the fact that as a result of insufficient allocations from Council of ministers of the USSR and MV and SSO RSFSR for development of the higher school, it could not satisfy the need for the modern equipment fully. If in the first half of the 1960th. With the government for these purposes it was allocated to technical colleges of the region of 63 million rubles (68% of necessary money), in 1986-1990, according to 125 million rubles (64%) [23].

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. The XXIII congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. Verbatim record. T 1 — 2. — M.: Politizdat, 1966. — Page 84 — 85.
2. Materials of the XXV congress of the CPSU. — M.: Politizdat, 1976. — Page 47.
3. The main directions of reorganization of the higher and secondary vocational education in the country. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of March 31, 1987 — No. 213//the Collection of Decrees of the Government of the USSR. — 1987. — No. 22. — Page 423-424. — Article 58.
4. Essays of history of the higher school of Novosibirsk: Sb. under the editorship of A.S. Vostrikov, etc. — Novosibirsk: NGTU publishing house, 1994. — Page 75.
5. Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Tomsk Region (CDCHTR). T. 607. Op. 1. 4554. L. 151-152.
6. History in persons: scientists of the Omsk state technical university: The help and biographic edition / Under a general edition of prof. V.D. Polkanov. — Omsk: Publishing house of OmGTU, 1996.

— Page 20.

7. State Archive of Krasnoyarsk Krai (SAKK). F.R-2234. Op. 1. 39. L. 326.
8. Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Omsk Region (CDCHOR). T. 17. Op. 13. 140. L. 16.
9. Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Irkutsk Region (CDCHIR). T. 127. Op. 81. 98. L. 11-12; T. 3435. Op. 1. 49. L. 71.
10. TsDNITO. T. 607. Op. 5. 20. L. 130-131.
11. State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). F.A-605. Op. 1. 4573. L. 45, 71-74, 88-89, 184, 195; 4720. L. 1-5.

Besides, activities of high school collectives for introduction in educational process of electronic computer facilities and technical means of training were shown in a pursuit of quantitative indices. On the second plan there were questions of compliance of the used equipment to the level of development of production and methodical validity of application of TSO and COMPUTER. At discussion of this problem on the academic councils, party meetings, meetings of administrations and Communist Party committees, dean's offices and a party bureau of faculties, the management of engineering higher education institutions, as a rule, the main attention gave to the quantitative party, questions of providing higher education institutions with TSO and electronic computer facilities, but not their effective use. The studied documents demonstrate that to introduce the COMPUTER and technical means of training in necessary sizes and quality any high school collective of Siberia did not manage.

12. In the same place. 6730. L. 16, 39, 42-43.
13. Center of Storage of Archival Fund of Altai Krai (CSAFAK). F. P-1. Op. 141. 216. L. 157.
14. National Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (NARB). F.R-474. Op. 1. 1981. L. 16.
15. State Archive of the Novosibirsk Region (SANR). F.P-4. Op. 72. 78. L. 10 — 11.
16. Center of storage and studying documents of the contemporary history of Krasnoyarsk Krai (TSKHIDNIKK). T. 26. Op. 8. 314a. L. 9: Op. 11. 329. L. 33 — 35.
17. Center of documentation of the contemporary history of the Tyumen region (TSDNITYUO). T. 124. Op. 242. 104. L. 22.
18. A.M. Staver. On the way of scientific and technical progress//the Polytechnician (Kraspi) — 1986. — On Jan. 29
19. In the same place. — 1988. — On Oct. 5
20. The table is made and calculated by data: Current archive of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation (THAT Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation). Annual reports of technical colleges of Siberia for 1980, 1985, 1991
21. A.P. Kirichenko. Research work in higher education institutions of Western Siberia in the first half of the 80th (on materials of the party organizations): Yew.... edging. east. sciences. — Tomsk, 1992. - L. 62.
22. In the same place.
23. Counted on: THAT Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Annual reports of technical colleges of Siberia for 1960-1961 and 1986-1990
James Morgan
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