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The St. Petersburg "Ladies' committee, popechitelny about prisons" and its regional Stavropol office in 1819-1890 HIHv



SANKT-PETERBURGSKY "LADIES' POPECHITELNY ABOUT PRISONS COMMITTEE" And ITS REGIONAL STAVROPOL OFFICE

In 1819-1890 HGH of century

Work is presented by department of a historiography and source study of the Stavropol state university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor T.E. Pokotilova

An object of this research is the women's office of "The St. Petersburg committee, popechitelny about prisons" and its regional Stavropol office. In article the history of opening and charity of data of the organizations concerning women who contained in prisons reveals.

The research work investigates the activity of the women branch of "St. Petersburg Committee for Guardianship of Prisons" and its regional Stavropol branch. The article presents the history of opening and charitable activity of these organizations in regard to women-prisoners.

On October 11, 1819 in St. Petersburg "the Popechitelny society about prisons" which opening laid the foundation for emergence of the whole chain of charitable institutions and societies, both in counties, and in the provinces patronizing prison institutions in full accordance with its control system and the charter was formed. The main direction of its activity was as moral isprav-

leniye of criminals, and improvement of a condition of prisoners in places of detention.

In pre-revolutionary Russia the position of women in prisons as the famous researcher of the Russian prisons M.N. Gernet notes, was "heavier and powerless, than the provision of the Russian subject male... Weight of position of the condemned woman in various places of detention increased still

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and therefore that the prison administration, as a rule, was gathered from men" &. These circumstances led trustees to a thought of opening of women's office of "The St. Petersburg society, popechitelny about prisons" which would be engaged in improvement of life of the imprisoned prisoners.

The St. Petersburg "Ladies' committee, popechitelny about prisons" opened

13 October, 1819. Such famous people as princesses S.S. Meshcherskaya, A.S. Golitsyna, A.M. Shcherbatova, N.S. Trubetskaya and other high-ranking persons, "known blagomysliy, honesty and philanthrophy" were members of "Ladies' committee, popechitelny about prisons" at different times. But the aristocraticness of structure did not prevent to conduct purposeful work on improvement of life of prisoners at all.

According to "Rules for popechitelny about prisons", "The ladies' committee" had to be formed "of persons of this floor which will consist of one Chairwoman, twelve and more

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Members and Secretary". However, unlike men's office "The St. Petersburg society popechitelny about prisons" which members were only men, participation in activity

its women's office could accept

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both women, and men.

Rules of activity of women's office were enshrined in "The charter of Ladies' committee, popechitelny about prisons". According to it, activity of "Ladies' committee" was strictly regulated. "The ladies' committee" was open for the purpose of assistance to prisoners and also the women unbound; improvements of their physical and moral state; cares about the children who are at them in prisons. The main tasks of "Ladies' committee" were: organization of spiritual re-education, work and training of prisoners, health care and material and ware snab-

zheniye, opening of a children's shelter, etc. "Committee" also promoted creation in all places of detention of the city of separate men's and female cameras.

A.P. Kozodavleva, then the princess S. S. Meshcherskaya and T.B. Potemkina was the first chairwoman of "Ladies' committee". But the most fruitful and active activity of "Committee" was in the years of Elizabeth Alekseevna Naryshkina's presidency. Having started the responsibilities on December 13, 1884, it enough

skillfully and skillfully directed "Ladies'

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committee" within the next 25 years.

At that time when E.A. Naryshkina started the obligations, "Committee" experienced considerable difficulties among which financial straits and abolition of "The charter of Ladies' committee, popechitelny about prisons" were the most essential. New rules by which it would be possible to be guided were not developed. "Supervisory commission" which part representatives of prosecutor's office, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the city authorities were was the only control authority at that time in the relations with prisoners. Elizabeth Alekseevna coped with a financial problem, having managed to attract many philanthropists. "Charter" was finally approved only on May 12, 1893, after preliminary discussion with Prison committee (both men's, and women's its offices). It should be noted that Elizabeth Alekseevna personally took part in drawing up "Charter".

By 70th of the 19th century the women's office of transit prison and women's office of the prison lock where it managed all issues of management and economy were at the disposal of "Ladies' committee". Is a little later, in the 80th of the 19th century, also "The shelter for prisoner children" and "A shelter for the women leaving the St. Petersburg places of detention", and in the first half of the 90th of the 19th century under protection came to its maintaining

St. Petersburg "Ladies' popechitelny about prisons kamntt".

of "Ladies' committee" also women's office "Houses was accepted precede -

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telny conclusion".

These offices were distributed between head mistresses of "Ladies' committee" who dealt in them with many economic issues, watched quality of food, behind existence and delivery of necessary clean clothes for female prisoners, in due time cared for patients, providing them the timely help, paid attention to issues of training and religious education. Prisoners attended classes at school, in Sunday and holidays went to church, listened to sermons, were engaged in reading religious literature.

"Ladies' committee", following still Alexander I's order "to edify prisoners in religious and moral objects and to occupy them intellectual and where it will be possible, and physical activity", gave the last an opportunity to earn in places of detention. So, in "The report of popechitelny committee on prisons for 1823" it is noted that only for this year by prisoners of city prison it was made: "shirts - 3947, blankets - 372, a sheet - 100, pillowcases - 467, dressing gowns-296, caps - 150, a stocking - 1399 couples, a mat -

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ras - 150. Only 6881 things".

"Committee" paid a lot of attention to children of prisoners. In 1843 "The shelter for prisoner children" opened. Yu.F. Abaza was appointed his chairwoman. According to P.K. Reshetkin, in 1845 there were 24 children, in 1846 - 25 here, but in the next years the number of children "hesitated between 13 and 29". Also the school was open. "The St. Petersburg popechitelny committee decided to teach juvenile prisoners to the diploma and easy work" on the first заседании". And 1894 under the leadership of M.V. Smelskaya "A day nursery for chest babies" was open and special nurses for baby sitting whose work was paid to -

are employed
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mitety. Over time on February 26, 1895 by efforts of "Committee" "The corrective shelter for nesovershennolet-11 also opened

them criminals".

Throughout all time of the existence of the representative of "Committee" did not disregard the female prisoners going to the reference and transit. Sometimes, having an opportunity, the chairwoman and head mistresses petitioned before the authorities for issue of receipt certificates to the women who ended the term of punishment, saving them from expulsion home, tried to obtain permission to the right of residence in the capital, looked for guarantors, etc.

According to "The charter of the St. Petersburg society, popechitelny about prisons" the same "Ladies' offices" began to open also at societies, popechitelny about prisons, in many provincial and district cities of Russia. So, in 1872 in the Stavropol province "The ladies' office of the Stavropol committee" which was headed by the countess was open

M.I. de Toulouse-Lautrec, being to a supr-" -at " 14

gy chief of the Caucasian division.

Many famous residents of Stavropol who took active part in work of "Committee" were its part the spouse of the governor, the vice governor, the chairman of district court, the chief of office of the Stavropol prison castle and also.

Representatives of "Ladies' office of the Stavropol committee" dealt with problems of lighting and heating of prison rooms for women, providing with food and clothes, sponsored children of the prisoners coming together with parents to prison, were engaged in education of juvenile "criminals" and also the organization of sewing business. So, prisoners of the Stavropol prison were engaged in sewing of various linen for prisoners and also sewed things to order. A part of proceeds from sale of finished products

went for keeping of the prisoner children who were in a shelter.

Before opening of a shelter in places of detention of Stavropol there were children from 8 to

14 years. Statistically, the number of such children increased every year: in 1850 -
7 boys, 4 girls, in 1851 - 12 boys, 3 girls, in 1852 - 17 boys and 9 girls. Therefore "The Stavropol committee, popechitelny about prisons" made the following decision: "To separate children of prisoners from parents in starting Orders of Public Prizreniya, or to give on care to reliable city dwellers, to prizrevat them into the account

the fodder money which is released from treasury, or,

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to get special shelters for these children".

The shelter for children of prisoners and juvenile criminals was placed in the special room for children of prisoners in the yard for walks of the Stavropol prison castle. Special school for

children it was not open as their number constantly changed, many of them went with transit parents to the eternal settlement to Siberia 7.

In general all actions of "Ladies' committee, popechitelny about prisons" and its regional Stavropol office, took place within activity of the main thing of "The St. Petersburg society, popechitelny about prisons". The tasks set for them directed to improvement of life of prizrevayemy prisoners, their moral and religious correction, education of diligence and also care of children were carried out during all lifetime of data of institutions. Experience of charity organizations, including in penal system, deserves close attention and study for the purpose of possible use of these principles of activity in modern conditions.

M.N. LGernet. History of royal prison. M, 1863. Page 396-397.

G.M. Ivanova. Care of women in prison. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: www.owl.ru/ Igap/0421.I1: highway

About establishment in St. Petersburg Societies popechitelny about prisons. SPb., 1819. Page 44.

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Collection of charters and instructions of the Moscow ladies' charitable and prison committee. M, 1909. Page 37.

About establishment in St. Petersburg Societies popechitelny about prisons. Page 49.

A short overview of the activities of E.A. Naryshkina during her 25 years' presidency in Ladies' charitable committee. SPb., 1909. Page 27.

Zorikova. H. Decree.soch. Page 69.

& #34; In memory of a centenary since the birth of the Most august founder of Society Emperor Alexander I, popechitelny about prisons. SPb., 1877. Page 6.

& the Report of popechitelny committee on prisons for 1823 SPb., 1824. Page 20.

P.K. Reshetkin. Committee, St. Petersburg ladies' popechitelny about prisons, and prisoner children. SPb., 1883. Page 9, 14.

& #34; In memory of a centenary since the birth of the Most august founder of Society Emperor Alexander I, popechitelny about prisons. SPb., 1877. Page 8.

Short overview of the activities of E.A. Naryshkina... Page 29.

& & Tamzhe. Page 30.

I.A. LPavlova. Formation and development of public charity in the Stavropol province in the 19th century - the head of the 20th century Pyatigorsk, 2004. Page 160.

GASK. T. 296. Op. 1. 80. L. 4.

& #34; TASK. T. 296. Op. 1. 2a. L. 76.

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GASK. T. 296. Op. 1. 269. L. 1-3.

Lydia Annice
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