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Ethnodemographic processes among Bulgarians of Moldova and Ukraine in the middle of the 18-20th Century.

ivan GREEK


This subject was a subject of scientific consideration of numerous researchers of history of the Bulgarian settlers in Bessarabia and the Novorossiysk region. Among them there are N. Varadinov, A. Skalkovsky,

And. Claus, N. Derzhavin, Y. Titorov, G. Zanetov, V. Dyakovich, I. Meshche-ryuk, S. Bernstein, S. Doynov, E. Hadzhinikolova, V. Kabuzan, M. Dykhan, V. Naulko, V. Milchev, S. Pachev, A. Ganchev and others. But, as a rule, in their works this problem is considered in a limited chronological framework, or within local geography, or in some one aspect of demographic process. An exception the generalizing I. Grek and N. Chervenkov's work "makes Bjlgarite from Ukrayn and Moldova", published in Sofia in 1993. In it, however, the demographic changes which occurred among the Bulgarian population in the former Soviet Union after 1991 could not be considered

Nowadays demographic problem of Bulgarians of Moldova and Ukraine is of interest as in its ethnopolitical aspect which was reflected in geography of their resettlement and also in aspect of how demographic processes of today will affect the prospect of preservation of the Bulgarian diaspora on the ethnographic map of these states. That is not only what was in ethnodemographic history of this before of uniform diaspora is of interest. Not less interestingly and what expects it in the next 25-50 years after at the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century for the reasons known for all, it broke up to several parts. Thus, subject to our consideration is not only ethnodemographic history of Bulgarians of the Russia / the USSR, but also modern demographic processes among Bulgarians of Ukraine and Moldova and also assessment of opportunities of further preservation of these Bulgarian diasporas.

1. First of all, we will consider what represents formation of compact Bulgarian settlements in the south of the Russian Empire in se-

Rehden XVIII - the first half of the 19th century. By consideration of this problem in scientific literature the concept "resettlement" which, in my opinion, makes neutral sense, that is of it was used there is no substantial ethnopolitical loading. The demographic science operates with other scientific concepts, in particular, such as "emigration" and "migration". The first reflects movement of the population from borders of one state on the territory of another or other states. Emigration is voluntary, forced and violent (deportation). As an example of voluntary emigration we will point to emigration of the Bessarabia Bulgarians to Brazil in 1925. As for violent emigration, we find its signs in 1860-1861 when a considerable part of the population of the Bessarabia Bulgarian colonies transferred in 1856 under jurisdiction of the Moldavian principality ran in Priazovye.

The outcome of the Bulgarian population out of borders of the historical homeland and also out of borders of the Ottoman Empire has all signs of expatriation. In present geopolitical realities such emigration could be defined as the humanitarian disaster. The signs of ethnonational demographic crisis remote for the history of Bulgaria after 1878 were present at an extent of nearly one and a half centuries of existence of the third Bulgarian state. Historians paid attention to negative consequences of outflow of ethnic Bulgarians from their historical homeland. However they pointed first of all to negative impact of emigration on cultural, church and political processes of the Renaissance of the Bulgarian statehood and the Bulgarian ethnos.

The forced nature of emigration of Bulgarians and Gagauz from the Bulgarian lands to the southern region of the Russian Empire is demonstrated by the reasons which caused their mass flight out of borders of the Homeland and the Ottoman Empire. They were two categories. One is a prosecution of Bulgarians and Gagauz by the Ottoman authorities for: a) participation in armed struggle against Turks, b) participation in the Russo-Turkish wars on the party of the Russian army and assistance of the Russian army food and fodder, c) commitment to orthodox belief.

There were also economic reasons of emigration. But the Ottoman authorities did not guarantee economic security first of all to the economic entities representing the non-Muslim population. Therefore, it is impossible to recognize emigration of Bulgarians and Gagauz to Russia caused by these reasons as purely labor.

2. In terms of the ethnodemographic processes proceeding in their environment in 250-year history of Bulgarians of the South of the Russian Empire it is possible to allocate several stages. The first stage is characterized emigra-

a tion of Bulgarians from the Bulgarian lands in borders of the territory won by Russia from the Ottoman Empire. It covers the middle of the 18th century of-1861 g. The second stage can be defined as migratory. It began in the 30th of the 19th century and came to the end approximately in 100 years, by 1930. The third stage had the mixed character, emigratory and migratory. Its beginning ascends by 1925, and the end is necessary for the beginning of the 1990th and is connected with the collapse of the USSR. The fourth stage has the lower chronological date - the middle of the 90th of last century, but is not finished yet.

Chronological "захлест" between the first three stages is explained by their different orientation of migration movements. In one case it is emigration, in another - migration, and in the third - the mixed form of migration process. Probably, we deal with the objective sequence of development of the demographic realities characteristic and for the Bulgarian diasporas formed in the south of Russia.

3. The feature of the first two stages of demographic history of Bulgarians of the South of Russia is that the created regions of their compact settling in the ethnic relation were not purely Bulgarian. Within the Bessarabia Bulgarian settlement except actually Bulgarians Moldavians, Gagauz, Albanians (Karakurt), Ukrainians (Ferapontyevka) lived. In the Odessa (Kherson) Bulgarian colonies a certain part of the population was made by Greeks. The colony of the Azov Bulgarians of the power settled the Russian and Ukrainian population. The lack of interethnic borders accelerated natural assimilatory processes in borders of territories of compact accommodation of Bulgarians. It is known also that in many Gagauz colonies there were "makhala" with the Bulgarian population which was assimilated over time by Gagauz. Assimilation was rather easy as Bulgarians differed from Gagauz only in communication language. It is clear, that in those Bulgarian colonies in which Gagauz were minority they were assimilated by the Bulgarian majority. Bulgarians and Gagauz keep the identity in those villages in which they are presented approximately in identical proportions (Kirsovo, Ku - beat). In Comrat at the beginning of the 20th century the ratio between Gagauz and Bulgarians made 2: 1. Less than in 100 years the number of Bulgarians was reduced to a minimum here.
4. We will distinguish also features of ethnodemographic processes from Gagauz. Their ethnic proximity to Bulgarians did not play any role in the course of their ethnocultural consolidation. Their compact residence in Budzhaka and language specifics gradually led to the fact that they began to identify themselves separately from Bulgarians. Higher treats ethnocultural specifics of Gagauz, than at Bulgarians,

birth rate and more rapid growth of population in the Gagauz villages and also big immunity of Gagauz to assimilation.

We will pass to characteristic of each of the above-mentioned stages of et-nodemografichesky history of the Bulgarian settlers of Ukraine and Moldova.

5. The first stage. The middle of the 18th century as its upper bound is explained by the fact that then conditions for emergence of the first Bulgarian settlements in the Novorossiysk region were created. But they arose within the all-Balkan emigration in the south of Russia. It was caused by fight of the Balkan people against the Ottoman Empire and their support at that time also from Austria. Formation of the Bulgarian settlements as a part of Slavyanoserbiya and Novoserbiya happened by means of secondary emigration of ethnic Bulgarians including Macedonians, from Austria to Russia is the second feature of emigration of Bulgarians of the 1750th years. One more feature of emigration of that decade is that it designated the watershed between emigration of Bulgarians which had individual character (Bulgarians as a part of nonfeminine Greeks), and the mass emigration which laid the foundation for formation of compact Bulgarian settlements. Though the Bulgarian settlements in Slavyanoserbiya and Novoserbiya did not remain, they opened an opportunity for emergence of other compact Bulgarian settlements. They are known in historical literature as the Bessarabia, Odessa (Kherson), Crimean and Azov Bulgarian colonies.

The feature of formation of the Odessa and Crimean Bulgarian settlements is that they were result of emigration of Bulgarians directly from the Bulgarian lands. The Azov Bulgarian settlements arose during expatriation of a part of the population from the Bulgarian colonies in Bessarabia included in structure of the Moldavian principality in 1856. The Azov Bulgarian settlements were created by the Bessarabia Bulgarian emigration as the compact Bulgarian region. Appropriated them names of those colonies from which the Bulgarian colonists ran.

The Bulgarian emigration which developed in the last third of the 18th century - the first decade of the 19th century to the Crimea and the Kherson province, did not create the compact Bulgarian region as Bessarabia or Azov. Moreover, some settlements were ethnically non-uniform, along with Bulgarians Greeks and, perhaps, Gagauz lived in them. Nevertheless, the prevalence in them ethnic Bulgarians caused assimilation of the ethnic groups living together with them over time. And finding of the Bulgarian settlements under the authority of Popechitelno-

go committee about colonists of south country of Russia provided ethnic survival of Bulgarians.

The number of the Bessarabia Bulgarians and Gagauz by the time of Budzhak's joining to Russia in 1812 was 25 thousand people. From them, so-called "old Bulgarians", that is those who lodged in the region before the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 there were 4 thousand. The "New Bulgarians" emigrating during this war and at once after its termination and who lodged here went back to 21 thousand. The concept "labor migration" as they migrated from the Bulgarian lands on the territory which is in borders of the Ottoman Empire is applicable to some part of "old Bulgarians". But among them there were also such Bulgarians who were exposed to prosecution from the Ottoman authorities and were forced to leave the Bulgarian lands and to lodge on the budzhaksky outskirts of the Ottoman Empire.

The Bulgarian settlements in the south of the Russian Empire arose, as a rule, after the Russo-Turkish wars 1768-1774, 1787-1791, 18061812, 1828-1829. Emigration of Bulgarians was caused by also kirdzhaliysky disorders of the end of XVIII here - the beginnings of the 19th century. Small emigration took place in the middle of 1830 when Silistra was returned by Russia under management Ports (following the results of war of 18281829 the fortress and the adjacent territory with a number of settlements were under the administration of Russia before payment of Porty contribution as got beaten in war). After that new Bulgarian settlements in Budzhaka did not arise. There were two more mass emigrations, in 1854 and 1861. From the first of them in Bessarabia there were, as a rule, former participants of the volunteer groups battling on the party of the Russian army. But they did not create certain settlements. Other Bulgarians placed by the Russian administration in the Bessarabia Bulgarian colonies came back to Bulgaria in 1855. The Vidin emigration of 1861 which was taking place in peace time left within Russia only one settlement - Kjrdzhali around the Crimean isthmus. It is known that the Vidin Bulgarians returned home. Two last emigrations took place in a special political situation in the Bulgarian lands. The Ottoman authorities disturbed by a mass outcome of Bulgarians in 1830 changed the policy in relation to the Bulgarians expressing sympathies for Russia. They were ready to discuss then even a possibility of education in autonomy Dobrudja for reemigrantov-Bulgarian from Russia and the Danube principalities.

One of the most important features of the emigratory period in the demographic history of Bulgaria of Renaissance consists that the mass outcome of Bulgarians happened because of Danube then at that time

when the Russian policy did not lead to liberation of Bulgaria from the power of Ottomans and formation of the Bulgarian state. The national liberation movement of the Bulgarian people brought closer the moment of its creation. Growth of political consciousness of Bulgarians, their aiming at maintaining ethnic identity and achievement of political sovereignty of the homeland caused impossibility of mass migrations of Bulgarians because of Danube at the final stage of the Bulgarian Renaissance. This trend was shown even during the Crimean war and in 1861 Besides, the essential value had also that circumstance that eminent persons of the Bulgarian liberation movement resolutely opposed now to such emigration (G.S. Rakov-ski), unlike former time when they organized mass emigrations (I. Seliminski).

Thus, approximately in 100 years the Bulgarian emigration founded over 80 settlements on the South of Russia: in Bessarabia, in the Crimea, in Priazovye, near Odessa, Kherson, Nikolaev and between Tiraspol and Bender (Parkana). Growth of the population in colonies resulted mainly from new mass migrations of Bulgarians because of Danube. But in process of arrangement of Bulgarian emigrants on the new homeland the population began to increase also due to natural increase. It should be noted that to the middle of the 19th century the social and economic and legal device of Bulgarian colonists in the south of Russia provided significant expanded reproduction of the Bulgarian population in colonies. The information about the revizsky families containing till 25-30 and even till 45-50 people is provided in the population censuses conducted in these colonies from 1818 to 1859.

Statistical data on growth of number of Bulgarians of the South of Russia are indicative. Before the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 of the Bessarabia Bulgarians and Gagauz there were 26679 people (given

V.M. Kabuzana). In 1835 their number increased almost up to 61 thousand. (Greek I., N. Chervenkov). Sharp increase of their number is connected with a new wave of immigration because of Danube in 1828-1830. According to the of the 19th century given V.M. Kabuzana, in the mid-fifties, that is to the section Bud-zhaka at the Parisian peace conference of 1856, 82295 people lived in the Bessarabia Bulgarian settlement. Then in the Kherson province was registered 12631 persons, and all - 94926 people. If to them to add the Crimean Bulgarians, then we will receive 100 thousand people. But except Bulgarians and Gagauz in the Bulgarian colonies as it is noted, also Moldavians, Greeks, Albanians, Ukrainians lived.

The All-Russian population census of 1897 for the first time more or less accurately determined the number of the ethnic Bulgarians living in Russia - 170 thousand, from them the Bessarabia Bulgarians there were 103492 forehead -

centuries. Let's add to them 57045 Gagauz and we will receive 160537 people. The number of the Bessarabia Bulgarians and Gagauz since 1812 increased almost by 6.5 times. And it without emigration in Priazovye parts of Bulgarians from the southern site of Bessarabia which was in 1857-1878 as a part of the Moldavian principality / Romania. The number of Bulgarians of the Novorossiysk region increased approximately by 5 times.

6. The second stage. We defined it as migratory because in the specified chronological framework slightly less than in 100 years migration processes were the main factor of growth of number of Bulgarians of the South of Russia. It does not mean that there was no emigration of Bulgarians in borders of Russia or, as well as at the first stage, there was no their reemigration beyond its limits. But these processes were minor, and they significantly did not affect the number of the Bulgarian population in Russia.
can allocate to

In migration process of Bulgarians of Russia two directions. The first direction appeared in their prereform history. It was caused by the feudal nature of the agrarian relations in the kolonistsky village and a social legal status of its population. Eternal hereditary communal use of the next-to-skin earth, indivisibility of grounds, investment of again formed families with sites from the reserve earth and also special off-line control by colonies within Popechitelny committee about colonists of south country of Russia provided hozyaystvennoekonomichesky development of the Bulgarian colonies and a certain wellbeing of their population at the beginning. All this was the cornerstone of the population explosion which came soon after the basis Bulgarian emigrants of the settlements. Overpopulation of colonies and a lack of the earth for investment with the land plots of new families became its result. It took place, first of all, in the colonies founded by Bulgarians at the beginning of the 19th century and also in those settlements which arose at a boundary of the 20th - the 30th of the same century in which there was not enough allocated earth for investment of all colonists with 50 tithes for one family.

From the available documents which are partially introduced for scientific use it is visible that in the beginning there was a resettlement of beznadelny Bulgarian colonists from so-called Odessa Bulgarian colonies to limits of the Bessarabia Bulgarian settlement. Then this process captured also those colonies of Bulgarians in Bessarabia who felt land hunger. Migration of beznadelny Bulgarian colonists from one Bulgarian colony in another improved population economic and social situation in general and well affected birth rate. There was one more important reason for movement of Bulgarian colonists in ethnic borders of the colonies. In some Bulgarian colonies number

male population, especially reproductive age, significantly exceeded female population of the same age. New families were often started by young people, treating to the rural communities of different colonies which defended from each other even at considerable distance.

Feature of migration of the Crimean Bulgarians who were especially sharply feeling land hunger from the second half of the 1850th was formation of affiliated settlements. It was caused by that circumstance that after the Crimean war a part of the Tatar population of the peninsula moved in borders of the Ottoman Empire. In the Crimea there were many free lands, and landowners' estates were left without labor. The tsarist government allocated new immigrants from other regions of Russia with the land plots and improved to the earth security of villagers of the Crimea including local Bulgarians.

Formation of affiliated settlements by the Bessarabia and so-called Odessa Bulgarians began after the agrarian reform undertaken in colonies in 1871 though the beginning of this process is noted decade before. And in this case resettlement of peasants from old Bulgarian colonies in new was caused by a lack of the earth because of growth of number of the Bulgarian population in the south of Russia. New settlements of the Bessarabia Bulgarians arose, as a rule, on the lands which are earlier belonging to landowners. In the beginning Bulgarians rented these lands, and then gradually got them in property. Such villages were based both Bulgarian fellows villager, and natives of several Bulgarian settlements. Except foundation of new villages also the sharing of Bulgarians in already existing inoetnich-ny villages which had free land fund practiced. But in Bessarabia, and earlier and in the Crimea it occurred in borders of the territory adjoining to compact Bulgarian settlements. At the Azov and so-called Odessa Bulgarians such form of resettlement was not taken.

Formation of new Bulgarian settlements in Bessarabia and in the Crimea led to expansion of the initial territory of compact accommodation of Bulgarians, but not to their territorial dispersal and ethnic washing out. But at the beginning of the XX century, at the time of Stolypin reform, migrations of the Bessarabia Bulgarians came out far away from regions of initial resettlement. A part of Bulgarians from the South of Russia moved to Siberia, into the North Caucasus. This emigration did not slow down growth of number of the Bulgarian population in places of its compact accommodation, but also did not lead to formation of other regions of compact accommodation of Bulgarians. Were same demografi-

chesky consequences of migration of Bulgarians to the cities of the South of Russia. However among Bulgarian immigrants the assimilatory risk was much more, than in traditional regions of their compact accommodation. Therefore both one, and other resettlement was created by prerequisites of delay of growth rates of number of Bulgarians in Russia,

Remigration of descendants of Bulgarians-pervoposelentsev in borders of the historical homeland in the 70-80th of the 19th century was in number insignificant. However she mentioned an educated group of the Bulgarian population of Russia. Though we are proud of a contribution which was made by representatives of the Bessarabia Bulgarians in construction of the third Bulgarian state, it is necessary to recognize that their remigration negatively affected ethnocultural development of Bulgarians of Russia next century.

Military-political and obshchestvennopolitichesky events of the first quarter of the 20th century had a great influence on a demographic situation in the Bulgarian settlements of the South of Russia. Russian-Japanese and World War I of war, the Russian revolutions 1905-1907 and 1917, civil war of 1918-1920 and capture of Bessarabia by Romania in 1918 have an adverse effect on an ethnodemographic condition of Bulgarians of Russia. Wars, especially World War I, swallowed a considerable part of young male Bulgarians of reproductive age. In days of revolutions and civil war many Bulgarians of young age suffered persecution and repressions, part of them died in their hearths. Military intervention of Romania to Bessarabia in January, 1918 not only barred the way to return to native villages to many participating Bulgarians of revolutionary fight, but also tore off from Bulgarians of Russia their most numerous part - Bessarabia.

During the specified period only the small inflow of Bulgarians because of Danube in borders of the Russian Empire took place. It is about so-called gardeners. This emigration had accurately expressed labor character. Its specifics were that it by definition was not capable to strengthen an ethnic demographic resource of the Bulgarian population of the South of Russia, to create conditions for maintaining identity of these Bulgarian immigrants.

Thus, natural increase and migration inflow in general provided accumulation of ethnic potential of Bulgarians of the South of Russia in the XIX and first third of the 20th century. It was not prevented even by negative demographic consequences of political and economic shocks. They only slowed down and stabilized rates of gain of the Bulgarian population at the certain level, have an adverse effect on its age structure, but did not affect significantly its reproductive potential.

7. The third stage (1925-1991). It is characteristic the fact that before uniform Bulgarian diaspora of Russia on whole the quarter of the century was broken off by occupation of Bessarabia by royal Romania. Its accurate chronological framework is caused by the hunger of 1925-1927 in Bessarabia stimulating emigration of the local Bulgarian community to Brazil and the collapse of the USSR in 1991

Deterioration in a political legal status of the Bessarabia Bulgarians after 1918 did not affect process of the basis of new affiliated settlements by them. In general also migration of Bulgarians did not stop. Only its geographical direction changed - from the East on the West.

In terms of demographic situation, this stage can be divided into two periods: the first period covers 1925-1949, the second - 1950-1991

The first period can be defined as extreme, sharply negatively affected the number of the Bulgarian population and its reproductive potential. If to speak about position of the Bessarabia Bulgarians as a part of Romania, then influenced such negative development of ethnodemographic process hungry 1925-1927, 1932

>- 1933, 1935 - 1936 years in Bessarabia, 1940, 1941-1944 of World War II. For the Soviet Bulgarians in Ukraine, and since 1940 and in the Moldavian SSR the hard times came in 1932-1933, 1941, 19441945, 1946-1947, 1948-1949

Hunger, an economic crisis and repressions of ethnopolitical character caused emigration of the Bessarabia Bulgarians to Brazil in 1925

>- 1926 the Holodomor of 1932 - 1933 among the Azov Bulgarians and 19461947 - among the Bessarabia Bulgarians who were till 1940 led to death of dozens of thousands of Bulgarians in Ukraine and Moldova. A dispossession of kulaks in the 30-40th of the Azov and Crimean Bulgarians and Bulgarians of the South of Moldova and the Izmail region of Ukraine, political repressions of 1937 and also expulsion by the Soviet authorities in 1941, on the eve of war, many civilians of the Bulgarian nationality, prosecution by their Romanian invaders, deportation of the Crimean Bulgarians in June, 1944, mobilization of the Bessarabia Bulgarians in labor armies of Romania in 1944, and then the USSR in January, 1945 - all this led to reduction of number of the Soviet Bulgarians in places of compact accommodation, created prerequisites of assimilation of their considerable part. The same labor mobilization was carried out also among the Crimean Bulgarians before their deportation. The Soviet Bulgarians of Priazovye, the Crimea and Odes-shchina were deported during the war by the German authorities for work to Germany. About 1.5 thousand Bulgarians of Priazovye and the Crimea in 1943 left to Bulgaria; after war they were deported to Tajikistan.

Migration, emigration, forced displacement of a large number of the Bulgarian population, Famine-Genocide, labor mobilization of military years - all this led to significant reduction of number of the Bulgarian population of Ukraine and Moldova, dispersion of its considerable part across territories of RSFSR, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and also Brazil, Romania (after 1943-1944). Because of withdrawal from the Bulgarian settlements of Moldova and Ukraine of male population of reproductive age in labor army there was a problem of growth of number of the Bulgarian population in the USSR. Besides, this mobilization led to artificial division of the Bulgarian families, many of which did not reunite, having turned into incomplete families. Time was required somehow to balance the structure of the population on gender and age to restore birth rate. In post-war years it was reached also by means of movement of the Ukrainian population from the western areas of Ukraine to the region of compact accommodation of Bulgarians - to the Izmail region of the republic. Thus, then to the Bulgarian settlements, monoethnic for 97-100%, settled the inoetnichesky population on a constant basis. Further this phenomenon gained steady character. Mixed marriages and the full-fledged mixed families began to appear. However to the middle of the XX century it did not lead to washing out here identity of Bulgarians as the habitat of these families remained purely Bulgarian.

At the same time, geographical dispersal of the Bulgarian population for the economic, military-political and repressive reasons led to reduction of number of compact Bulgarian settlements and to extermination of some of them. So, emigration of the Bessarabia Bulgarians to Brazil did not lead to education the Bulgarian diaspora there. Emigrants kept the language, but their children and grandchildren lost the Bulgarian identity.

Deportation of the Crimean Bulgarians had the deplorable consequence their disappearance from ethnographic and geographical Ukraine maps. And the administrative border between the Ukrainian SSR and MSSR which is carried out in 1940 after return of Bessarabia to structure of the USSR divided the Bessarabia Bulgarian population into two parts. Thereby prerequisites for their multi-vector ethnological (sotsiolingvistichesky and sociocultural) development, possible even within the federal state were created. Negative consequences of such section will be found fully at the last stage of ethnodemographic history of the Bulgarian population of Ukraine and Moldova.

Thus, the second quarter of the XX century was the most difficult and tragic in the history of the Bulgarian population in the territory

the modern states of Ukraine and Moldova since their emigration from Bulgaria. Demographic losses among it were such scales that on their elimination decades on condition of preservation of former rates of annual increase in population were required.

The second period (1950-1991), unlike the first, is characterized till 1989 by lack of influence of natural cataclysms though they also were, and political shocks on life of the Bulgarian population of Ukraine and Moldova. However improvement of economic and social situation of the Bulgarian diaspora in the USSR in comparison with 1925-1949 was followed by falling in it of birth rate and growth of number of the urban Bulgarian population at the expense of rural. This two demographic a factor caused reduction of a share of the country Bulgarian people in the lump of diaspora and its aging, on the one hand, and the accelerated loss of the Bulgarian identity city and dispersno the settled ethnic Bulgarians. Therefore, during this period the demographic growth of the Bulgarian population to the USSR comparable to that its growth in could not take place

XIX century. Moreover, assimilatory processes got also on Wednesday the Bulgarians living in rural areas. Especially noticeably they developed among the Azov Bulgarians. By the end of this period in their villages it is universal talked in Russian, and the studying youth did not own or poorly knew the native language in its dialect form. The number of the Bulgarians considering Russian to the family and among Bulgarians of Ukraine and Moldova grew. At the same time, the Bulgarian image of villages of former Bessarabia nevertheless remained.

We will address statistics again visually to present how rough events of the 20th century were reflected in demographic position of Bulgarians of Russia / the Soviet Union. Data of a census on the number of the Bulgarian population are as follows: 1897 - 170 thousand, 1959 - 324 thousand, 1970

>- 351 thousand, 1989 - 361 thousand, 1989 - 373 thousand. Growth rates of the Bulgarian population between 1897 and 1959 (for 62 g) decreased from 5 - 6.5 times to 1.9 times, that is by 2.5 - 3.4 times. Growth rates of this population in 30 next years (1959-1989) were only 11.1%. If to take during this time the number of the Bulgarian population only on the Moldavian SSR and rates of its growth, then here the demographic situation among Bulgarians is slightly more favorable, than in general on the Union. So, the number of Bulgarians in MSSR was in 1959 61652 persons, in 1970 - 73776, in 1979 - 80419 and in 1989 - 88419 people. In 30 years the number of Bulgarians in the republic increased in percentage terms by 43.4%.

The reasons of sharp falling of growth rates of number of Bulgarians in the USSR are in military, political and social processes of the period

1925-1949, in reduction of birth rate and acceleration of violent and natural assimilation of the Bulgarian population, including also its rural component.

It should be noted that the threat of the Bulgarian identity among Bulgarians of Moldova and Ukraine was noticed by some representatives of the intellectuals (with national consciousness) the Bulgarian origin. The problem of national and cultural development of the Soviet Bulgarians moved forward them before higher Soviet and party bodies of Moscow, Kiev, Chisinau, Odessa, Zaporizhia, since the second half of the 40th of the XX century. Strengthening of requirements of national and cultural character increased at a boundary of the 80-90th of last century, having captured more wide range of the Bulgarian public in Ukraine and Moldova. Rough social and political processes on all space of the USSR forced the party leaders of country and federal republics to reconsider the approaches to this problem including in relation to Bulgarians of the Soviet Union. However disintegration processes in the country developed so promptly that serious problems of the national and cultural plan among minorities were pushed into the background.

8. The fourth stage the beginning has the collapse of the USSR in 1991. By this moment the Bulgarian diaspora of the Soviet Union - we mean its rural compact part - lived in the south of Ukraine (mainly, in the Odessa and Zaporizhia regions), in the south of the Republic of Moldova. As for its disperse part, it was dispersed in many federal republics, but the majority lived in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan. This part of the Bulgarian diaspora was formed as a result of repressions of the 30-40th of last century, mobilization in labor army in 1945 and labor emigration in the next decades of existence of the Soviet Union.

Before the final, fourth stage the development of demographic processes among the Bulgarian diaspora of the USSR was characterized by two factors affecting significantly identity, compactness and number of this diaspora. First, it is growth of number of city Bulgarians at the expense of rural. Secondly, this increase of assimilation in all components the Bulgarian diaspora - disperse, city and compact rural. Them was enough that in the conditions of lack of national and spiritual educational components the Bulgarian diaspora was reduced in number and gradually thawed on the ethnographic map of the USSR.

Disintegration of the Soviet Union, in principle, at the legislative level solved a problem of national and cultural development of Bulgarians in Ukraine and Moldova. However now serious threat for their ethnocultural

safety unexpectedly came from other party. The worsening their economic and social situation, especially among the Bulgarians living in rural areas caused their emigration out of borders of Ukraine and Moldova and also migration from rural areas to the cities of these countries. If to speak about emigration of Bulgarians of Ukraine and Moldova, then it extended to Bulgaria as the historical homeland, to countries of Western Europe including not entering the EU and also to Russia, Turkey, the USA and Canada.

It is necessary to emphasize that the transition period imposed on globalization process in the former Soviet and post-socialist Union which proceeds in the conditions of actually violently involved agrarian overpopulation causes sharp reduction for a limited period the number of country people in Ukraine and Moldova. The circumstance of demographic accident aggravating since 1991 in the Bulgarian diaspora is sharp reduction in it of birth rate and the same sharp increase of mortality among them. It led to considerable reduction of the Bulgarian population in rural areas of these countries. As is well-known from experience, city Bulgarians of Ukraine and Moldova, not to mention those who emigrated out of their limits, are not capable to keep the ethnic and language identity by definition and to descend it to children and grandchildren. Therefore, it is possible to expect that else in 15-25 years the existence of compact Bulgarian diaspora in Moldova in general, in rural areas, in particular, will be called into question, and in Ukraine this process can take slightly more time, but the result will be the same.

We will support this conclusion with the demographic statistics taken from a population census in the Republic of Moldova in 2004 (without the Dnestr region of Moldova). On the right coast of Dniester the number of the Bulgarian population was 65662 persons. In comparison with a census of 1989 it was reduced by 7827 people, or for 11%. These are the general data, but the concrete statistics on each Bulgarian settlement of Moldova and Ukraine which is simply oppressing. The Bulgarian villages die here: many yards completely became empty, in many remained on 1-2 old men who are living out the days; the youth after the end of study at comprehensive school goes to the city for study, for work and to the village does not come back; very low birth rate and very high mortality. As a result, today affiliated Bulgarian villages with small population were practically left without inhabitants. In those villages, in which at the beginning

XX centuries lived to 3-4 thousand Bulgarians, in 100 years the number of inhabitants was reduced by 2-3 times. In big Bulgarian villages with nase-

the leniye in Soviet period making over 5 thousand people, many inhabitants are captured by labor migration. They are registered as inhabitants Kortena, Valya-Perzhey, Tvarditsa, Tarakliya, Kayrakliya so far, but in process of arrangement in the place of migration or emigration leave these and other villages to a vma

Curtis King
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