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MATERIALS of ETHNOHISTORICAL RESEARCHES of VAINAKHS IN the RUSSIAN SCIENCE at the end of XVIII - BEGINNING of the 19th century. ANALYSIS of SOURCES



UDK 94 (470+571)

MATERIALS of ETHNOHISTORICAL RESEARCHES of VAINAKHS IN the RUSSIAN SCIENCE at the end of XVIII - the BEGINNING of the 19th century. ANALYSIS of SOURCES

© 2009 of K.Z. Makhmudov

Chechen state university, Chechen State University,

Sheripov St., 32, Grozny, 364907, Sheripov St., 32, Grozny, 364907,

admin@chesu. ru admin@chesu.ru

Process of quantitative and high-quality accumulation of ethnohistorical materials is traced and characteristic of sources is given.

In article process of quantitative and qualitative accumulation of ethno historical materials is traced and the characteristic of sources is given.

In the period of the last third of the 18th century to the last third of the 19th century considerable research material which can be subdivided into materials of the scientific and academic researches and works of the erudite foreigners serving in Russia, summary monographic works which cornerstone unpublished sources, the materials of military and administrative study of local lore which reflected official studying the people of the Caucasus a tsarism, materials of national historiographers are is saved up.

The first group of materials treats the last third of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century and has the features. At it at the same time there are sources and the facts of a historiography as they were collected and issued in scientific works following the results of the academic expeditions organized by the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences.

In the second half of the 18th century. St. Petersburg AN developed preparation for five complex expeditions calculated on a row of years (1768-1774) for the purpose of studying the European Russia, the regions of the Urals, Siberia, the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia [1]. Three expeditions, or as they were called, "groups", were called "Orenburg", and two - "Astrakhan". The largest scientists of the time - professor P.S. Pallas, the doctor and the aide-de-camp I.I. Lepyokhin, professor I.P. Falk, etc. were appointed heads of all expeditions

The travel on lower reaches of Volga, East Caucasus and coast of the Caspian Sea was headed by professor S.G. Gmelin, and a research of Upper Volga, Don, a part of Ukraine, the North Caucasus and Georgia - the academician I.A. Gyuldenshtedt.

Johann Anton of Gyuldenshtedt in 1769-1774 headed the "Astrakhan" group of an expedition. It left the invaluable information about Chechens, Ingushs, kistinets, karabulaka and other Vainakh ethnic groups.

The first of scientists "united" nakhoyazychny groups of the population in the historiographic plan. Even the name of the territory of resettlement of Vainakhs "Kisteniy" united ethnic societies from highlands of the Northeast Caucasus up to the Terek Rivers and Sunzha. It visited lands on the Terek Rivers, Kambileevka, Sunzha, Aksay. In April, 1770 accompanied the general Medem making "reconnaissance" of Chechnya, visited the Chechen village of Davlet Girey (Old Yurtas).

Materials of an expedition formed the basis of the main work Gyuldenshtedta "Travel across Russia and the Caucasus Mountains" published in 1787 and 1791 in German by the academician P.S. Pallas [2, page 285-286]. Pallas recreated many pages of the text from the researcher's sketches most of which part was on separate leaves, without communication among themselves and concerned areas, Pallas not visited. The edition undertaken later under G.Yu. Klaprot's edition appeared under the name "Geographical and Statistical Description of Georgia and Caucasus" [3].

In Gyuldenshtedt's description, in the part devoted to our edge and the people it inhabiting, all parties are captured, but it is very short, according to the following plan: geographical location, borders, social order, economy, internal administrative division of area, language, religion, appearance and customs. Special value is represented by the map of the Caucasus on which also the territory of resettlement of Vainakhs is outlined that is in itself a serious historical source. For the Caucasus in general work Gyuldenshtedta became the first and most thorough description which, according to M.A. Poliyevktov, "was not still neither in the Russian, nor in the Western European kavkazovedchesky literature" [4]. All researchers after Gyuldenshtedt obrashcha-

foxes to its observations. They became a peculiar reference point and at the same time a source at "production" of new knowledge of the Caucasian people.

Among the academic expeditions of 1768-1775 I.P. Falk's expedition also made considerable success. He explored East Ciscaucasia [5]. In 1773 during the travel across the Caucasus I. Falk visited Kizlyar, Shchedrin (station Shchedrinskaya), Baragu-nakh (Bragunakh), Novogladska (Novogladkovska). For the first time "Notes of a travel of the academician Falk" were published in 1824 and did not become a subject of sufficient attention of historians and ethnographers of Chechnya and Ingushetia. In "Notes..." it provides the data received by own observations and from the "reliable news" collected by it during stay in "the country at Terek". Data on agriculture at Chechens, the divorced crops and their productivity are the most valuable in "Notes". Falk's materials authentically recreated a picture of economic life of Chechens at a boundary of HUSh-H1H of centuries

The famous German naturalist and the traveler, the scientist-Encyclopaedist, subsequently the full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Peter Simon Pallas twenty years later after Gyuldenshtedt in 1793-1794 headed an expedition into the North Caucasus, to the Astrakhan region and the Crimea. The expedition into the North Caucasus allowed to collect the rich and various materials which entered then in capital works and a number of articles on geography, economy, political system, the history, ethnography, archeology, numismatics, an epigrafika and languages of various people of the Caucasus.

In the book by P.S. Pallas [6] there is a certain head "Description of the people inhabiting the Caucasus, especially Circassians" in which the numerous data reflecting historical and ethnographic realities of Vainakhs are submitted. Pallas makes an important remark: "In the Caucasus there live certain people which absolutely differ from other Caucasian people on language, shape and features." [6]. Further he described shape, economic classes, religious representations and ceremonies and also raised the question of ethnogenesis and language differentiation of Vainakh groups of the population. The information about Vainakhs which is provided in "Notes." Pallas, have survey character. They are made on testimonies of expert persons (for example, the colonel Shteder) and also on the basis of references.

Pallas possesses also authorship of the work "The Comparative Dictionaries of All Languages and Adverbs Collected by a Right Hand of the Vsevysochayshy Person" published in St. Petersburg in 1787. He attributed this work to the empress Catherine II though he did all work on drawing up the dictionary. The dictionary begins the words "god, sky, father, mother" and terminates in numerals 1-10, 100, 1000, also contains a transcription of 285 words in 200 European and Asian languages including the Caucasian. It presented the Chechen, Ingush and batsby-sky languages as division of one

the language having the most ancient origin. Gyuldenshtedt and Pallas laid the foundation for "linguistic studying the Caucasus and linguistic classification of the Caucasian people" [2, page 283].

Other famous researcher Johann Gottlieb Georgi is a naturalist, the doctor of medicine, the member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences, Prussian, Roman and Imperial and some other the European academies originally worked as Falk's assistant, and after his death together with the academician Pallas, and then and independently headed separate routes. Georgi collected natural science and ethnographic materials. In the North Caucasus he was not, but at the description of the people, used the materials Gyuldenshtedta.

Georgi made a collection of drawings of representatives of various people of the Russian state which are partially published in its main work which came out in 4 volumes in 1799 [7]. Emergence of this work demonstrated that collective activity of the academic expeditions had result, enough materials for drawing up the first ethnographic reviews of the people of the North Caucasus was saved up. It is remarkable that the collective name of the Caucasian mountaineers Circassians was not used by it, and it, as a matter of fact, after Gyuldenshtedt called each ethnic group the name.

The Russian government accepted some other measures for special studying the North Caucasus. So, on its task, the scientists-foreigners serving Russia made the trips and left numerous descriptions of edge. In this regard Jacob Rejneggs's researches are of considerable interest. Within three years from 1781 to 1783 he made five expeditions across the Caucasus and made the map of the Caucasus, though inexact (for example, all rivers of the Caucasus flew into the Caspian Sea). Learning the Caucasian languages, having added own observations with the existing literature on the Caucasus in 1781, he transferred to Pallas the short description of Georgia and the travel across the Caucasus. In 1786 Pallas brought Potemkina the manuscript of the main work published is much later, after Rejneggs's death (possibly, in 1797).

The edition of the 2-volume "General, historical and topographical description of the Caucasus" with the application was undertaken by F.E. Shteder. The book made success and demand in Germany as many researches Reyneggsa in Europe were not known before. Soon the book was translated into English and published in London in 1807. There is no its full translation in Russian still. The translation of the fragment devoted to Vainakhs was carried out by the Dagestan scientist V.G. Gadzhiyev. The translation is made also by us. It quite big also comprises various data: the shortest essay of history of Chechens since the most ancient times, accommodation borders, the small dictionary of words, data on social system, the family relations, on number and breeding structure, dwellings and settlements, food, religion, customs and so forth. Is available not -

a big essay about the sheikh Mansour. Work - rather entertaining work, than scientific research. And it needs to be considered, especially regarding characteristic of a social order and the family relations.

The historian, the geographer, the ethnographer, the archeologist and the honorary member of the Russian academy of Sciences of columns Jan Pototsky, on the birth the representative of the largest Polish noble sort, fall of 1797 made a trip across the North Caucasus. Materials of researches were issued in scientific work under the name "Travel to the Astrakhan and Caucasian Steppes" and is published in Paris in 1829 in two volumes. The edition was carried out by the German linguist orientalist G.Yu. Klaprot after his numerous additions [2, page 287].

Pototsky expressed opinion on an ethnogenetic linkage Alan and karabulak [8]. Concerning Chechens and Ingushs he reports short data on language, religion and customs, moreover, left drawings, made sketches from nature of Chechens, being in KA bard. In all descriptions of Pototsky emphasis is put on history, archeology, ethnography, folklore, but in passing there are a lot of separate notes of household character.

Describing the Ingush customs, the researcher pays considerable attention to custom of blood feud. Revenge for blood of the member of the sort Pototsky explains as existence of the social institute connected with a patrimonial system. He believes that it nothing but the pagan ritual similar to existing once at ancient Romans.

Other observation is connected with pokloneniye to pagan idols. Pototsky describes finds at Ingushs in the form of little silver idols without a certain form, so-called "tsuuma". He notes what to "tsi" was one of the chief deities before penetration into mountain societies of Vainakhs of Christianity, and then Moslem. Also examples of the names which came from names of pets and birds are given. Similar certificates reflect the pagan nature of beliefs in some Ingush societies at the end of the 18th century

Successful activization of the Russian policy in the Caucasus demanded detailed studying means of communication between the North and the South of the Caucasus and drawing up strategic cards. Moreover, the Russian government assumed to construct the Georgian Military Road and attracted for work of military faces. The divisional quartermaster on the Caucasian Leonti Leontyevich Shteder line was one of them. In 1781 he made an expedition across the Caucasus, having surveyed mountain areas of Central Caucasus Mountains, having covered the distance from Mozdok through lands of Kabardians, Chechens, Ingushs, karabulak and Ossetians to Georgia. Not only the task to make the military topographic map, but also to make mineralogical researches, to describe the population of steppes and mountains and to decline mountaineers to resettlement on the plane and also to involve them on side of Russia was assigned to Shteder. Shteder left the diary of the travel of 1781 containing quite detailed data on breeding structure, a social order, religion, food, clothes

economy, settlements and women, the family relations, customs of an atalychestvo, hospitality, blood feud at Ingushs, karabulak and Ossetians, Kabardians and also about relationship of the called nationalities among themselves.

Emphasizing diligence of these people, development in them of various house industry and crafts, noted: "These mountaineers - the people healthy, strong, quick and laborious... could be twice more populous and good citizens if they had legal state system" [9].

At the beginning of the 19th century the Academy of Sciences successfully continued collecting of materials on history, culture and life of the people of Russia by efforts of scientific various specialties. In 1807-1808 the last expedition is conducted by the linguist orientalist Heinrich-Julius Klaprot. Him culture and life of Chechens and Ingushs and other mountain people of the Caucasus was examined. The academician's expedition Klaprota collected ethnographic, archaeological, numismatical and especially linguistic materials of the people. Still there are most contradictory estimates of results of an expedition and scientific heritage of Kla-prota. At the same time it anticipated many latest discoveries in issues of ethnogenesis of some Caucasian people, in particular Ossetians and Vainakhs.

Starting with Klaprot in Caucasus studies the theory about ethnohistorical links of some people of the Caucasus to the ancient cultures of the East won the right for independent existence. The scientist anticipated registration of the humanitarian direction in Caucasus studies. Most likely, Klaprot, being Pototsky's pupil, borrowed not only the ideas, but also scientific materials of the predecessor. Undoubtedly, it helped it to cope with difficult scientific tasks according to the detailed description of "the breeding structure of the population" of the North Caucasus, a socio-political system, economic classes, customs and customs of the mountain people.

The academic expeditions were not equipped further into the North Caucasus, but the researches conducted by the Russian Academy of Sciences for so short period made an invaluable contribution to scientific knowledge of the North Caucasian region and its numerous people, including Vainakhs.

The analysis of the studied sources shows that the numerous information about Vainakhs collected during the specified period put historical and ethnographic traditions of their study. At the same time they are not deprived also the tendentious remarks and characteristics peculiar to an indulgent europocentristsky look of researchers of that time. In the subsequent they became objects of superficial compilations.

Having become the first sources on history and the culture of the unwritten people of the North Caucasus, works of scientists of XVSh-XIX of centuries are written on the basis of personal observations, at them there is valuable information which matters also for modern historical science.

Literature

1. R.R. Orbeli. Caucasus studies. Asian museum / Leningrad office of Institute of oriental studies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. M, 1972.
2. Caucasian ethnographic collection. M, 1995. T. 1.
3. Gyuldenshtedt I.A. Geograficheskoye and the statistical description of Georgia and the Caucasus//Travel of Mr. academician I.A. Guldenshtend through Russia and across the Caucasus Mountains in 1770, 71, 72 and 73 SPb., 1809.
4. M. Poliyevktov. The European travelers of the 13-18th centuries across the Caucasus Tiflis, 1936.
5. The complete collection of scientific travel across Russia published Imperial by AN according to the proposal of her applicant. Notes of travel of the academician Falk. SPb., 1824. Chapter 10.
6. P.S. Pallas. Notes about a travel to the southern namestnichestvo of the Russian state in 1793 and 1794//Precepts of law of Adyghe and balkaro-Karachays in Х^ХГХ centuries Maykop, 1997.
7. G. Georgi. The description of all people living in the Russian state, their everyday ceremonies, obyknoveniye of clothes, dwellings, jewelry, entertainments, religions and other dostopamyatnost. The preface in German in translation into the Russian language in many directions and again composed. SPb., 1799. T. 1-4.
8. Ya. Pototsky Puteshestviye from Moscow to Astrakhan and the neighboring countries in 1797//Northern Archive. 1828. No. 1-2.
9. L.L. Shteder. Ossetians in the second half of the 18th century according to the traveler Shteder. Ordzhonikidze, 1940.

Came to edition On May 14, 2009

Harry John Miles
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