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The high female natural science courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon


G.V. Galasyeva,

chief librarian


The non-state higher school to most of which institutions of a system of the higher female education in Russia belonged developed at a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries as a complete welfare phenomenon. The popularity of the High female courses was explained by the need for development of female education which was imminent in society, as well as that fact that the famous scientists having wide experience of pedagogical work at the universities and combining this activity with work on courses were involved in teaching. An important objective factor was also the fact that at the end of 1905 there was a legal basis for development of the "free" higher school: in connection with the social and economic and political situation which developed in the country "Nicholas II according to the report of the minister I.I. Tolstoy allowed to open private higher educational institutions in Russia". It promoted rapid growth of non-governmental educational institutions [1].

Characteristic of creation of the High female courses was the fact that they opened in most cases as a result of a private or public initiative with assistance of teachers of the imperial universities and financial and industrial circles; they had the status of non-governmental or free schools. The main issues of activity of the High female courses were regulated by the charter or the provision on courses, Regulations of Admission in educational institutions, the curriculum and programs of courses. The council of teachers working under the chairmanship of the director of courses knew the organization of educational activity.

Female natural science courses arose on the basis of a private female gymnasium of Maria Aleksandrovna Lokhvitskaya-Skalon in 1903 [2]. On March 11, 1903 addressed to the trustee Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the educational district from the chief of a gymnasium M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon and the chairman of a faculty meeting of a gymnasium, ordinary professor Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the university V.M. Shimkevich "the application on permission to open natural-historical courses at a gymnasium" was submitted. Courses had to become, on the one hand, "training for the persons wishing to enter the Women's medical institute or persons interested to be engaged in teaching natural sciences, with another — could have general education value". On courses the subject system was accepted, listeners were granted the right to listen to lectures in any sequence. Courses were assumed "biennial with reading the following objects on them: physics, elementary mathematics, chemistry, mineralogy with geology, zoology, anatomy, botany, Latin" [3]. On May 10, 1903 from the Ministry of national education the permission "was got to open at S. - the St. Petersburg female gymnasium of Lokhvitskaya-Skalon natural science courses" * [4]. In "The draft of the provision" on courses it was noted that founders M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon and V.M. Shimkevich are: "The first — the owner and the chief of courses, the second — the Chairman of the board and the manager of courses. Council consists of all teachers, the chairman and the chief of courses" [5]. "Since September 15, 1903 biennial Female natural science courses" opened [6].

On memoirs of contemporaries, M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon's courses "were allocated vyso-

* Hereinafter in quotes the original spelling remains, including: natural science courses.

The high female natural science courses...

Kim educational level" [7]. Having arisen as biennial, they quickly evolved. On February 23, 1904 the application addressed to Popechitel Sankt-Peterburgskogo the educational district about permission to open at the natural science courses "the 3rd course intended for training of teachers of geography and natural sciences" [8] was submitted. In January, 1906 the 3rd course was open. The request "is expressed in the next application of the chief of courses M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon of June 9, 1907 to approve behind the courses entrusted to me the name & #34; The Highest women's natural science курсы" as they upon belong to the category of higher educational institutions". On June 28, 1907 the corresponding permission was given. The application on the four-year term of training submitted founders of courses on January 8, 1909 was satisfied — on April 3, 1909 permission was got [9]. Over time also the material resources of courses developed. "Since July 1st, 1914 the High female natural science courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon pass into own house which is specially built for courses on Nikolayevskaya Street (nowadays — Marat St.), No. 27" [10].

Listeners of courses had an opportunity to study at three offices: the main, corresponding to natural office of physical and mathematical faculty, pedagogical which trained teachers of natural sciences and geography, and pharmaceutical. The circular of the minister of national education of March 21, 1913 it was authorized to listeners to pass the state examinations at the university without special permission of the ministry [11]. Activity of the High female natural science courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon was highly appreciated at the First All-Russian congress on female education which took place in January, 1913 — to courses the gold medal was awarded [12].

The high quality of education on the High female courses was provided with involvement of the university faculty. Founders of courses cared for it. So, professor Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the V.M. Shimkevich university managing courses submitted applications addressed to the trustee Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the educational district on assumption to lecturing of professors of the university, Women's medical institute, Polytechnical institute and drugikhuchebny institutions [13]. Here an example of the answer from the Ministry of national education — "The order of MNP of December 12, 1903": "To allow to classes on Female natural science courses at a private female gymnasium of madam Lokhvitskaya-Skalon in St. Petersburg the following persons who are in the educational service namely on departments: histology — professor of the St. Petersburg medical institute Alexander Stanislavovich Dogel (1852 — 1922) (in the quote of date of life are given by me. year of birth.); zoology — professor Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the university of Vladimir Mikhaylovich Shimkevich (1858 — 1923); physicists — professor of Polytechnical institute Vladimir Vladimirovich Skobeltsyn (18b3 —?); mineralogy — the privatdozent Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the university of Herman Germanovich Petts (1867 — 1908); physiology in connection with anatomy — the privatdozent Sankt-Peterburgskogo of the university, the physiologist of Imperial Academy of Sciences Fedor Evdokimovich Tur (1866 — 1942); chemistry — the master of pharmacy, the lecturer Sankt-Peterburgskogo of Women's medical institute Alexander Semyonovich Ginzberg (1870 — 1937); botanists — the assistant to professor of Women's medical institute Vladimir Martynovich Artsikhovsky (1876 — 1931); mathematicians — the teacher of Polytechnical institute Alexey Alekseyevich Adamovich; Latin — the teacher of a gymnasium at Historical and philological institute Georgy Karlovic Schmid (1836 — 1912)" [14]. It is known also that on M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon's courses such famous scientists as professor of botany Sankt-Peterburgskogo the university Vladimir Leontyevich of Mosquitoes (1869 — 1945), professor of chemistry of Mikhaylovsky artillery academy Alexey Vasilyevich of Shoemakers (1868 — 1935) taught,


famous linguist, later professor of LGPI of A.I. Herzen Lev Petrovich Yakubinsky (1892 — 1945).

The library of the High female natural science courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon as a necessary condition of high educational level of educational institution was formed, obviously, throughout all history of courses. Private donations were the main source of receipt of books in library of courses: from publishers and book sellers, from teachers and listeners of courses, from the individuals supporting the idea of female education. Besides, books were acquired through Society for bringing of means to the High female courses. Founders of courses, university professors, patrons and other voluntary donors were the members of this society realizing need of development of national education in general.

Books from library thematically answer orientation of courses - it is editions in physics and chemistry, on anatomy and physiology, on botany, mineralogy and geology, textbooks by mathematics and Latin; the special section was made by editions on pedagogics. The considerable number of books was in foreign languages. There are several examples. The book by the famous English physicist, professor of the British Royal Institution John Tyndall (1820 — 1893) "A sound in public statement by experiments" was translated into Russian in 1902, published by bookstore of P.V. Lukovnikov; "The textbook of histology and microscopic human anatomy" of the German professor Philip Shter (1849 — 1911) appeared in Germany (Yen) in 1901, in library of courses — the original in German; the book Gugo Erdmanna (1802 — 1910) "The management to preparation of organic chemical medicines. The reference book by the technician of laboratory" left also in Germany (Stuttgart) in 1894, in library — the original in German; the book by the famous Russian teacher and anatomist, founder of a scientific system of physical education P.F. Lesgafta (1837 — 1909) "Family education of the child and his value" was published in St. Petersburg in 1906, at once is acquired for library of courses. One more indicative example: "Lectures on mathematics. A part I / Chitanny S.O. Mayzel to SPb. The high female natural science courses in 1909 — 10 academic years S.A. Limanovskaya under edition of the lecturer Made and published" (SPb., Trofimov's lithograph). These are the lithographed lectures with a dedicatory inscription from the listener: "In library of the High female natural science courses from the originator". It should be noted that the edition of the lithographed lectures was distributed in Russia at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century because of a lack of textbooks of higher educational institutions and also owing to big demand of lectures of the famous scientists working at courses.

On books from library of the High female courses there are ex-librises and stamps speaking about their belonging to this educational institution. First, it should be noted superex-librises is the abbreviations on backs of books executed by gilded stamping, they three types: "V.Zh.E. N.K.", "V.Zh.E. K.", "Zh.E.K.". Secondly, it is round stamps violet ink, on a circle in them the inscription "Female Natural Science Courses", in the center — the image of the coat of arms of the Russian Empire. It is important to note that on editions from VZhENK library there is, as a rule, also such stamp: "Library of P.T.G.R. of the 3rd. Pedagogical Institute". It is connected with history of courses.

The High female natural science courses M.A. Lokhvitskoy-Skalon were closed by the resolution of the Commissariat of national education of November 30, 1918 signed by A.V. Lunacharsky. "By January 1, 1919 the elimination of courses has to be finished. The stock of courses is transferred to the order of the Third Pedagogical Institute. Listeners can be admitted to the Third Pedagogical Institute". Two weeks adopted earlier "The decree of November 18, 1918" under which "the house with all outdoor constructions and the land plot occupied by them in Petrograd on Nikolayevskaya Street at No. 27 and to Kuznechny Lane No. 9 perekho-

The high female natural science courses.

dit in maintaining and the property of the Commissariat of national education" [15]. In this house will be located open on November 17, 1918. The third Pedagogical Institute [16]. The library of courses was transferred to institute about what in the Central state historical archive of St. Petersburg there is a relevant document: "March of the 8th day 1919 we the undersigneds zavedyvayushchy library of the former Natural science courses Lokhvitskoy-Skalon A.T. Lindner-Sheptovitskaya and the assistant to the librarian of the Third Petrograd Pedagogical Institute A.A. Argentov drew up the present statement in what the first handed over, and the second accepted library of the former Natural science courses Lokhvitskoy-Skalon" [17]. Subsequently the library of the High female natural science courses was one of important components of a main library of the LGPI — Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia.

1. See about it: The higher education in Russia: History essay till 1917 / Under the editorship of the prof. V.G. Ki-neleva. M, 1995. Page 138.
2. The private female gymnasium of baroness M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon, the graduate of Bestuzhevsky courses, was open in St. Petersburg in 1897
3. See about it: The high female courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon (1903 — 1918). — CGIA SPb. T. 139, op. 1. Unit hr. 9788. L. 1 — 2.
4. In the same place. L. 24.
5. In the same place. L. 74.
6. In the same place. L. 82.
7. M.V. Yudina. Articles, memoirs, materials. M, 1978. Page 204.
8. CGIA SPb. T. 139, op. 1. Unit hr. 9788. L. 61.
9. In the same place. L. 121, 126, 139, 142.
10. CGIA SPb. T. 47, op. 2. Unit hr. 2. L. 47a.
11. In the same place. L. 47b.
12. In the same place. L. 47a.
13. V.M. Popechitelyu Sankt-Peterburgskogo Shimkevich's application of the educational district. — CGIA SPb. T. 139, op. 1. Unit hr. 9788. L. 46, 46 about.
14. The order of the Ministry of national education of December 12, 1903 is CGIA SPb. T. 47, op. 1. Unit hr. 2. L. 71, 72.
15. CGIA SPb. T. 47, op. 1. Unit hr. 1. L. 35, 36.
16. See: The minutes of Council of VZhENK of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon of November 16, 1918 where it is told about contacts with the first rector of the Third Pedagogical Institute A. P. Pinkevichem and about merge of courses to again opening higher education institution. — CGIA SPb. T. 47, op. 1. Unit hr. 1. L. 91.
17. About the basis and elimination of the High female courses of M.A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon (1903 — 1918). — CGIA SPb. T. 47, op. 1. Unit hr. 1. L. 49.
Joan Webster
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