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The Russian-speaking population of the Republic of Latvia in researches of the Latvian scientists: migration, naturalization and integration of society in 1991-2007

A.A. Klimenko

List of references

1. Buchanan P.J. Smert of the West. M, 2003.
2. L.N. Gumilev. Ancient Russia and great steppe. M, 2005.
3. L.N. Gumilev. From Russia to Russia. M, 2005.
4. Gumilev of L.N. Etnosfer: history of people and history of the nature. M, 2002.
5. Duel. 2002. No. 6.
6. A.A. Klimenko, K.S. Serdobintsev. Time in life of society: philosophical, historical and criminalistic aspects: Monograph. Kaliningrad, 2005.
7. Criminology / Under the editorship of V.N. Kudryavtsev, V.E. Eminov. M, 1997.
8. P.I. Melnikov. In forests. Prince 1. M, 1989.
9. A.A. Mukhin. Russian organized crime and power. History of relationship. M, 2003.
10. Yu.I. Mukhin. Who killed Americans on September 11, 2001? M, 2004.
11. I.N. Panarin, L.G. Panarina. Information war and peace. M, 2003.
12. A political regime and crime / Under the editorship of V.N. Burlakov, Yu.N. Volkov, V.P. Salnikov. SPb., 2001.
13. V.V. Putin. What Russia we build. Message to Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on July 8, 2000//Russian newspaper. 2000. July 11.
14. The Christmas message of the Metropolitan of Smolensk and Kaliningrad Kirill to clergy, monashestvuyushchy and pious flock//Saved. 2008. No. 11.
15. D. Sutter. Darkness at dawn: Emergence of the criminal state in Russia / Transl. from English M., 2004.
16. A. Tsuladze. Political mythology. M, 2003.

About the author

A.A. Klimenko — an edging. yur. sciences, dots., RGU of I. Kant,

UDC 325

M.V. Domsky


In 1991-2007

Views of the Latvian researchers of problems of migration, naturalization and integration of the Latvian society are considered.

The article reviews the research of the Latvian scholars on the issues of migration, naturalization and integration of the Latvian society.

Discussion of views of the Latvian scientists of the questions so painful for Latvia and sensitive for Russia, it would be desirable to begin with transfer of a number of the figures which are extremely often reproduced in literature and mass media. According to a census of 1989 go-

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2008. Issue 6. Humanities. Page 82 — 87.

yes, Latvians made 52.1% of the total number of permanent residents of the Latvian SSR. At the same time more than 700 thousand residents who drove here after loss of independence by Latvia lived in the republic. From the point of view of most of the Latvian experts, this fact is the cornerstone of all tensions in the Latvian society. It gives the grounds to many Latvian politicians and ordinary citizens to speak about threat of transformation of Latvians into ethnic minority in own strane1. Such ethnic proportions for the last decades did relevant discussions on a subject deok-bathing, deportation or voluntary repatriation.

Within the next years the ethnic balance in the Republic of Latvia (RL) changed a little. So, at the end of 2007 about 2,284,000 people of whom Latvians made about 1,351,000 people (59%) lived in LR. From the total number of inhabitants of aliens and foreigners there were respectively 392,816 and 41,439 people — about 19% of all population. But even at the same time in five of seven main towns the share of Latvians made less than 50% [1, page 19 — 27].

Speaking about migration and naturalization in Latvia, it would be desirable to mention one little-known fact. The fact is that actually Russians are not the ethnic group having the most unprofitable conditions of access to nationality of LR. There are several figures: in 2007 in the territory of LR 31,307 Lithuanians lived. From them 18,195 people (58%) were citizens of LR, and 11,799 and 1,680 respectively aliens and foreigners. From

2.5 thousands Latvian Estonians of 59% were citizens of LR. For Russians this indicator equaled 55.6% whereas for Belarusians and Ukrainians — 35.4 and
28.5 % respectively. From given above it is visible that the citizenship of Latvia is available to Russians approximately in the same degree, as to Lithuanians or Estonians. It is interesting that in the most favorable conditions there was the Polish diaspora: in 2007 from the Poles (54,831) 74.4% living in Latvia had citizenship of Latvia [2].

In the years which expired from the moment of restoration of independence of Latvia, the Latvian ethnos could strengthen the positions to some extent. Naturally, the share of representatives of title nationality grew not due to increase in birth rate/reduction of mortality among them, and due to reduction of number of "not title" population. The main articles of reduction of number of the last — mortality and emigration. If causes of death do not need comments, then with the reasons of mass departure the situation is slightly more difficult. Often main of them appears the policy of the authorities of LR directed to "expression" of the Russian-speaking population. However there are also different ways of an explanation which it is worth mentioning. So, in the work "Nationality, official language and bilingual education in Latvia" professor of department of sociology of the Latvian university, the director of the Baltic institute of social researches Brigitta Sepa as the main motive,

1 In particular, these fears found reflection in the "Law on repatriation" adopted in 1995. The law contains an extensive preamble where, among other things, the threat of transformation of Latvians into ethnic minority is mentioned in own country.

the USSR inducing citizens to resettlement to Latvia, economic calls motive. From her point of view, economic determination kept the paramount value and at departure from the territory of Latvia. From such position the mass outflow of the Russian-speaking population in 1992 and 1993 is explained by crash of planned economy as a result of what not destiny there were Russian-speaking inhabitants related to bankrupt giants of the Soviet industry and VPK2. The military personnel of the Soviet army and members of their families forced to leave the territory of LR [3] are traditionally added to this number.

An official reference point of a sad story of mass statelessness in the Republic of Latvia it is considered to be on October 15, 1991 — day of adoption of the resolution "About Restoration of the Rights of Citizens and the Main Conditions of Naturalization" by the Supreme Council of Latvia. According to it the persons which had nationality for June 17, 1940 and their descendants at the time of adoption of the resolution living in Latvia and who registered as citizens of LR till July 1, 1992 became citizens of Latvia. The "zero option" of providing nationality discussed earlier was rejected as unacceptable. Instead the people who arrived in Latvia after its inclusion in structure of USSR had "an opportunity of the individual choice" to be or not to be citizens (B. Sepa). They acquired the right for naturalization — but not at once. Such option was published in "The law on the citizenship" which is taken out in July, 1994. According to the law, process turned out under the authority of 1994 formed for this purpose in the fall as a part of the Ministry of Justice of Management of naturalization (No. Shga^as і] a8 raguay) which permanent chapter was the former Deputy Minister of Education, sciences and the cultures of LR A-zheniya Alderman (B_get) & and to AYegshapa). Further forces of this structure (substantially when financing from foreign sources) held the events promoting acceleration of rates of obtaining nationality of LR namely: courses of a state language for candidates for naturalization, information campaigns for acquisition of nationality and other.

Reception of applications on naturalization began winter of 1995, and the first passports were issued by Management of naturalization in August of the same year. However the law was arranged so that, according to many Latvian experts (for example, to Ilze Brand-Kerkhe and Ilviya Putsa), de facto made large-scale naturalization impossible. Therefore prior to a referendum of 1998 its results were extremely modest: in 1995 through this procedure there passed 984 persons, in 1996 — 3 016, in 1997 — 2 992 persons. Issue of passports of citizens of LR was significantly accelerated only after a referendum on October 3, 1998 goda3: then cancellation so-called "on -

2 B. Zepa proves, as during the Soviet period there were powerful streams Russian-speaking of Latvia. What occurred after 1991 from her point of view, was rather a stabilization as a result of which the number both driving in LR, and leaving LR significantly was reduced in comparison with the Soviet period.
3 It is necessary to notice, supporters of liberalization of the legislation appeared a little more, than opponents: 52.5 against 45%.

turalizatsionny windows" and granting the right to nationality in an order of registration to the children of aliens who were born after August 21, 1991 made possible significant reduction of number of aliens. In the same 1998 the Concept of social integration was approved. In 2001 the Cabinet adopted the national program "Integration of Society in Latvia", the Fund of integration of society was created, and in November of the 2002nd the post of the minister of special instructions in integration affairs obshchestva4 and the relevant Secretariat which is under supervision of the prime minister of LR was founded. At the same time in maintaining the Secretariat the Department of ethnic minorities which was earlier a part of structure of Management of naturalization departed. The opinion according to which similar changes became mostly result of performance of the conditions set in front of the Republic of Latvia in connection with its integration into the EU and NATO is conventional.

As a result in 1998 the procedure of naturalization was undergone by 4,439 people, in 1999 — 12 427, in 2000 — 14 900, in 2001 — 10 637, in 2002 — 9 844, in 2003 — 10 049, in 2004 — 16 064, in 2005 — 19 169, in 2006 — 16 439, in 2007 — 6 826. Total number undergone the procedure of naturalization since 1995 until the end of 2007 was more than 127 thousand people. Eventually positive changes in area of human rights were recognized by the High Commissioner of OSCE for ethnic minorities M. Van der Stul, at the end of 2001 the OSCE Mission in Latvia was closed.

Today conditions of naturalization are as follows: the alien has the right to be naturalized on reaching 15 years in case he constantly lives in Latvia within five years, is registered in the Register of inhabitants and has a legal source of income. For obtaining nationality it has to pass an oral and written test on Latvian, the test for knowledge of basic provisions of the Constitution and fundamentals of the Latvian history.

In comparison with other countries access to nationality in Latvia is limited for more wide range of persons. Here under the law cannot be naturalized: 1) the persons opposing as anticonstitutional methods independence of Latvia or the power existing in Latvia (if it is confirmed with court); 2) the persons after May 4, 1990 calling for the race or racial hatred, supporting the ideas of fascism, national socialism and communism (if it is confirmed with court); 3) officials of institutions of the government or law enforcement agencies of other state; 4) those who serve in armed forces, security services or police of other state; 5) the persons who after June 17, 1940 elected Latvia the residence after demobilization from armed forces / internal troops of the USSR (Russian Federation); 6) persons who were employees, informants, agents or holders of safe houses of special services of the USSR (Russian Federation) or other state; 7) the persons condemned for with -

4 To understand, in as difficult situation this structure had to work, it is enough to give only one example. "" awards its former head Nils Muyzhniex with an epithet of "skandaIozi slavenais" "Integracijas (rusifikacijas) N-esh ministrs" (infamous minister of integration/russification affairs).

versheniye of a criminal offense; 8) the persons after January 13, 1991 acting against LR in the CPSU (Communist Party of Luxembourg), the International front of workers of the Latvian SSR, the Joint council of working collectives, the Organization of veterans of war and work and Vselatviysky committee of public rescue or the Union of communists of Latvia.

But, at all comparative large number of restrictions, under their action only the insignificant number of aliens of Latvia whom, despite significant liberalization of the legislation, in the territory of the country lives several thousand people gets. In attempt to understand the reasons of such situation the Latvian experts carried out a significant amount of researches. They revealed a number of the factors interfering reduction of number of aliens. Schematically they look so: first, the age structure of citizens and aliens is various. If among first there are more aged people of 15 — 30 years (26% against 17%), then among second there are more persons of retirement age (29% against 25%). At the same time owing to the objective social reasons only a little more than 55% of pensioners from among aliens are interested in the prospect of obtaining nationality [4, page 57]. Besides, among aliens there are more representatives of working professions (23% against 16%) whereas it is more employees among citizens (16% against 12%). Naturally both pensioners, and workers appear in the least favorable conditions when passing naturalizatsionny examinations. Further, in a number of researches the data which are speaking well for existence of several behavior models of aliens in the course of naturalization are provided. According to these materials, not all aliens of Latvia are interested in obtaining nationality [3, river 87 — 88]. So, authors of the research "To Civil Society — 2000" claim that in relation to procedures of naturalization the aliens are divided into the following groups: about 20% of aliens, being guided by feeling of belonging to Latvia and desire to expand the social and economic opportunities, plan obtaining nationality within a year. Other group which is also numbering about 20% is made by those who postpone obtaining nationality, explaining it inability to pass naturalizatsionny examinations and a lack of means. The third group includes about 40% of aliens — those who do not seek to obtain citizenship of any country (explaining it to those that they already have the passport of other state and also the difficulties arising at examination on naturalization). About 2 — 3% of aliens wish to find nationality of other country and about 10% of aliens have no clear position on obtaining nationality.

Data of other research conducted by I. Brande-Kekhre and I. Stalidzane by request of Management of naturalization (on the means provided by the government of Finland), show that about 27% of the interviewed aliens were not interested in an issue of obtaining citizenship of Latvia. At the same time 18% of respondents deny naturalization per se, perceiving it as something humiliating. Their motives can be various: unwillingness to serve in armed forces LR, fear to lose a favorable visa regime with the CIS countries, fear

before naturalizatsionny examinations and even hope for easing of the procedure of naturalization in the future, etc. [5, river 29].

One of the brightest illustrations of a problem is as follows: after the adoption of law allowing obtaining nationality in an order of registration for children of the aliens born after August 21, 1991, registration of these children went extremely slowly. Prior to the beginning of 2004 the status of citizens of LR was found by only about 10% from 20 thousand children who had such right. Process received some acceleration only after the explanatory campaign conducted in 2004 by the Secretariat of the minister of special instructions in affairs of integration of society together with Management of naturalization. As a result in 2004 the number of the registered children significantly increased: from the moment of amending in 1998 and till December 31, 2004 3,400 applications for registration, about a half of which was received in 2004, arrived. Nevertheless and as of 2005 in the relation to the total number of the children falling under amendments of 1998, percent registered as citizens of LR it was still small [5, river 25].

Conclusions to which the Latvian experts (I. Apin, I. Brande-Kekhre, I. Stalidzana, B. Zepa, etc.), in general are as follows come: on the one hand, the Latvian political discourse contains essential factors of an exception (the ideas of a deokkupation and legal norms establishing the purpose of expansion of scales of repatriation); from other party, a considerable part of aliens has a lack of motivation to naturalization caused by both objective, and subjective factors. Therefore, for example, to I. Brande-Kekhre and I. Putsa, giving assessment of the situation with nationality in LR within the Audit of Democracy project, characterized it as unsatisfactory [5, river 24-25].


List of references

1. Apine I., Dribins L., Jekabsons E., Snitnikovs A., Vebers E., Volkovs V. Mainigas identitates: etnisko grupu mobilizesanas un sabiedrlbas etniskas strukturas izmainu ietekme uz sabiedrlbas integraciju. Riga, 2004. P. 19 — 27.
2. Website of Management of naturalization of Ministry of Justice of LR. [Electron. resource]. Access mode: & lt; en=fakti_ensaite=residents.htm> date of viewing — 12.02.2008.
3. Zepa B. Citizenship, Official Language, Bilingual Education in Latvia: Public Policy in the Last 10 Years. In: Baltic States. Looking at small Societies on Europe&s Margin. University Press Fribourg, Switzerland. 2003. P. 83 — 97.
4. I. Brande-Kerkhe, I. Stalidzane. Value of regional aspects in the solution of questions of nationality. Riga, 2003.
5. Brande-Kehre I., Puce I. Citizenship, law and rights//How democratic is Latvia. Audit of democracy. Riga, Latvijas Universitate, 2005.

About the author

M.V. Domsky — an edging. east. sciences, RGU of I. Kant,

James Crawford
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