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UDK 94 (47+57) & #34;1917/1991"


in the 20-30th years of the XX century

© 2009 of T.U. Elbuzdukayev

National museum of the Chechen Republic, National Museum of Chechen Republic,

Pobedy Ave., 19/65, Grozny, 364051 Pobeda Ave, 19/65, Grozny, 364051

The problem of production discipline in the 20-30th of the 20th century is analyzed. The reasons of its falling are established. The conclusion is drawn that the authorities, without having effective levers of impact on a situation, moved a problem to the plane of class fight.

The problem of production discipline is analysed in in 20-30-e years XX century sharply stood the problem of production discipline. The authorities not having efficient lever of the influence on situation moved the problem in plane of the class fight.

Due to the mass inflow of labor on production in the 20-30th of the 20th century sharply there was a problem of production discipline. The new groups of workers in the majority connected with the village difficult adapted in new conditions, not always observed labor discipline.

Truancies, delay, insubordination to regulations had pernicious effect on performance of production tasks. In the Appeal of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee to all workers about self-criticism expansion (of June 2, 1928) it was indicated on the need to strengthen work of party among masses, having drawn exclusively great attention to new groups of workers, to young workers and to proletarian and semi-proletarian layers. At the same time party cells have to work not only at factory and the plant, but also in working barracks, in working quarters and in hostels, in dining rooms and clubs.

The plenum noted insufficient production discipline of again involved workers, demanded from labor unions to improve with them work [1].

The authorities developed the whole system of the measures directed to increase in number of working class and ensuring planned supply with labor of the national economy. In this regard the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of October 20, 1930 was important. "About actions for planned providing the national economy with labor and fight against fluidity" [2] in which it was indicated on the need of fight against the fluidity of labor and technicians. For preservation of shots of skilled workers on production it was forbidden to nominate for the next two years workers from the machine in administrative personnel, measures of encouragement of workers and strengthening of fight against flyers and shirkers were established. For working for a long time at one enterprise a number of privileges and advantages was established. Rules were at the same time revised

the internal schedule and sheets of collectings so that they promoted strengthening of labor discipline, rational use of working hours and stimulated fixing of people on production.

Nevertheless these measures appeared obviously insufficiently. Fluidity did not stop. In 1931 on the enterprises of Grozneft the selective survey of a condition of labor was carried out. Follows from materials of the commission for the New area of Grozneft that were the main reasons of turnover of staff insufficient security of workers with a living space, overalls. The main percent of fluidity was made by the former residents of villages [3, l. 3]. In this regard increase in housing construction was noted, delivery of Chechen workers to the place of work and back on supplies began to be carried out, measures for skills development, etc. [3, l were undertaken. 13].

Inspection on the 2nd Krekigzavod for 1931 showed that for January 1, 1932 at the plant 1550 people were registered, for January 1, 1933 decreased - 1500 [3, l. 12]. From among decreased 167 people are fired for violation of labor discipline and 185 - at own will. Fired women made 10% of total number. Mainly low-skilled workers left. Reasons for leaving are unacceptable conditions of working and life: the living space provided only 13%, lack of transport, overalls, equalization in salary [3, l. 22].

On regional management of Old crafts of Grozneft the number of permanent workers for January 1, 1931 made 2696 people: from them working - 2219 people; administrative technicians - 213; employees - 180; MOP - 25; pupils - 59. For January 1, 1932 there were 2227 workers, from them workers - 1773; administrative technicians - 198; employees - 172; MOP - 24; pupils - 60 [3, l. 24].

In 1931 turnover of staff in Ingushetia reached 75%, from them 90% were the share of workers of radical nationality [4, l. 66]. In Chechnya the fluidity among natsional reached 100% [4, l. 93].

From the report of the manager of the Chechen regional department of work of t. Pavlova (1932) follows that labor fluidity on the 1st oil refinery reached 130% [5, l. 9].

On Novopromyslovsky district for the end of 1931 3929 people, from them 206 representatives of local nationalities were busy. Fluidity was characterized by the following figures: in 10 months arrived 261 people, decreased 433, from them-54 people [6, l are fired for violation of the rules of the internal schedule 371, for other reasons. 19-20].

In 1932 under contracts in auls 1328 Chechen workers from whom on production was fixed all - 150 people [7] were recruited for work on oil fields of Grozny.

At a part of heads the remains of great-power psychology, disbelief in ability of mountaineers to work in industrial production remained. So, in

1931 on oil fields of Grozny many facts of oppression of mountaineers were elicited; they were refused to be employed, created them intolerable conditions on production and in life.

Despite numerous indications and resolutions of the leaders of the republic first of all to provide with housing of mountaineers of it it was not possible to achieve because of the shortage of housing, slow construction of facilities of social appointment. At the II congress of Councils of ChIAO it was noted that in Oktyabrsky district 42% of workers-natsionalov lived in houses of Grozneft, and the others - in auls and settlements around Grozny and spent for the road to the place of work and back 11-12 hours [8].

Issues of indigenization of industrial production stood in the center of attention of the party organizations. Chechobk of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in the resolution of June 25

1932 . "About involvement of Chechens in the industry "Groznefti"" gives an unsatisfactory assessment to activity of trust for 1931. In particular, it is told about lack of work on skills development, problems with supply and housing, with mass leaving of Chechens from the enterprises (in 4 months 1932 975 workers left crafts and the plants). In this regard the Chechobkoma Bureau of party decided to bring the number of the qualified and semi-skilled working Chechens by the end of 1932 on "Thunderstorms oil" to 40%, to liquidate drift in set of Chechens, spending set of workers through signing of the contracts with collective farms. Directors of the enterprises were obliged to provide not less than 50% of all received and freed apartments to Chechen workers [9].

The huge fluidity of labor took place at the Red Hammer plant. In 1934 in 10 months 2405 people decreased, there arrived 2170 people [10, l. 207]. In this case almost 100% turnover of the contingent of workers is observed. Position in the plant was considered on All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Chechingobkoma bureau from 6 but -

yabrya 1934. In the resolution "About Plant Operation " Red Molot"" it is told about need of streamlining of a system of compensation, allocation of experienced workers, etc. Found also guilty persons - it is the deputy director Chekhovich and the secretary of Communist Party committee of Boars who were dismissed [10, l. 207].

According to the report of Grozneft trust on work for 1934 of March 25, 1935 follows from the resolution of Glavneft that the percent of fluidity both on production, and in construction is extremely high and is 80 and 114% respectively [11, l. 77].

Following the results of check of implementation of the plan for indigenization at the enterprises of Grozneft (1935) under a signature stamp "Is not subject to announcement" the following facts "the heartless and bureaucratic relation of a separate part of the shop management to a question of cultivation of national qualified personnel are given...".


Across Oktyabrsky district in 6 months 1935 employed 153 people and for the same term 146 left. From them 33 workers were not provided at all with housing during a row of months. From among the working 187 Chechens live in the next settlements because of what they should spend for the road several hours [12, l. 9].

When checking apartments of the Chechens living on the 56th site it is revealed that in 5 apartments working there is no furniture, even tables and chairs. On the 20th site in the apartment of the worker within several months the roof proceeded and as a result fell off, so he also lived in the half-ruined room. From 10 surveyed apartments on the 35th site 8 needed under repair. Even worse living conditions at the workers living in the lodges dugouts: most of them proceed, big density (in small rooms there live about 7 people) [12, l. 9].

On the Old area in 6 months 1935 120 people were employed, decreased - 100 from which 27 people were not provided with housing [12, l. 9]. For

1936 2000 Chechen workers came to the Grozneftekombinata enterprises, left - 2100, i.e. updating of national shots more than for 100% is available.

On the Malgobeksky district in a year there arrived 304 people, decreased - 320; on Staropromyslovsky district - respectively 471 and 364 people; across Oktyabrsky district-307 and 371 people; on oil pipelines - 309 and - 521 people; on the railroad - 140 and 181 people [13].

In the system of Grozneftesnab trust for the III quarter

1937 in the presence of 594 Chechens and Ingushs arrived 141 people, decreased - 125.

For the IV quarter in the presence of 328 - respectively the 182 and 149 persons. In the system of Groznefterazvedka trust-262 and 228 people

On Grozneftestroy trust in November, 1937 in the presence of 628 Chechens and Ingushs arrived 109 and 79 decreased; in December - 157 and 72 people [14].

The most part of the Chechens and Ingushs leaving the enterprises of oil industry motivated the leaving with failure to provide a living space. If

to consider that replenishment by new shots went at the expense of collective farmers from auls, becomes obvious that without an opportunity to live together with family the issue of stability of national shots could not be resolved. People, having made sure that conditions improper, come back home to themselves.

A number of heads resisted indigenization as with mountaineers there were many efforts.

The mass survey which is carried out by the North Ossetia inspection of work for 1931 revealed that labor fluidity at the Sevkavtsink plant was 80% and was explained by poor housing conditions. Hostels for newcomers of workers were designed for only 115 people whereas apartments needed the 288th persons. Equalization in the salary prospered [15].

The reasons of dismissals are typical: there is not enough housing, the sent workers live in cars and hostels. Condition of apartments emergency... Fuel in February was given according to May coupons and from 3300 people it was not received 350 people

The house constructed in 1933 was started up in operation not finished. At the plant there is no bath, in shower often there is no hot water. In club the hooliganism, fights, alcoholism prospers. [16].

At the IX regional party conference (on July 11-15, 1937) it was also said in workers' protests about violations in compensation, low production discipline, about high percent of accidents (on Electrozinc for 1936 10 workers, in 1937 - 5 were killed) [17] which the administration charged to fault of workers.

The difficult situation with preservation of the contingent of workers was on Sadonsky mines. The fluidity of labor reached high percent and was one of the main reasons for failure to follow the plan. If in January, 1932 97 people, then in January, 1933-182, respectively in February for the same years - 106 and 154 people decreased; in April - 158 and 190 people, and all for half a year-733 and 925 people [18]. "Left so, - the newspaper "The proletarian of Osetii" wrote; - that leaves mines of workers much more, than comes. Leaving, generally was at the expense of natsional of surrounding villages with which any of the Sadonsky organizations does not wish to carry out explanatory work" [18].

There is not enough one explanatory work, it was necessary to create a social base, conditions for workers. However on the first place was promfinplan and party functionaries in the developing situation with shots often saw intrigues of enemies for whom it was possible to write off all shortcomings.

So, in the Resolution concerning Sadonsky mines it is noted that "the management allowed a number of the actions which are direct carrying out the anti-party, antistate, hostile Soviet power and party of the policy which was expressed in the following:

1) the special immigrants sent for work on mines were used at the works demanding special trust (in the dining room, the recuperator, nasoschik in mines, the banksman, the winch operator, the manager. dryer, groom, watchmen.);
2) there is a contamination of the office of Board of mines and the list of workers alien and kulak elements;
3) a number of contracts for supply of hay with prosperous mountaineers under the guise of artels is signed...;
4) to consider that all these actions speak about obvious treachery of interests of party and power from the head of mines.

The major state enterprise - mines were given in a charge of the class enemy, they were given a full opportunity to plunder the state property, to organize accidents and so forth and so forth" [19, l. 19].

The bureau suggested to exclude the head of mines from ranks of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and to arrest for "backdown" to the class enemy, treason of party and Soviet power.

The branding phrases about intrigues of "enemies of the people" were designed to distract attention of workers from difficulties of life. The specific responsible preventing to work with great dispatch is called: these are special immigrants, fists, prosperous mountaineers, not vigilant administration and "communist traitors" who regenerated and got under influence of the class enemy.

In the resolution of bureau it is directly indicated on the need of public prosecutor's investigation, taking measures of judicial influence, etc.

The analysis of documents gives the grounds to claim that attempts to solve problems of discipline and fluidity by administrative methods had insignificant results. Against the background of an unresolved housing question, problems with food, clothes, obtaining qualification it is, etc. more painful and contradictory there was a formation of an image, level and quality of life of the worker, standards of social behavior, psychology, consciousness peculiar to it.


1. The CPSU in resolutions. T. 4. M, 1984. Page 384.
2. Economic life of the USSR. Chronicle of events and facts (1917-1965). the 2nd prod. Prince 1. M, 1967. Page 218.
3. CGA ChR. T. river-38. Op. 1. 63.
4. In the same place. T. 264. Op. 1. 78.
5. In the same place. T. river-38. Op. 1. 59.
6. In the same place. T. river-38. Op. 1. 57.
7. Factory And. Issues of industrialization of the Checheno-Ingush area//Revolution and nationalities. 1936. No. 5. Page 27.
8. V.I. Sinelnikov. Social transformation of economy of Chechen-Ingushetia. 1917-1940 (transition to socialism, passing a capitalism stage): yew.... edging. east. sciences. M, 1964. Page 199.
9. PAS of ChIO. T. 241. Op. 1. 142. L. 263-264.
10. In the same place. T. 1. Op. 1. 19.
11. CGA ChR. T. river-16. Op. 2. 778.
12. In the same place. T. river-268. Op. 1. 158.
13. PAS of ChIO. T. 1. Op. 1. 262. L. 81.
14. CGA ChR. T. river-16. Op. 2. 798. L. 153.
15. CGA RSO-A. T. 211. Op. 1. 57. L. 132.
16. In the same place. T. 211. Op. 1. 113. L. 135-136.
17. CGA IPD PCO-A. T. 1. Op. 2. 840. L. 41.
18. Proletarian of Ossetia. 1933. July 28.
19. CGA IPD PCO-A. T. 1. Op. 2. 309.

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On May 14, 2009

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