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Problems of rational environmental management in regions of Russia: landscape approach



In recently published book by Z.V. Lysenkovoy1 the wide range of the questions connected with a research of mountain landscapes of Altai and their rational development is discussed. After E.P. Romanova (1997) a modern landscape is defined by the author as the difficult, multicomponent geosystem consisting of natural and anthropogenic subsystems, formed under the influence of social, economic, ecological and institutional factors. In this regard, Z.V. Lysenkova believes, the systems of environmental management are characteristic of each region. As an object of a research natural complexes of the mountain and foothill areas of Altai which — along with their variety and esthetic appeal — differ in a wide range of environmental-economic problems are presented. The set of natural landscapes, their resource capacity and the population of this region essentially influence industry structure of economic activity and all regional system of environmental management. Such understanding is close to B.M. Ishmuratov's representations (1995), G.A. Isachenko (2001) and many others.

The purpose of the monographic research executed by Z.V. Lysenkova consists in identification of space-time interrelations of development of regional systems of environmental management in the conditions of evolution of the landscape environment. For achievement of this purpose the following problems were solved:

>- the role of modern landscapes in formation and development of a system of regional environmental management was estimated;

>- influence of various factors on specifics of environmental management at different stages of regional development became clear;

>- recommendations about optimization of environmental management and more sustainable development of Altai Republic were proved.

In the book the region environment is in details characterized. Approach to illumination of natural features of the territory is interesting. Despite big naturalists' material across Altai, the most part of earlier published works was directed to the description of separate components of the environment (climate, waters, soils, vegetation, etc.). In this research the environment is considered as a landscape basis of formation of a regional system of environmental management. The high-rise and zone zonality and horizontal heterogeneity of natural complexes — a consequence of features of geological development of the region and cumulative influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on formation of the landscape sphere are distinctly expressed.

Chapter 2 is devoted to the history of settling of Altai. The first settlers here as the author notes, appeared in a paleolith. According to A.P. Okladnikov, etc., the age of the most ancient parking of the person is dated 700 thousand years. The eneolitovy era of resettlement of people is in detail described. Bronze and iron centuries were marked by development of steppe landscapes, development of ways of hunting and agriculture, traditional for these places, formation of special kochevnichesky type of economy.

In the Middle Ages there was a division of Altai into aimags (units of Territorial Department) that demonstrates, according to Z.V. Lysenkova, high economic familiarity of natural wealth of the territory. The beginning of colonization of Mountain Altai by the Russian immigrants is the share of the end of XVIII — the beginning of the 19th century. Extending across territories, employed local community, new settlers gradually forced out aboriginals. Tracing historical stages of development of Altai, the author shows as formation of a system of environmental management and transformation of landscape structure of the region are caused by the resettlement processes happening here.

In the following chapter the development of natural landscapes and development of environmental management in borders of the administrative regions of Altai is analyzed. In spite of the fact that

1 Z.V. Lysenkova. Modern landscapes in the regional system of environmental management (on the example of Altai). Smolensk, 2010.

Bulletin of the Russian state university of I. Kant. 2011. Issue 1. Page 166 — 171.

natural and administrative borders here often do not coincide, communication between them is obvious. Approaches modern geographical zoning of Z.V. Lysenkov by the analysis of pre-revolutionary experience of allocation of economic areas according to V.M. Mikhaylov and administrative reform of 1924, convincingly showing that from the first steps of economic division into districts in Altai the specifics of an environment and resources served as basis for allocation of the economic region.

Final (fourth) chapter of the monograph is devoted to theoretical aspects of regional environmental management. In it results of studying modern landscapes of mountain regions of Siberia and the Far East are discussed from positions of the concept of natural and resource potential.

Proceeding from this concept the social and economic development of many peripheral regions of Russia seems (N.S. Mironenko, V.L. Kagansky, P.Ya. Baklanov, etc.) on the ways of development of climatic, first of all recreational, resources. In the near future they are capable to become not only resorts and health resorts of the All-Russian value, but also the centers of the international tourism. Priority for exploitation of natural resources of Siberia, along with forest and mineral, are included in the list also agroclimatic which, for example, in some areas of Southern Siberia allow to develop agriculture and livestock production actively.

Numerous drawings and tables very successfully supplement a text part of the discussed book, however almost total absence of cards complicates perception of spatial differentiation of the territory of Altai. Unfortunately, foreign experience of development of bases of environmental management in adjacent regions is poorly lit. The principles of landscape planning which are widely used in many countries are applied on a cartographic basis for the Baikal region. They could form more reliable basis for justification of ways of rational environmental management in Altai — in one of the most unique regions of our country.

The book by Z.V. Lysenkova — essential information help for the course "Regional Environmental Management of Russia" and also for practice of regional planning of territories for their sustainable development.

T.V. Shikhotarova,

asp., RGU of I. Kant

Kevin Lee
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