The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Local history in the context of conceptual search of the Russian historiography of the 1820-1830th years

v. V. Boyarchenkov


Work is presented by department of history and the culture of the Ryazan state radio engineering university.

The author investigates approaches to studying local history in Russia after the publication "The history of the state Russian" N.M. Karamzina. V.V. Passek, M.A. Maksimovich, I.I. Srezevsky and others, addressing a local subject in the Russian history in the 1820-1830th, interpreted her not so much in scientific terms how many in the spirit of art trends of romanticism.

V. Boyarchenkov


The author of the paper investigates the approaches to studying local history in Russia after the publication of N. M. Karamzin&s & #34; History of the Russian State". V. V. Passek, M. A. Maksimovich, I. I. Sreznevsky and others who appealed to the local theme in Russian history in the 1820s and 1830s interpreted it in the artistic manner of Romanticism rather than in scientific terms.

A ratio of a national historical narrative and local historiographic traditions - a problem rather new to history of domestic historical science. So far contours of its decision are designated, perhaps, only for

a boundary of X1X-XX of centuries when studying history in Russia for the first time on many essential characteristics becomes a profession [13]. Meanwhile sources of this problem are found long before professionalizing in the Russian science got

visible outlines, and a role of the main supplier of historical knowledge undertook university schools of sciences. So, the task of the present article is made by a research of early attempts to enter local plots in a context of the all-Russian history.

The end of the second decade of the 19th century is represented in this regard a rubezhny milestone. In 1818 the first eight volumes "The history of the state Russian" N.M. Karamzina, and were published in one of the private letters written next year, for the first time in Russian the word "nationality" sounded. The Karamzin work and a new concept entered into literary use by P.A. Vyazemsky was fated to become reference points and at the same time, some kind of, opposite poles of an attraction for all who worked during this time in science of the Russian history. Georgy Fedotov is better than others formulated the attitude towards Karamzin of his younger contemporaries: "Behind it... there was all the 18th century which historians joined in & #34; History of the state Rossiyskogo". Karamzin zavershitel" [18, page 97].

To these is durability of the historiographic past serving as a support to the great historian, art completeness of forms of the historical letter - the Karamzin heritage attracted and pushed away those who followed in its footsteps. The XVIII century standing behind Karamzin is a century of Education in the ideological sphere of life, an age of classicism in literature and art. At the heart of that and another - optimistic belief in the all-conquering force of the human Mind capable to subordinate to the power all spontaneous and in the person, both in the nature and in society. Laws of this Reason can be unknown for the time being, but, once being placed at service to mankind, reckon with circumstances of time and the place a little. A story with its diversity of the phenomena, infinite series of the blind accidents and actions dictated rather by an a passion, but not Reason was designed to play a role of the teacher, tutor of the people in such universal rationalistic picture of the world and in the first

turn of directors of their destinies - governors [11, page 147, 148].

Development of a historiography went to the age of Enlightenment generally on the way of free or involuntary overcoming this not historical world outlook paradigm in the basis, but historians, even such talented as Karamzin, could not but reckon with it in the researches. If the pathos of national values not alien to traditions of classicism, still justified the appeal to a format of the all-Russian history, then to the researcher of local old times to enter the plots in a context of a prosveshchenchesky historical narrative was difficult. From this, certainly, does not follow that local history till 20th of the 19th century was not studied at all or was studied without progress. A.A. Sevastyanova managed to track very dynamic development of the Russian provincial historiography throughout the second half of HUS of century from the local annalistic traditions which are exhausted and consigning to the past to emergence of such forms of an istoriopisaniye which cornerstone the principles of the new European science were [17]. And still numerous advantages of the best historical compositions of provincial authors of the last third of the 18th century do not cancel a periferiynost of a problem of local history during this era.

Work of overcoming this limitation of a prosveshchenchesky historiography fell to lot of romantic historicism, one of harbingers of which in Russia and was a concept "nationalities" which got here thanks to Vyazma. The romantic attitude was approved as the historical reality exposed utopias of an age of Education. The all-European crisis caused by attempt to attach the rationalistic doctrine to practice, viability of the people at the governments in distress - these and other unexpectedly opened parties of socio-political experience of the end of XVIII - the beginnings of the 19th century revealed insolvency of hopes only on force of human mind and forced to look at function and content of historical knowledge in a new way. The romanticism as an intellectual and art current appealed to search of historical continuity. Comprehension, along with "spirit of the age", "spirit of the people", or "nationality" as it sounded in the Russian literature, not only attached significance to each historic fact, but also provided, according to historians romantics, this continuity. The romantic historicism not indifferent first of all to originality, originality of manifestations of historical life [16, page 15], could not disregard a local perspective. And "nationality", this new historical category steadily accompanies appeals of romantics to local history.

However, first this communication was shown not in scientific, and in fiction - in P.A. Vyazemsky's preface to Pushkin "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai" (1824), one of early manifestos of romanticism in Russia. Responding to the indignant and wondering remark "Classics": "What is nationality? This figure is not neither in Aristotle's piitika, nor in Horace's piitika", "Publisher" says: "It not in rules, but in feelings. A print of nationality, the area - here that makes, maybe, the main, most essential advantage of ancient and approves their right to attention of posterity". And further, among advantages of "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai" he notes also that "color of the area is kept in the narration with all possible freshness and brightness" [8, page 49, 52]. So the term "colour of the area", a tracing-paper from French "couleur locale", for the first time was heard in the Russian literature. The requirement of "local color" as M.K. Azadov-sky notices, "began to be considered soon as one of the most obligatory elements of a romantic canon", imprinted in searches of writers, poets, critics, historians and specialists in folklore [1, page 193].

Nearly the first M.A. Maksimovich in the preface to the first edition of the "Little Russian songs" (1825) collected by it disclosed structure of a perspective, traditional for "local color". Knowledge of the true price of "nationality", according to him, for the first time

opens the road to creation "poetry truly Russian". From here and Maksimovich's interest to "monuments in which the nationality would be expressed more stoutly: it is a song essence - where the soul movable by feeling sounds, and fairy tales - where the imagination national is gleamed" [12, page 439, 440]. Actually the researcher recognizes historical value of all folklore material in its set, and in this case it stops the choice on processing of "local", Little Russian song folklore. At the same time an ultimate goal of development of ethnographic material extra historical in fact, the literary task appears here.

Unlike Maksimovich and Vyazma, in a historical key Z.Ya. Dolenga-Hodakovsky, the Pole forced to locate after the Napoleonic wars in Russia built the reasonings. In 1820 it presented "The project of a scientific travel across Russia for an explanation of ancient Slavic history". And though the term "local colour" is not used here, the general starting point for conceptual search of this author, Vyazma and Maksimovich it is available. In the mentioned "Project" the failure of all previous attempts of Slavic scientists to create the history is stated. Dolenga-Hodakovsky sees the main reason of this failure that "wrote History, without having learned the people, represented the Bolshoi Theatre of our actions whom to survey and writers managed to compare never". He is convinced that the written sources already known and still the unopened, being not able to give irrefragable answers on many fundamental historical issues among which there is, for example, a question of origin of Slavic peoples. According to him, these answers "are disseminated on the whole space of the earth Slavic" therefore research practice when "the endowed with many abilities, famous people adhere to the capitals, great chambers and pleasant societies is insolvent, and do not want to glance to black huts in any way" [9, page 291-293].

Its own project, owing to different circumstances, so never was also implemented completely. But the idea about a travel as the main cure of local historical questions which number with introduction into circulation of category "nationalities" sharply it increased, was surprisingly hardy. "Trips", "walks", "travel", for two next decades - one of the main genres of the historical description within which need of researchers of the Russian old times for acquaintance to local historical life was implemented [2, page 194].

The most large-scale action in this plan - work of the Arkheografichesky expedition which beginning falls on the 1820th - more was result of development of the former historiographic tradition focused only on written sources. But direct participants of an expedition took out absolutely new impressions from acquaintance to the province.

The trip on the Russian North of P.M. Stroyev was especially fruitful in this regard. Having returned in the fall of 1829, it presented to Academy of Sciences of data on progress of the Arkheografichesky expedition. Here, along with arkheografichesky achievements, Stroyev's impatience to share conclusions from "observation of areas, especially curious and instructive" attracts attention. Arkheograf claimed, in particular, that "to the dvinena, the onezhena, pinezh-ets, Votes changed from time and innovations a little: their nature of freedom, volost management, an image of a selitba, means of communication, customs, the adverb full of archaisms, and a reprimand involuntarily carry away a thought to the captivating world of self-life of Novgorodians". Stroyev is convinced: "The knowledge of areas, especially virgin North attached to legends and documents of old times is capable to light up our Deepisaniye live light of the truth. Here, skilled observers!" - such ardent appeal it finishes the "essay of progress of an eight-months wandering" [4, page 198, 199].

This appeal was not gone in vain. M.P. Pogodin, one of the largest Russian historians of this time, after the conversation with Stroyev immediately wrote to S.P. Shevyrev: "Stroyev here. What miracles are told by him about the northern region!... What Samoyeds there, what Russian, clean and not mixed" [3, t. 2, page 369]. Pogodin's interest in local features of the all-Russian historical process was strengthened when to Stroyev's impressions it added own, received in the Tver province in the summer of 1837 where he happened to be present at St. Arseny Tversky's holiday. Absolutely unfamiliar ceremonies seen by the historian suggested it an idea that "the Russian history can improve, be improved, even to be comprehended only by means of local observations and investigations". And it, in turn, caused it on book-learning criticism: "No, five hundred thousand of Moscow and St. Petersburg do not make still Russia and to know Russia, it is necessary to regard it and to consider not from an office Moscow or St. Petersburg, and on the place, to live long in each its region, to get acquainted with all its ranks because the nobleman Moscow absolutely not that Orenburg, Kursk, and the peasant Tver is in many respects not similar to Oryol, I do not speak already about Little Russian" [3, t. 5, page 89].

It is not surprising that his decision became one of the main lessons which Pogodin learned during the trip "to go any year to travel across Russia which resolutely we know very little, pogruzyas in the school investigations and theses". As a result of such regular travel he traveled, after all, over all European Russia, by words K.N. Bestuzheva-Ryumina, "studying on the place both present people, and the remains of antiquities" [3, t. 5, page 93; 5, page 43]. Along with it, it supported close contacts with local fans of old times and often provided pages Moskvityanin for their publications of historical and ethnographic contents. At the same time Pogodin as though did not want to notice that this recognition of independent scientific value behind local history comprises the hidden call of the concept "Stories

the states Russian", still very authoritative in the 1830-1840th

Especially merits and demerits of researches in the spirit of "local color" V.V. Passek's edition "Essays of Russia" (1838-1842) - perhaps clearly demonstrates, the brightest on a local perspective at this time. The position of the publisher in which appears through enthusiasm concerning local studies and scepticism concerning various generalizations is reflected in the preface to the first book and in the first author's article. Apiaries considers that "one some part of Russia is known to each of us, but it is safely possible to tell that quite nobody knows riches and depths of her life..." From here and edition tasks: "Essays of Russia" were necessary "to focus, whenever possible, all scattered concepts and knowledge acquired by more experience and based on reality, than brought out of speculation" [14, page V, VI; 19, page 411-415].

the Problem of synthesis, data together of all these diverse data disturbs Passek a little. It is ready to remove its decision in the uncertain future: "Our fatherland in every respect. it is still so new and is rich with a variety of the nature, depth and shades of national character that only throughout long years by mutual disinterested efforts many of its treasures will be estimated and clear" [15, page 25]. Also other participants of "Essays", it seems, adhered to similar views. As a result the edition, very motley on contents, where one after another, without any internal order materials on the Ossetian philology, traveling notes about a trip to Putivl, essays followed from life of Little Russian Cossacks of the 17th century and the description of one of the Central Russian monasteries turned out. It is possible to speak about some, however, very relative integrity only concerning the materials of constant employees forming the whole series from which peculiar "Little Russian cycles" of V.V. Passek and I.I. Sreznevsky's essays are distinguished. Both of them were closely connected with a circle in Kharkiv to which, except them,

O. and F. Evetskiye, I. Raskovshenko, A. Shpigotsky, P. Inozemtsev, L. Borovikovsky, I. Petrov entered. The circle was fond of collecting of monuments of the Ukrainian folk art and local Cossack old times.

I.I. Sreznevsky was in him, undoubtedly, the most active and noticeable participant in the scientific relation. In the 1830th its works on studying local history crowned two releases of "the Zaporizhia Old times". "The people of soldiers" as Sreznevsky of Zaporozhetses calls, drew his attention and "deserved the place in memory of posterity" including because it was "the strange structure, both a way of life, and character. it is other than everything, it surrounding". After Hodakovsky, Maksimovich, Stroyev and Passek, the publisher of "The Zaporizhia old times" complains of poverty of written sources which forces the historian of Zaporozhetses to find "for the researches the rich, inexhaustible mine in legends national" [10, page 6, 7].

Its source study characteristic of these materials is curious. The "old times the Zaporizhia" living in memory of old men bandura players, according to Sreznevsky, "are more important than any chronicles". The legends told by these old men, "though. also are subject to strict criticism, but nevertheless are almost necessary for anything who wishes to know Zaporozhets' history and even other Ukraine". Further the scientist, referring to the division of history accepted at Germans into external, event and internal, covering life, customs, customs, points to the unequal value of heritage of bandura players for these parts. If Sreznevsky considers it necessary to check the event party of folklore monuments where it is possible, materials of chronicles and, the main thing, the data of other legends, then for internal history these monuments, in his opinion, "are resolutely precious because edinstvenna in own way both according to contents, and on extensiveness". Outright admiring by spontaneity of folk art gives out in the scientist of the convinced adherent of romanticism: "You will not find in songs and Zaporozhets' thoughts neither prudish a sladkoglasiya, nor delicacy of feelings. No! In them everything is wild, similar to the oak groves and steppes which apprehended them on the bosom at the birth - all fitfully, like flight of a hurricane steppe under which deaf howls they are cherished, - all violently, like the past life of Zaporizhia" [10, to page 7-11].

Having defined the general nature of the Zaporizhia folklore, the publisher claims that songs and thoughts, "being curious for any writer-fiction writer, are important for the historian and the ethnographer" because "subordinated to music, being vytverzhivayemy word for word, or almost so, they were subject to smaller influence of time, kept the contents more correctly, and except the contents the national, carrying on themselves print of taste, opinions, bents of the people are curious as the work: they an essence monuments not only about old times, but also old times" [10, page 14]. So, the search of "nationality" and "local color" developed by travelers and specialists in folklore, remaining, as a rule, away from polemic, revealed new opportunities of historical researches.

So, romanticism, one of the first messengers of which in Russia was the doctrine about "local color", presented in the 1820th before looks of the reading public only acquiring the Karamzin version of otchest-venny history, the new fact - local history in all variety of its manifestations. The fact that the history of Russia is enriched with local actual material was known in the 18th century, however right now the thought that local history the special lines and paints saves a past picture from monotony becomes property of many for the first time.

Thanks to these new representations, the local perspective found the independent value lacking it before. But this again found self-sufficiency of a local plot was not a consequence of deeply thought over scientific concept. It was related rather to a completeness of the artistic design subordinating itself at the beginning interpretation of this story as show the given M.A. Maksimovich's works of I.I. Sreznevsky and partly V.V. Passek. Probably, therefore the question about the relation of again found local history to long ago recognized all-Russian in the 1820-1830th was hardly planned.

And still you should not perceive this lack of a conceptual maturity of the first experiments of an istoriopisaniye in the spirit of the romantic doctrine about "local color" as the evidence of its initial limitation. This doctrine which is directly connected with a nationality problem, new to the Russian historiography, moved apart limits of a traditional circle of written sources and indicated to historians wide and at a distant day the sputtered-out informative opportunities of "a scientific travel". During an era of "great reforms" young historians as, for example, the mentioned K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, could sneer concerning Pogodin's idea "to move" on coast of Baltic vividly to imagine Varangians, and at the same time enthusiastically to welcome the program of historical and ethnographic travel of N.I. Kostomarov which is genetically connected with searches of "local color" of the 1820-1830th [6, page 103, 104; 7, page 57].


1. M.K. Azadovsky. History of the Russian folklore studies. M.: Uchpedgiz, 1958. T. 1. 479 pages
2. V.Yu. Afiani. "The discovered Russia": travel as method of local history study//Historical study of local lore. Penza, 1993. Page 189-200.
3. BarsukovN. P. Zhizn and M.P. Pogodin's works. SPb., 1889. T. 2. 420 pages; SPb., 1892. T. 5. 520 with.
4. BarsukovN. P. Zhizn and P.M. Stroyev's works. SPb., 1878. 677 pages
5. Bestuzhev-Ryumin K.N. Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin (1800-1875)//Slavic review. 1892. No. 1. Page 41-49.
6. Bestuzhev-Ryumin K.N. Rets. on: Pogodin M.P. Normansky period of the Russian history//Domestic notes. 1859. No. 12. Page 102-111.
7. [K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin] Blvd. the Federal beginning in ancient Russia (Concerning article of Mr. Kostomarov)//Domestic notes. 1861. No. 2. Page 53-66.
8. Vyazma P.A. Razgovor between the publisher and the Classic from the Vyborg side or from Vasilyevsky Island//the Aesthetics and literary criticism. M, 1984. Page 48-53.
9. Z.Ya. Dolenga-Hodakovsky. The project of a scientific travel across Russia//the Son Otechestva. 1820. Prince 33. Page 289-312.
10. Zaporizhia old times. Kharkiv: Prod. I.I. Sreznevsky. 1833. T. 1. Part I. 132 pages
11. B. Croce. Theory and history of a historiography. M, Languages of the Russian Culture School, 1998. 191 pages
12. Maksimovich M.A.O Little Russian folk songs//SOBR. soch. Kiev, 1877. T. 2. Page 439-452.
13. S.I. Mikhalchenko. The Kiev school in the Russian historiography (V.B. Antonovich, M.V. Dov plank beds-Zapolsky and their pupils). M.: Prometheus; Bryansk: BGPU publishing house, 1997. 228 pages
14. V.V. apiaries. From the publisher.//Essays of Russia. SPb., 1838. Prince 1. Page V-VIII.
15. V.V. apiaries. Position of mountains in Russia//Essays of Russia. SPb., 1838. Prince 1. Page 1-25.
16. I. Savelyeva. M, Poletayev of A.V. Istoriya and intuition: heritage of romantics. M.: GU HSE, 2003. 52 pages
17. A.A. Sevastyanova. Russian provincial historiography of the second half of the 18th century M.: Arkheografichesky commission of RAS, 1998. 292 pages
18. G. Fedotov Item Russia of Klyuchevsky//our heritage. 1991. No. 3. Page 97-102.
19. S.B. Filimonov. V.V. Passek's note about the program of the edition of "Essays of Russia"//the Arkheografichesky year-book for 1968 of M., 1970. Page 411-415.


1. AzadovskyM. K. Istoriya russkoy fol&kloristiki. M.: Uchpedgiz, 1958. T. 1. 479 s.
2. Afiani V. Yu. "Otkryvayemaya Rossiya": puteshestviye kak metod krayevedcheskogo izucheniya//Istoricheskoye krayevedeniye. Penza, 1993. S. 189-200.
3. BarsukovN. P. Zhizn& i trudy M. P. Pogodina. SPb., 1889. T. 2. 420 s.; SPb., 1892. T. 5. 520 s.
4. Barsukov N. P. Zhizn& i trudy P. M. Stroyeva. SPb., 1878. 677 s.
5. Bestuzhev-Ryumin K. N. Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin (1800-1875)//Slavyanskoye obozreniye. 1892. N 1. S. 41-49.
6. Bestuzhev-Ryumin K. N. Rets. na: Pogodin M. P. Normanskiy period russkoy istorii//Otechest-vennye zapiski. 1859. N 12. S. 102-111.
7. B-R [Bestuzhev-Ryumin K. N.] Federativnoye nachalo v drevney Rusi (Po povodu stat&i g. Kostomarova)//Otechestvennye zapiski. 1861. N 2. S. 53-66.
8. Vyazemsky P. A. Razgovor mezhdu izdatelem i Klassikom s Vyborgskoy storony ili s Va-sil&yevskogo ostrova//Estetika i literaturnaya kritika. M., 1984. S. 48-53.
9. Dolenga-Khodakovsky Z. Ya. Proekt uchenogo puteshestviya po Rossii//Syn Otechestva. 1820. Kn. 33. S. 289-312.
10. Zaporozhskaya starina. Khar&kov: Izd. I. I. Sreznevskogo, 1833. T. 1. Ch. I. 132 s.
11. Kroche B. Teoriya i istoriya istoriografii. M., Shkola "Yazyki russkoy kul&tury", 1998. 191 s.
12. Maksimovich M. A. O malorossiyskikh narodnykh pesnyakh//Sobr. soch. Kiyev, 1877. T. 2. S. 439-452.
13. Mikhal&chenko S. I. Kiyevskaya shkola v rossiyskoy istoriografii (V. B. Antonovich, M. V. Dov-nar-Zapol&sky i ikh ucheniki). M.: Prometey; Bryansk: Izd-vo BGPU, 1997. 228 s.
14. Passek V. V. Ot izdatelya//Ocherki Rossii. SPb., 1838. Kn. 1. S. V-VIII.
15. Passek V. V. Polozheniye gor v Rossii//Ocherki Rossii. SPb., 1838. Kn. 1. S. 1-25.
16. Savel&yeva I. M., Poletayev A. V. Istoriya i intuitsiya: naslediye romantikov. M.: GU VShE, 2003. 52 s.
17. Sevast&yanova A. A. Russkaya provintsial&naya istoriografiya vtoroy poloviny XVIII v. M.: Ark-heograficheskaya komissiya RAN, 1998. 292 s.
18. Fedotov G. P. Rossiya Klyuchevskogo//Nashe naslediye. 1991. N 3. S. 97-102.
19. Filimonov S. B. Zapiska V. V. Passeka o programme izdaniya of "Ocherkov Rossii"//Ark-heograficheskiy yezhegodnik za 1968 g. M., 1970. S. 411-415.
Marie Lee
Other scientific works: