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V.A. Kharlamov is a Cossack, the cadet, the deputy of the State Duma (historical portrait)



 © 2003 of M.V. Bratolyubov

V.A. Kharlamov is a COSSACK, the CADET, the DEPUTY of the STATE DUMA (HISTORICAL PORTRAIT)

At the present stage of development of historical science the problem of a role of the personality in the history became one of priority, especially if it is about studying life and creativity unfairly of the forgotten figures. Interest in political history, the history of the Russian culture, in spiritual life of carriers of this culture - historians humanists increased. Vasily Akimovich Kharlamov's activity gives rich material for researches of this sort. In recent times his life and creativity were buried in oblivion, so far is not devoted to it any scientific work.

The purpose of this article is publicizing of social and political, scientific, cultural activity of V.A. Kharlamov that will allow to understand more deeply many important collisions of social and political and ideological development of Russia during a critical era of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century

Without applying for completeness of the description of life and V.A. Kharlamov's creativity, we will try to state at least in brief the main milestones of the biography of this wonderful scientist and person.

Vasily Akimovich Kharlamov was born on January 1, 1875 in the farm of Kremenskom, near the Ust-Bystryansky village, in family of the Cossack officer. In the doctrine it was sent to spiritual school in Novocherkassk from where came to the Don seminary. Upon termination of seminary in 1895 in priests did not go, and it was sent by the army scholar to the Moscow spiritual academy [1]. Upon termination of academy in 1899 already independently arrived on historical and philological faculty of the Moscow university which graduated in 1904. At the university was a pupil of professor V.O. Klyuchevsky. On the basis of the researches in the Main archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow it wrote the thesis "Church management at the Don Cossacks in the 17th and 18th centuries" which was estimated by the highest point and deserved a positive mention of V.O. Klyuchevsky [2].

Kharlamov vividly was interested in the history of Don region, sought to comprehend roots of identity of the Cossacks, experience of local government, tradition of the Cossack outlaws. Consisted the member of the Russian archaeological society and annually was engaged in archeological excavations of barrows on the Mius River, in Priazovye and the Taganrog district in the summer. Profound knowledge of the past became a basis for a number of scientific and popular scientific articles on archeology and ethnography - published by Kharlamov in the Bulletin of the Moscow historical and archaeological society. The found objects were transferred to the Army museum in Novocherkassk and to the Historical museum in Moscow.

Kharlamov was engaged in also ethnographic researches: recorded bylinas, ancient songs, national legends, ceremonies. As sources

he used questioning, poll of respondents and also a visual method.

In 1904 - 1906 was a teacher of history in the Mariinsky female gymnasium in Novocherkassk [3]. Took an active public position, consisted the member of a number of public organizations.

As the teacher, the historian studying life of the Don Cossacks it were interested in problems of cultural welfare of Cossacks, increases in their general educational level. Kharlamov was one of founders of Society of assistance of national education in the field of Donskoy's army who was engaged in distribution of education to Dona [4], headed Society of the help to poor Don pupils. On its initiative departments of this society in various districts of the Don region were open, free reading rooms, city libraries are created, he in Novocherkassk regularly organized lectures, national readings [5]. To Dona where the educational level of the population was rather low, the contribution of these societies to development of education and culture was very considerable.

For many years Kharlamov was the permanent member of Regional statistical committee, entered into Committee on the structure of the Don museum. In social and political editions, periodicals ("The Azov region", "The Don life", "The southern telegraph", etc.) published articles on the most various aspects of life of the Cossacks: reorganization of the military and administrative device in the Cossack areas, to preservation of cultural monuments, the economic right of Cossacks, creation of history of the Cossack troops and many other questions, drawing with that public attention to problems of the Don Cossacks.

Kharlamov stood at the origins of formation of the Don cadet organizations. Was one of organizers and the active member of the Don regional group of constitutional democratic party, it was elected as a member of regional committee of cadet party [6]. Belonged to number of professional party functionaries who did not change the principles of the party program even after the reaction which came after June 3, 1907 and could rally local groups in times, heavy for cadet party. Kharlamov repeatedly participated in the all-Russian meetings and conferences of cadet party, maintained close contact with its management [7].

By right it is possible to call him the liberal - "pochven-nickname" as he tried to combine at the same time in the activity liberalism and a pochvennost, tried to proceed not from the desirable, and from possible, than and differed from the all-Russian liberals, could formulate not only all-democratic liberal requirements, but also class, Cossack.

Special attention of Kharlamov to inquiries of the Cossack estate helped to achieve to it popularity among the Cossacks, he was perceived as the true spokesman of the Cossack interests and expectations.

The deep conviction in the political correctness allowed to state evidential and popularly the party point of view in the most various audiences, besides he was a beautiful speaker.

Having rich knowledge of Don region, political honesty, Kharlamov belonged to number of such political figures who were respected and appreciated by their political opponents, authorities. So, for example, the chief of Donskoy of regional gendarme management in the report on position of opposition parties on Don sent to the capital, paying attention to enormous authority and Kharlamov's influence on the Don youth, especially the Cossacks, noted his decency and modesty [8].

Kharlamov to one of the first large public figures of Russia from Cossacks became the leader of parliamentary type. He was the deputy from Area of army of Donskoy in all four State Dumas of Russia the beginning of the 20th century. Only 8 people for lifetime of the Duma were her deputies of all four convocations.

During the deputy activity entered into fraction of the People's Freedom Party, it was elected to committee of cadet fraction [9], held authority among party members. Took active part in discussion of various organizational, tactical, fractional issues in cadet fraction, was engaged in the organization and holding of conferences of members of parliamentary cadet fraction with representatives of local groups.

Thus, Kharlamov was an outstanding figure not only regional, but also all-Russian scale. In the I State Duma entered in parallel into the above-party parliamentary group of "avtonomist" demanding decentralization of the government on democratic principles, but on the basis of "indivisibility and inviolability of borders of the Russian state as whole".

Analyzing Kharlamov's activity in the I Duma, one may say, that during this period its political views were even slightly more left cadet (though officially it consisted in cadet fraction) that lists of Department of police where Kharlamov appeared as the member of the Duma group of tinder funguses [10] confirm though officially the list of members of labor group was not published [11].

Most likely, Kharlamov's views in days of work of the I Duma underwent evolution. It must be kept in mind that processes of party stratification, internal migrations were inherent for the Russian parliament in general and send continuously as this time was the beginning of the constitutional period when politically unsophisticated deputies had no sufficient practical experience of parliamentarism. Moreover, when the autocracy showed inability to adequate assessment of the taking place events, political consciousness of everything and furthermore parliamentarians, could not be invariable.

After dispersal of the I Duma, during signing of the Vyborg appeal, Kharlamov was absent in Vyborg and sent the signature by phone [12]. For it it underwent prosecution from the authorities, was forced to interrupt the pedagogical activity and for a while to leave Novocherkassk.

Understanding existence of the common problems concerning the Russian Cossacks, need of protection of the Cossack interests, Kharlamov took active part on creation in thoughts of independent Cossack fraction without party accessory. In the IV Duma even was its chairman [13], in other convocations of the Duma headed regional nonparty "group of the Don deputies" [14]. Worked in the various commissions: agrarian, administrative, conciliatory, for orthodox church, to national education, local government, was a speaker of a number of the commissions at general meetings of the Duma. In the II Duma it was elected the companion of the secretary. With deep arguments advocated the interests of the Russian Cossacks, Don region, for example, opposed mobilization of Cossacks for fight against liberation movement, proved that "the police service is incompatible with a rank of the Cossack soldier, the defender of the Homeland" [15]. Kharlamov's speeches (and other liberally adjusted Cossack deputies) had very strong public response. All press wrote about "the Cossack benefit performance" in the Duma, journalists started talking about awakening of free spirit of the Cossacks, revival of the Cossack thought, designated day of performances of Cossacks in the Duma in the historical afternoon [16].

Kharlamov insisted on introduction of wide local government in the Cossack areas, zemstvoes, proved need of elections of stanitsa atamans. Opposed absolute power of the Ministry of Defence in the Cossack areas, for allocation from maintaining the military of management of civil, cultural, economic problems of the Cossack life and transfer to their local governments. In the III Duma even prepared the bill of introduction of self-government in the Cossack areas [2, page 21-26, 43, 45] Fought for change of conditions and reduction of terms of active duty of the Cossacks [17], insisted on its simplification. Tried to obtain that Cossacks became owners of the army capitals, spent them for urgent cultural and economic needs of the troops [18].

As a part of the Cossack group together with other deputies developed the project of permission of an agrarian question in the Don region, insisted on that in the Cossack areas only the Cossack self-government institutions could dispose of land fund, and communal lands transferred earlier as awards to various civil and military officials had to be returned to villages by compulsory alienation at former owners.

Kharlamov was concerned also by the hostile relations of Cossacks and non-residents. He offered the project peace

disengagement, cohabitations and cooperation of Cossacks and other estates and nationalities, calling from a tribune of the Duma for the attentive and kind attitude towards the people living side by side with Cossacks. Kharlamov as a part of dontsov-deputies of the III Duma, members of cadet party met in 1910 the prime minister P.A. Stolypin [19]. The Don deputies in a conversation brought up a question of a disastrous economic situation of Don, of a problem of relationship of Cossacks with the nonresident residents of the area who are not belonging to the Cossack estate with representatives of "foreigners". Kharlamov, as well as other cadets, defended the principle of equality of nationalities, condemned nationalist trends.

Analyzing Kharlamov's activity in the Duma, it is possible to draw a conclusion that it was a true spokesman of the Cossack interests, the person who is thoroughly acquainted with the main and urgent needs of Don region, imbued sincere desire to direct efforts for the Homeland benefit.

Thus, the idea of transition from the centralized bureaucratic board to free democracy on the basis of self-government of the Cossack areas was the central idea which was carried out by Kharlamov in parliament concerning the Cossacks. But it, as well as to other cadet leaders, lacked scale and depth in judgment of liberation movement. It could not overcome a number of outdated political stereotypes, absolutized local experience of the organization of the political power. In its activity mutually exclusive aspirations were combined: to keep the Cossack originality and the Cossacks as class ethnic group of the Russian society and at the same time to enter territorial self-government to Dona which could probably wash away political traditions of the Cossacks. Kharlamov fought for change of service of the Cossacks that objectively was one more step to a decossackization.

during World War I, since its beginning, it was the founder and the chairman of the Dono-Kuban committee of the All-Russian territorial union which by the end of war contained 18500 lazaretny beds on Don and Kuban for wounded and sick soldiers from the Caucasian and Southwest fronts.

In March, 1916 spoke at the All-imperial congress in Moscow and at the IV All-Russian congress of the Union of the cities in Moscow with sharp criticism of the authorities, accusing them of fight against the State Duma and public organizations "while all Russia has to unite for a victory" [3, page 663].

After the February revolution of 1917 according to the unanimous decision of all deputies of the Duma from the Caucasus it was appointed the chairman of the Transcaucasian committee of Provisional government in Tiflis where remained on the post until the end of October, 1917 also elected the deputy to the Constituent assembly from the Don army.

Having returned to Don from Transcaucasia in November, 1917, participated in drawing up the declaration on behalf of the Don ataman general A.M. Kaledin and Donskoy

The army government in which they did not recognize the power of Council of People's Commissars and assumed all completeness of the government. From the Don army it was also a part of the short-term government of the Southeast union as its chairman. Since August, 1918 and until the end of armed struggle with the Soviet power Kharlamov was the chairman of Donskoy of the Army circle who adopted Fundamental laws of Vseveliky army of Donskoy. In 1919 was the representative of army of Donskoy in works of the Southern Russian conference with representatives of Volunteer army of the general A.I. Denikin in Rostov-on-Don and in Ekaterinodar.

Kharlamov together with the Don ataman Kaledin, the Army government and the Army circle in March, 1920 moved from Novorossiysk to the Crimea. The joint council of Don, Kuban and Terek sent it in July, 1920 from the Crimea to Paris and London to advocate (unsuccessfully) Cossack interests at an allied peace conference, and in the fall of the same year sent to Warsaw to try to obtain the consent of the Polish government to formation and transfer to the Crimea of the Cossacks who passed to Poles, but the end of civil war stopped this mission.

In emigration Kharlamov became the chairman of the Don historical commission in Belgrade and the publisher of books "Don Chronicle" and "Russia and Don" of S.G. Sva-tikov. Having moved to Prague, he was engaged in publicistic activity and for many years edited and issued the weekly "Kazachy Put". From 1924 to 1932 was the chairman of the Cossack agricultural union in the Czech Republic [2, page 7]. He was also a member of the academic council of the Russian historical archive at the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the board member of Public university in Prague.

Before the end of World War II Kharlamov left Prague with family and within three years lived in Regensburg, in Bavaria from where in 1948 he emigrated to Argentina. Despite the old age, he took active part in the organization of the Cossack union and the Anti-Communist center in Buenos Aires. On March 13, 1957 Kharlamov died. Buried at the English cemetery in Buenos Aires.

Literature

1. Cossack dictionary reference. Reprint. 1969. T. 3. M, 1992. Page 237.
2. V Kharlamov And. Cossack deputy of the State Duma (1905 - 1917). M, 1995. Page 6.
3. Political parties of Russia. The end of XIX - the first third of the 20th century. Encyclopedia. M, 1996. Page 663.
4. State archive of the Russian Federation (further GARF), t. 102, 4; 45, Part 9, l. 8.
5. The memorable book of Area of army of Donskoy on. 1908 Novocherkassk, 1908. Page 27.33.
6. GARF, t. 523, op. 1, 27, Part 6, l. 18; op. 2, 32, l. 2; 12, l. 15.
7. Protocols of the Central committee of constitutional democratic party. 1905 - 1911. T. 1. M, 1994. Page 214 - 215; GARF, t. 523, op. 1, 28, l. 216 - 223.
8. Russian State historical archive (further RGIA), t. 1327, op. 2, 143, Part 1, l. 138.141.
9. State Duma. Convocation 1. The index to verbatim records. 1906. Session 1. SPb., 1907.
10. The structure of labor group in the I and II State Dumas. Summary table of members of fraction: Collection of documents. M, 1988. Page 50.
11. Obninsk Century. Members of the State Duma of the first, second and third convocations//Annex to the Encyclopaedic Grenades dictionary. T. 17: the 12th prod. Page 1 - 28. B/m, Headless.

Rostov state university __________________

© 2003 of L.T. Totsenko

12. Borodin ON. In Vyborg on June 9-11, 1906 / the Vyborg process. SPb., 1908. Page 242.
13. State Duma. The IV convocation. The I session. Reference book. 1913. The sixth release. SPb., 1913. Page 188.
14. Don life. 1913.23 November.
15. State Duma. The first convocation. Verbatim record. T. II. SPb., 1906. Page 961 - 962. &
16. Citron And. 72 days of the first Russian parliament. SPb., 1906. Page 97; F.D. Kryukov. About Cossacks//the Russian wealth. 1907. No. 4. Page 27.
17. RGIA, t. 1278, op. 2, 357.
18. State Duma. The third convocation. Session III. SPb., 1910. Page 1316-1323.
19. State archive of the Rostov region, t. 55, on. 1, 98, l. 1-2.

____________________________________ on October 24, 2002

SOCIAL ASSISTANCE to REFUGEES in the field of DONSKOY'S ARMY in the years of WORLD WAR I

In the scientific works devoted to the history of the Area of army of Donskoy in the years of World War I, the attention of researchers was drawn first of all to military aspects — formation of the Cossack regiments, mobilization, participation of donchak in the military operations on various fronts.

In the present article the activity of army administration, bodies of city self-government, various institutions and societies directed to rendering social assistance to tens of thousands of refugees who appeared in the field of Donskoy's army in connection with occupation of a part of the territory of the Russian Empire by enemy troops is considered.

The first groups of refugees appeared in Rostov-on-Don and Taganrog in December, 1914 - January, 1915 from Transcaucasia, among them there were people of different nationalities - impudent persons, aysor, Armenians, etc. Care of them was undertaken by local charities: in Taganrog - city guardianship about the poor and the Armenian committee; in Rostov - charitable committee. The last opened at the end of January, 1915 two shelters more than on 500 people and adjusted modest food for which 4089 rubles 9 kopeks for half a year were spent (from December, 1914 to July, 1915). In the summer of 1915 the most part of refugees was sent home in connection with progress of the Russian army on the Caucasian front [1, page 91].

In the spring - summer of 1915 the Russian army on the Western front got beaten and was forced out from the territory of Poland, the most part of Galicia, the Baltics and Belarus. Hundreds of thousands of refugees moved the East, without having any means of livelihood in the majority. There was an obvious need to solve a problem of refugees not only forces of various charities, but also the states. On August 30, 1915 the law about was most highly approved

ensuring needs of refugees — payment of a government ration to them. Responsibility for performance of the law was conferred on the Minister of Internal Affairs, heads-noupolnomochennogo of the device of refugees, governors, city's mayors, the territorial institutions, city public managements and committees about refugees created on places. The law invited public organizations to collaboration with the government by opening of barracks, nutritious points, table, etc. In October of the same year there was a circular of Tatyaninsky committee (Committee of its imperial highness of the Grand duchess Tatyana Nikolaevna) on which in the first months of war all weight of service of needs of victims of military operations laid down. It was specified in it that "means for implementation of all these actions have to be asked by the bodies specified in the law on August 30 directly at the Minister of Internal Affairs from now on, but not at committee of her Highness as it practiced till August 30, 1915. As for satisfaction of many other needs of refugees, government aid does not exclude activity of committee of its Highness, its offices and other public and charity organizations at all, and only supplements that" [2, l. 91 - 91 about.].

The area of army of Donskoy became one of the main regions of the country accepting refugees that was promoted by a number of factors: existence of rail service with the western and central regions, high economic potential and the developed economic structure, favorable climatic features - warm fall, late approach of winter cold weather and early spring. During work on reception of refugees the structure of the state and public organizations is formed here. The important place among the last was taken by city Tatya-

John Maximillian
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