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The missed chance of the empire: to a question of discrepancy of development of the Russian automotive industry till 1917



ISTORICHESKIYE NAUKI ►►►►►

Speransky regularly wrote reports on the activity, and it was highly appreciated at court. In the letter of the chairman of department of the State Council V.P. Kochubey of October 18, 1818 it was said to Speransky: "You connect practice to the theory and we have nobody who could satisfy in this expectation its majesty" [10. Page 57]. On the organization of drinkable sale and also restoration of state Brilovsky distillery and for trade on wine delivery Speransky received the award very important in circumstances of that time for a number of successful orders. On January 23, 1818 to it it was granted "in requital of excellent works" - 5000 tithes of the earth in the Saratov province [8. Page 140]. This favor very much pleased it as was the first after its political revival.

Thus, summing up the results of everything above to told, it is necessary to emphasize that even those not numerous facts given above testify to Speransky as the personality many-sided. His talent was shown not only in drawing up the state papers, but also in administrative activity. He took up the position of the governor zealously and made for the Penza province much.

list of sources and literature

1. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). F.5. Op.1. 624.
2. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 625.
3. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 630.
4. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 631.
5. GAPO. F.6. Op.1. 477.
6. See: History of the state Russian: Biographies. The first half of the 19th century / Sost. M.A. Opalinskaya, S.N. Sinegubov, A.V. Shvetsov. M.: Book chamber, 1997. Page 48-71; L.M. Lysenko. Generals and governor generals of the Russian Empire. M.: MGPU publishing house, 2001. Page 66-79; Russian former figures: 12 portraits with biographic essays. SPb: Type. Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1878. Other Page 69-91; O. Savin. Emperors and governors. Penza, 2006. Page 114-134; Chi-biryaev S.A. Great Russian reformer: Life and activity, political views of M.M. Speransky. M.: Journalese association "Sunday", 1993. 238 pages; Yuzhakov S.N. Speransky. His life and public work. Biographic essay//Dashkov. Suvorov. Vorontsova. Speransky. Kankrin. Biographic narrations / Sost. M.F. Boldyreva. Chelyabinsk: Ural publishing house, 1995. Page 309-398, etc.
7. V.O. Klyuchevsky. Course of the Russian history: SOBR. soch.: In the 9th TM, 1989. T. 5. 563 pages
8. M.A. Korf. Life of the count Speransky: In 2 t. SPb: Printing house of Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1861. T. 2. 378 pages
9. A.E. Nolde. Count M.M. Speransky. Characteristic experience. M. Rayev's publication//New magazine. 1989. Prince 175. Page 248-269.
10. The Russian old times - the monthly edition. SPb: Type. "Public advantage", 1902. T. 111. Page 53-59.
11. The Russian Archive - the historico-literary collection devoted to studying our Fatherland in the 18-19th centuries 1870. Prod. 1871. Page 892-1140.
12. V.A. Tomsipov. Star of the Russian bureaucracy. Historical portrait of M.M. Speransky. M.: Young Guard, 1991. 336 pages

UDC 629.113/115 (09)

the missed chance of the empire: to a question of discrepancy of development of the Russian automotive industry till 1917

S.I. ILLIEV

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky Department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

In article the problems of development of domestic automotive industry during the pre-revolutionary period are considered. According to the author, quality characteristics of the Russian cars of that time corresponded to the leading world analogs that visually showed a number of motor rallies. However further small-scale release, business did not go. The state preferred to buy the equipment abroad.

In post-Perestroika years there is common a thesis about rapid modernization of the Russian economy. On the economic potential the country surely took the fifth place in the world. As for automotive industry, it is not necessary to tell about any significant progress here while in the Western European countries the production of cars becomes more and more profitable and promising undertaking. Henry Ford's enterprises in the USA for a season of 1908-1909 brought release of cars to 10607 pieces [1]. And it several years prior to use of the conveyor! "The mobile assembly way" was introduced at the Ford plants only in April, 1913

[2]. After introduction of the conveyor the mass release of cars was estimated already in tens of thousands a year.

What there was a situation in Russia? During the same period several plants undertook production of cars at us. Here some of them: firm "To a mill and To", Lessner, Aksay, Dux, I.P. Puzyrev's plant. The Russian-Baltic car-building plant in Riga became the most known and, perhaps, to the most successful in development of domestic automotive industry. JSC RBVZ founded in 1874 had material and technical resources, good for the time, and had reputation of the reliable partner in the market of mechanical products. A range released

PGPU NEWS. Humanities • No. of 4 (8) 2007 g

JSC RBVZ of products was very extensive: from the rolling stock for the railroads to agricultural machinery. In 1907 at the initiative of the board member of Joint-stock company M.V. Shidlovsko-go at the plant created automobile department. The engineer I.A. Fryazinsky headed new division. Asked for the help in establishing new business the Belgian firm "Fondyu" from where there arrived 26-year-old Julien Potter who already won fame of the talented autodesigner [3]. The first Russo Balts party was partially completed with import details. The plant did not master release of speedometers, radiators and magneto yet. The Russian car first entirely left factory gate on June 2, 1911. It was the R-B 12/20 model. The digital index meant nominal and maximum engine capacity in horsepowers. From this point the triumphal procession of "Russo Balt" begins. Does not pass any motor rally, any exhibition and the international rally where cars of the Riga plant would not participate. And everywhere - awards and prize-winning places. A motor rally, sign and significant for domestic automotive industry, it is necessary to tell about one in more detail.

In 1912 the Defense Ministry of the empire organized a run along a route "St. Petersburg - Pskov - Dvinsk - Vilno - Minsk - Moscow - Chudovo - St. Petersburg". Today our roads leave much to be desired, and in the summer of their 1912 actually did not exist at all. the few sites of this route were shossirovana filling brick. On off road terrain the participants of a run should pass 3320 km [4]. Specially selected best foreign cars and our 4 "Russo Balt" of model "C" with the 30 horsepowers 4-cylinder engines participated in a run. Difficult road conditions and big extent of a route are not casual. By results of a run the Defense Ministry planned to choose basic model for the staff car. The column from 40 foreign cars, 4 "Russo Balts" and 4 trucks with spare parts started from the Field of Mars. Results exceeded expectations! In 19 days of traveling without breakages only our 4 cars finished. Damages of foreign cars were very serious. At Swiss Zaurer, springs sank, at German "Mercedes" the front axle beam caved in, American "Ford T" in general recognized as the unreliable car.

In magnificently published volume of the report on a motor rally the authoritative commission wrote the following about "Russo Balt": "... To consider this car suitable for military need". And further: "Successful performance punched a large gap in a walking concept about the car as delicate, as if weak

car". such overdue understanding cost much to Russia. 2 years later World War I began, and "RBVZ" managed to release according to various data from 625 to 1100 cars. It for all "the automobile period" of the plant. and production was small-scale - from 5 to 50 pieces, depending on the order. In the years of war on RBVZ mastered release of armored cars, but their vast majority was bought in England and in the USA. The sum for which in America it was ordered cars during World War I was 70 million (!) dollars. Quantitatively it made 31080 cars. Unreliable "Fordy-T" forced out "The Russian pearl" - the famous Soviet historian of the equipment Lev Shugurov quite so called "Russo Balt".

The unenviable fate comprehended also cars of the St. Petersburg firm "lessner". From 1904 to 1909 the plant released them about one hundred pieces. In 1907 at the I International exhibition in St. Petersburg the firm got the Big gold medal "For Establishment of Automobile Production in Russia". And in 1909 this production completely stopped.

The firm of creators of the first Russian car of Yakovlev and the Mill started in 1900 release of trucks. Created even own electric vehicle, the trolleybus and the bus. But since 1906 the vehicular factory "To a mill and To" began to release only automobile bodies, installing them on import chassis. And the motor plant of Yakovlev carried over society "Vulkan". 4 more years later body production became the property of JSC RBVZ, however did not gain due development.

In this publication it is told by p about the most famous pioneers of domestic automotive industry. Some more Russian plants tried to master new business, and it is not unsuccessful in respect of quality and application of the progressive technical ideas embodied in their cars. By the beginning of World War I in the Russian automotive industry there was a paradoxical situation. The country received the fine domestic samples of cars in many respects surpassing foreign analogs and hopelessly lagged behind in mass production. Only the first Soviet five-years periods allowed to start elimination of this imbalance.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. G. Ford. My life, my achievements. M.: Nuclear heating plant, 2005. 448 pages
2. In the same place, Page 77.
3. S.I. Illiyev. From history of the Russian automotive industry and motor transport of 1896-1917//the VIII Klyuchevsky readings. PGPU of V.G. Belinsky. Conference materials. Penza. 1999. Page 31-39.
4. V. Belyaev. Four "Russo Balts" and off road terrain//driving. 1972. No. 5. Page 31.
Perry Gibbs
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