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Istoriya studying paleolith of the pool Upper and Average Don



AKTUALNYE of the PROBLEM of NATIONAL HISTORY

UDC 903 (471.322)

HISTORY of STUDYING PALEOLITH of the BASIN of the TOP AND CENTRAL DON

The area Upper and Average the Don attracts great interest of researchers of a paleolith. It is caused by two reasons: first, in this region there is a world famous complex of Paleolithic parking of Kostenki — Borshchevo, being a dominant of a domestic paleolitovedeniye since the end of the 19th century. Secondly, the area remains, in fact, a blank spot on the map of Paleolithic monuments where, until recently, except for parking in Kostenkakh, only not numerous locations of silicon products were known to Gagarino and Maslovka. To understand a phenomenon Kostenok it is necessary to learn this phenomenon from the outside — to systematically explore adjacent areas, to accumulate the analytical database with the subsequent comparison it from classical kostenkovsky modelyyu1. Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky the area played a double role in detection and a research of new monuments of a paleolith in Podonye: on the one hand, the attention of archeologists was completely riveted on a big variety of multilayered parking occurring at different times which study is long labor-intensive process; about Wad Dra -

(St. Petersburg)

Institute of history of material culture

A.A. BESSUDNOV

Work is devoted to history of a research of Paleolithic parking of the pool Upper and Average the Don. Since the end of the 19th century, this area occupies one of the central places researchers, the detection caused by the fact in Kostenkakh of a number of unique parking, many of which have no direct analogies. Active studying these parking promoted growth of number of prospecting works on search of new monuments in "kostenkovsky" the district. Thanks to these researches, the new parking which closed "white spots" around Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky of the area were found.

1 Sinitsyn AA. Kostenkovsky model of the top paleolith / / Archaeological studying the Central Russia / Theses of the International scientific conference devoted to the 100 anniversary since the birth of V.P. Levenk (on November 13-16, 2006). Lipetsk, 2006. Page 44.

gy — on the basis of the Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition created prospecting groups on search of new parking under the leadership of V.P. Levenk, L.M. Tarasov, N.D. Praslov, V.E. Shchelinsky, etc.

The purpose of this work is the short review of history of researches of Paleolithic monuments in the pool Upper and Average the Don, mainly, in the territory of the Voronezh, Lipetsk and Belgorod regions. Because history and the current state of studying a paleolith Kostenok are rather fully lit in literature2, the main attention will be paid to researches outside this verkhnepaleolitichesky residential district.

The first data on existence of settlements of the primitive person on Dona are connected with a name of the famous scientist of the 19th century I.S. Polyakov who found in 1879 in the village of Kostenki traces of fires and stone tools truda3. Using data of S.G. Gmelin who in 1768 visited Kostenki and described "the skeletons of elephants found in a hole which are heated up in a disorder at each other" 4, I .C. Polyakov put several prospecting trenches and holes which confirmed its assumption of existence on this place of the settlement of the Stone Age. After detection of a paleolith in Kostenkakh enough serious researches were not made almost half a century here. A.I. Kelsiyev's excavation in 1881 and S.A. Krukovsky in 1915 on the settlement found by I.S. Polyakov (subsequently Kostenki who became the world famous parking 1) had unsystematic character and aimed only increase in amount of collection material. In 1905 near Kostenkami A.A. Spitsyn one more parking of Borshchevo 1 which laid the foundation for opening of Paleolithic parking in it sele5 was found.

Finds of the first parking of the ancient person near Voronezh and development of archeology countrywide promoted growth of interest in search and study by their local historians. In 1904 there was article of the Voronezh amateur local historian A.A. Orlov "The parking of the Stone Age on the river Oskol" in which it is told about detection between the villages of Valuyki and Urazovo (modern Valuysky district, the Belgorod Region) in the neighborhood of the village of Shelayevo "the dune parking which delivered silicon products" 6. The products found it were described as "characteristic works of the Paleolithic period" 7. It should be noted that the subsequent studying Shelayevsky dune settlements allowed to correct their temporary accessory from Mesolith era to an era bronzy8.

Resumption of archaeological researches in the first years of the Soviet power is connected with a name of the employee of the Voronezh museum of local lore, and later — the employee of Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography S.N. Zamyatnin. In 1922 it was zalo-

2 Vekilova E.A. Letonis of works of the Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition (for l922-l976 of)//Problems of a paleolith of Eastern and Central Europe. L., l977. Page 208-2l5; N.D. Praslov. The history of studying Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky of the area and addition of kostenkovsky school//Kostenkov-sko-Borschevsky's Paleolith of the area on Dona. L., l982. Page 7-l3; Vasilyev S.A. Studying a paleolith in Russia: the past, the present and prospects on the future//Stratum plus. No. l. Chisinau, 200l-2002. Page 21-l70; A.A. Sinitsyn, V.Ya. Sergin, J.F. Hoffeker. l20 of years of researches of a paleolith Kostenok: traditions and trends//Features of the top paleolith of Eastern Europe / Works of the Kostenkovsky expedition of IIMK RAS. Issue l. SPb., 2002. Page 3-l8; V.V. Ponov, M.V. Anikovich. A paleolith research in Kostenkakh: history and current state//Kostenka and early time of the top paleolith of Eurasia: the general and local / Theses of the International conference (on August 23-26, 2004). Voronezh, 2004. Page 123-l25, etc.
3 N.D. Praslov. The history of studying Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky of the area and addition of kostenkovsky school / / Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky's Paleolith of the area on Dona. L., l982. Page 7.
4 In the same place. Page 8.
5 In the same place. Page 11.
6 A. Orlov. The parking of the Stone Age on the river Oskol//Works VUAK. Issue 11. Voronezh, l904. Page _42; It. The parking of the Stone Age on the river Oskol near Shelayev's village of the Valuysky County Voronezh lips. / / Works XIII of the Archaeological congress. T. II. M, l908. Page 106-109.
7 In the same place. Page 106.
8 Foss of M.E. Raskonki of parking on the river Oskol. Works GIM. Issue XII. M, l94l. Page 71-84; Pryakhin

A.D., A.T. Sinyuk, Denisenko of G.F. Shelayevskiye of the parking on Central Oskol//From the history of the Voronezh region. Issue 3. Voronezh, l969. Page 147-168.

wives a hole on Kostenkakh 1 Borshchevo's parking 1 is also surveyed — this year traditionally is considered the beginning of systematic studying Kostenok9. The same year, P.A. Nikitin conducting paleobotanichesky researches in the village of Borshchevo, in parallel opened the new Paleolithic parking — Borshchevo 210. Besides study Kostenok, S.N. Zamyatnin carries out archaeological survey on the river Oskol which result was an identification of location of silicon products in 3 km. south of of Valuyki at. New Izrozhnaya. At the description of these materials, the researcher the first paid attention that as raw materials for production of instruments of labor served local cretaceous flint which way out on coast of the river Oskol were found in big kolichestve11.

In 1925 the manager of the Lipetsk museum of local lore M.P. Trunov transferred to S.N. Zamyatnin data on detection by locals to the village of Gagarino of numerous bones mamonta12. Next year the researcher examined the place of their find, having found accurately expressed cultural layer. Works were continued in 1927 and 1929 during which it was found, along with expressive realistic female figurines and a numerous collection of stone and bone products, the Paleolithic dwelling, the first in the territory of East European Plain, thanks to what the Gagarinsky parking became one of basic monuments paleolita13 at once. Later, in 1955 A.N. Rogachyov and A.A. Velichko carried out small prospecting works in Gagarino which allowed to determine a chronological framework of the parking by the end Valdai epokhi14.

Since 1923 P.P. Efimenko begins systematic works in Kostenkakh15. The number of open settlements increases, the collection of objects material and spiritual kultury16 is replenished. An important milestone is the beginning of application of "a new technique" — excavation is conducted not by separate trenches and holes, and the big areas now, trying to capture a living space completely. Successful application of such technique at a research of a housing estate of the first cultural layer on Kostenkakh 1 was found by reflection in of the same name monografii17. On the basis of this technique the special kostenkovsky school of a research of Paleolithic settlements began to develop. Relying on results of works, the researcher draws a number of important conclusions about existence of long-term dwellings in the top paleolith, about high social standing zhenshchin18.

Post-war resumption of researches in Kostenkakh is connected with a name

A.N. Rogachyova. Studying geological and geomorphological conditions of bedding of cultural layers allowed A.N. Rogachyov to construct together with G.I. Lazukov and A.A. Velichko more reasonable stratigraphic scale for correlation of Paleolithic monuments Kostenok — the integumentary loams divided by two gumusirovanny thicknesses and a layer of volcanic ash became a basis of the tripartite kosten-kovsky scheme.

9 N.D. Praslov. The history of studying Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky of the area and addition of kostenkovsky school / / Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky's Paleolith of the area on the Don / edition N.D. Praslov, A.N. Rogachyov. L., 1982. Page 11.
10 In the same place. Page 11.
11 S.N. Zamyatnin. Archaeological investigations in Alekseevsky and Valuysky Counties. Voronezh, 1921. Page 5; It. Essays on a doistoriya of the Voronezh region. Voronezh, 1922. Page 8.
12 Tarasov L.M. Gagarinskaya the parking and its place in a paleolith of Europe. L., 1979. Page 6.
13 In the same place. Page 9.
14 A.A. Velichko. Geological age of the top paleolith of the central regions of East European Plain. M, 1961.
15 More detailed information on P.P. Efimenko's work in Kostenkakh see: Alexandrov M.V. Ideologiya of excavation in "a new technique" of P.P. Efimenko / / Features of development of the top paleolith of Eastern Europe / Works of the Kostenkovsky expedition of IIMK RAS. Issue 1. SPb., 2002. Page 43-52; Chernysh A.P.P.P. Efimenko and problem of chronology of a paleolith / / KSIA. Issue 206. M, 1992. Page 22-26, etc.
16 N.D. Praslov. The history of studying Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky of the area and addition of kostenkovsky school / / Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky's Paleolith of the area on Dona. L., 1982. Page 11-12.
17 Efimenko of P.P. Kostenki I. M.-L., 1958.
18 P.P. Efimenko. Value of the woman during an orinyaksky era / / GAIMK News. T. 11. Issue 3-4. M, 1931. Page 1-73.

In the 50th of the XX century of work are conducted on several parking by different researchers. 1953-1954 become an important milestone in the history of studying a paleolith in the USSR — these years burials of the Paleolithic person in Braids-tenkakh19 were found (as it turned out, further works did not reveal other burials). Nakhodka on Kostenkakh the 14th burials of the young man carried by M.M. Gerasimov to avstralo-negroid anthropological type allowed to make the assumption of not formation of races during an era top paleolita20. Detection of a number of multilayered parking of a paleolith to Kostenkakh and their subsequent large-scale study raised a question of fields of "kostenkovsky" black cretaceous flint, mainly used by ancient inhabitants of parking. Due to the lack of that in the Region of Kostenok, archaeological and geological expeditions on search of the next sources syrya21 were organized.

In 1957-1959 P.I. Boriskovsky for "solution of the problem of kostenkovsky flint" carried out investigations "mainly on the current of Oskol and its inflows and also partially on the Don Current and the Silent Pine" 22. Following the results of researches the consistent pattern of distribution of exits of cretaceous flint was determined: in 100-130 km to the southwest from Kostenok there is an extensive zone with fields of the light gray opokovidny flint unsuitable for processing — in this area there are only rare single locations Paleolithic kremney23; in 1ZO-150 km near the rivers Oskol, by Valuy and Urazova are found "the numerous, well expressed fields of black cretaceous flint delivering raw materials to Paleolithic inhabitants Kostenok" 24. During prospecting works P.I. Boriskovsky's group found a number of the ancient workshops which are in close proximity to exits of flint and intended for its primary splitting. It is remarkable that many of workshops were poorly expressed, there was no stratigraphy, and temporary accessory was defined by a framework from a paleolith till an era bronzy25. Having analyzed materials from the found points, the researcher allocated two types of workshops:

1) workshops on production of nukleus and preparations which then were carried away on the parking — presence of tumors, a large number of primary chips, ridge chips, insignificant number or lack of nukleus is characteristic of them (Shvedunovka of I-V11, Lobkovka 1-11);
2) workshops for receiving preparations from the nukleus made directly at places of extraction of flint - prevail nukleusa, otshchepa without zhelvachny crust, insignificant percent of the correct facetted plates (Uglovo, Hokhlo-vo, Znamensk) 26.
19 Sinitsyn A.A. Le Sepultures de Kostenki: chronologie, attribution culturelle, rite funeraire//La Spiritualite. Actes du Colloque international de Liege (10-12 decembre 2003). Liege, 2004. P. 237-244; Borya-skovsky P.I. Raskonki of the Paleolithic dwelling and burial in Kostenkakh II in 1953//SA, No. XXV. M, 1956. Page 173-178.
20 A.N. Rogachyov. Burial of the Old Stone Age on Kostenki XIV's parking (Markina the mountain)//SE. No. 1. M, 1955. Page 29-38.
21 Efimenko of P.P. Kostenki I. M.-L., 1958. Page 209-213, 287; P.I. Boriskovsky. Silicon workshops in the neighborhood of Valuyek on the river Oskol//KSIA. Issue 82. M, 1961. Page 104-111; It. Essays but to a paleolith of the pool of Don. MIA. No. 161. M.-L., 1963. Page 166-191; It. The report on work of the Oskol Paleolithic group in 1959//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. It. 1. 151. 1959. Page 2-3.
22 P.I. Boriskovsky. Essays but to a paleolith of the pool of Don//MIA. No. 161. M.-L., 1963. Page 167.
23 P.I. Boriskovsky. Diary of the Oskol group of LOIA Academy of Sciences of the USSR of 1958//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. It. 1. 127. 1958. Page 2-6.
24 P.I. Boriskovsky. The report on work of the Oskol Paleolithic group in 1959//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. It. 1. 151. 1959. Page 4, 18; It. Essays but to a paleolith of the pool of Don//MIA. No. 161. M.-L., 1963. Page 169; It. Silicon workshops in the neighborhood of Valuyek on the river Oskol//KSIA. Issue 82. M, 1961. Page 104-111.
25 In the same place. Page 173, 176, 178, 181, etc.
26 In the same place. Page 171-190.

The majority of silicon finds on these parking workshops accurately are divided into two groups: black, nepatinizirovanny with existence of "typical neolytic forms" and slightly rounded flints covered with "characteristic late Paleolithic white, blue and blue patina" 27. For P.I. Boriskovsky the fact of existence/lack of patina became the main criterion of definition of temporary accessory of flints from the mixed complexes of the Oskol workshops. He carries out opening of cultural layers on parking of Borshchevo 2, Kostenki 2, 17, 19 whose materials were published in monografiyakh28 subsequently. Adhering to traditional stadial positions, P.I. Boriskovsky becomes the ardent opponent of A.N. Rogachyov and his concrete historical podhoda29.

Since 1958 as a part of the Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition of LOIA Academy of Sciences of the USSR there begins work the Average and Don neolytic group under the direction of

Century of Item Levenka30. It were a part, including, and students of the Leningrad state university G.P. Grigoriev, G.V. Grigorieva, the graduate student of the sector of archeology of Institute of history AN BSSR V.D. Budko who became in the subsequent the famous researchers. With their help V.P. Levenok carries out investigation on the average Don Current from the mouth of the river Voronezh to the village Arkhangelskogo31. Works were carried out "for the purpose of filling of the known lacuna which was expressed that in this territory between monuments of the top paleolith... and the huge gap within which no cultural remains" 32 were found was available parking of an era of bronze in the chronological relation. The same year, according to A.N. Rogachyov, V.P. Leva-nok makes the general card of Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky rayona33.

Since 1959 the focus of field researches of V.P. Levenk is shifted to the pool Upper Dona whose territory he will actively study till 1968. During prospecting works with it many single locations of flints of Paleolithic shape were revealed (points at. Small Nelyadino34; Ur. "White mountain" 35, village Nikolskoye36, Selishche37; Ur. Voychinka 38, etc. 39). A researcher also were for -

27 In the same place. Page 171-190.
28 P.I. Boriskovsky. Paleolithic parking of Borshchevo II//MIA. No. 2. M.-L., 1941; It. Paleolith of Ukraine. MIA. No. 40. M.-L., 1953; It. Essays on a paleolith of the pool of Don / / MIA. No. 161. M.-L., 1963; It. Some issues of development of late Paleolithic culture of East European Plain / / MIA. No. 59. M.-L., 1957.
29 Vasilyev S.A. Problems of cultures of the top paleolith in the Russian archeology (historical review) / / Features of development of the top paleolith of Eastern Europe / / Works of the Kostenkovsky expedition of IIMK RAS. Issue 1. SPb., 2002. Page 43-62; It. The most ancient past of mankind: search of the Russian scientists. SPb., 2008. Page Z7-107; Sinitsyn AA. Concrete historical approach of A.N. Rogachyov. The current state / / the Top paleolith — the top Pleistocene: dynamics of natural events and periodization of archaeological cultures. SPb., 2002. Page 33-41; Anikovich M.V.A.N. Rogachyov and "konkretnoistorichesky approach" in a paleolitovedeniye//RA. No. 4. M, 2007. Page 64-71.
30 More detailed information on V.P. Levenk's contribution to studying Paleolithic and mesolytic antiquities Podonya see: Bessudnov AA., Bessudnov A.N.V.P. Levenok and his role in identification and studying antiquities of eras of paleolith and Mesolith in Podonye / / Archaeological studying the Central Russia / Theses of the International scientific conference devoted to the 100 anniversary since the birth of V.P. Levenk (on November 13-16, 2006). Lipetsk, 2006. Page 21-25; A.N. Bessudnov, Pryakhin A.D. Vsevolod Protaso-vich Levenok: strokes to the archeologist's portrait / / In the same place. Page 5-7; Praslov N.D. Vsevolod Protasovich Levenok in Department of a paleolith of IIMK RAS / / In the same place. Page 7-9; I.V. Fedyunin. Mesolith forest-steppe Podonya in V.P. Levenk's researches//Archeological sites of Eastern Europe. Voronezh, 2002. Page 12-15.
31 V.P. Levenok. The archaeological report to investigations on the top Diet and an average to Don (within the Kursk and Voronezh regions) in 1958, made on the basis of the Open sheet No. 122 issued on June 5, 1958 in form 2 addressed to Vsevolod Protasyevich Levenk. L., 1959 / / RAS news Agency Archive. R-1. No. 1709. Page 18-19.
32 In the same place. Page 19.
33 A.N. Rogachyov. The report on work of a Paleolithic expedition in 1958. L., 1959 / / RAS news Agency Archive. R-1. No. 1781. Page 3.
34 V.P. Levenok. Field book of the archeologist. Upper Don forwarding group of LOIA Academy of Sciences of the USSR. No. XXI1. 1959. Page 39.
35 In the same place. Page 41.
36 In the same place. Page 93.
37 In the same place. Page 107-111.

all are fixed locations known by then placetotsenovy fauny40, caves and so-called "tests of flint" — places of the pebble flint split in the ancient time near its field (i.e. workshops) 41 are surveyed.

In 1960 the group was transformed to an expedition from which the Paleolithic group under the leadership of L.M. Tarasov was allocated, the purpose his study became exclusive a paleolith in the territory of Lipetsk oblasti42. This group makes a dwelling additional research in Gagarino in 1961 — 1969. Detection of two bilocular constructions adjoining the dwelling, increase twice in the volume of stone products, opening of a new series of female figurines, specification of a planigrafiya of the settlement that found reflection in the monograph "The Gagarinsky Parking and Its Place in a Paleolith of Europe" 43 became result of works. At the same time L.M. Tarasov will organize search of new monuments of a paleolith in Podonye44. For several years to them several locations of flints of Paleolithic shape and the remains of a paleofauna were revealed: point at is surveyed. Small Nelyadino of Dankovsky district Lipetsk oblasti45, found still by V.P. Levenk on whom several fragments of siliceous breed and nukleus, identical gagarinskim46 are collected; at the village Uryv and Huth. Averino of Podgo-rensky district of the Voronezh region found bones large zhivotnykh47, etc. But detection of the new parking with a cultural layer of in situ between Kostenkami and Gagarino became the main success. The settlement at Maslovka Semiluki (nowadays Ramonsko-go) the region of the Voronezh region, despite small number of silicon stock (about 100 copies), is important for understanding of processes of localization and placement of Paleolithic monuments in geomorphological conditions, excellent from kostenkovskikh48.

Since 1976 the Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition is headed by N.D. Pra-slov. He undertakes active work on search of new monuments and studying already known. The II housing estate of the I cultural layer Kostenok 1 where there is a research of all area becomes the main object. At excavation, new archaeological and natural science methods are widely applied. These years Kostenki 1(1) becomes the most provided natural science analyses the parking to Rus-

38 V.P. Levenok. Field book of the archeologist. Upper Don forwarding group of LOIA Academy of Sciences of the USSR. No. XXI1. 1959. Page 77.
39 The list of the Paleolithic and mesolytic monuments found by V.P. Levenk see: A.A. Bessudnov, Bessudnov A.N.V.P. Levenok and his role in identification and studying antiquities of eras of paleolith and Mesolith in Podonye / / Archaeological studying the Central Russia / Theses of the International scientific conference devoted to the 100 anniversary since the birth of V.P. Levenk (on November 13-16, 2006). Lipetsk, 2006. Page 23-24.
40 The locations of placetotsenovy fauna found V.P. Levenk were published later in the form of the short arch, see: A.A. Chubur, A.Yu. Klokov. Finds of late quarternary fauna in the territory of the Lipetsk region (the list for 1992) / / the Theory and a technique of researches of archeological sites of a forest-steppe zone. Lipetsk, 1992. Page 100-113.
41 A.A. Bessudnov, Bessudnov A.N.V.P. Levenok and his role in identification and studying antiquities of eras of paleolith and Mesolith in Podonye / / Archaeological studying the Central Russia / Theses of the International scientific conference devoted to the 100 anniversary since the birth of V.P. Levenk (on November 13-16, 2006). Lipetsk, 2006. Page 23-24.
42 V.P. Levenok. Field book of the archeologist. Upper Don expedition of the Lipetsk region of Museum of local lore and LOIA Academy of Sciences of the USSR No. XXV. 1959. Page 5.
43 Tarasov L.M. Gagarinskaya the parking and its place in a paleolith of Europe. L., 1979.
44 L.M. Tarasov. The report on field works of Gagarinsky Paleolithic group in 1969//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. Op. 1. 115. 1970. Page 1.
45 L.M. Tarasov. Diary of Gagarinsky Paleolithic group of 1969//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. Op. 1. 9. 1969. Page 3.
46 L.M. Tarasov. Paleolith of the pool Upper Dona / / Archeological sites of the forest-steppe Don region. Vyp 1. Lipetsk, 1996. Page 85.
47 L.M. Tarasov. The report on field works of Gagarinsky Paleolithic group in 1970//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. Op. 1. 115. 1971. Page 4.
48 L.M. Tarasov Maslovka is the Paleolithic parking on the river Voronezh / / KSIA. Issue 173. M, 1983.

Page 67-71.

sky ravnine49. In 1979 the International meeting dated for the 100 anniversary of opening of a paleolith in Kostenkakh is held here. To this event the arch of all known parking of Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky of the area which remains the only thing to today's dnya50 was published. Investigations outside Kos-tenok are carried out to the same time — in Ostrogozhsky district of the Voronezh region at page. Fur-coat the Mousterian location with typical bifasa and little-enders from dark gray quartzite is revealed. During excavation of the settlement of an era of bronze at the village of Mosolovka of Anninsky district of the Voronezh region on the river Bityug (70-80th of the last century) A.D. Pryakhin in the sands spreading a cultural layer of an era of bronze collected a small, but expressive collection of silicon products among which there were scrapers and cutters typically Paleolithic oblika51. Up to this point was considered that the flat sandy plain of a left bank of Don is unpromising regarding search of traces of the Paleolithic person.

In 1977 the prospecting group of the Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition under the leadership of V.E. Shchelinsky carried out search of Paleolithic monuments in places of an exit of cretaceous flint and quartzite in the western areas Belgorod and the southern areas Kursk areas where "paleolith monuments still were not known" 52. Identification within the Belgorod district of four points became their result: 1) a fragment of a nozhevidny plate of transparent flint at the village of Dmitriyevka; 2) a workshop at the village of Sabynino and two locations of the split flints at the village of Kiselyovo. In the workshop Sabynino 105 silicon products among which there are two nukleus and four products with secondary processing are revealed. Time frames of a monument are defined by the author eras of the top paleolith and Neolithic, with the most probable reference of material to top paleolitu53. On Kiselevo Paragraph 1 20 silicon products, including one face nukleus, two plates, a scraper, a beak-shaped product, two otshchep with an abrupt retouch are found. Leaning on the fact of existence in a hole of ancient loams, V.E. Shchelinsky assumed possible verkhnepaleolitichesky age stoyanki54.

In the late seventies I.A. Pislary, M.I. Gladky, by A.F. Gorelik and A.A. Krotova carry out a series of investigations in the pool of Seversk Dontsa55. In Valuysky district on the coast of the Urazovoy River a number of silicon workshops — Demino-Aleksandrovka by I, XII, Gerasimovka is found. As well as P.I. Boriskovsky, A.A. Krotova notes duration of functioning of the majority of workshops (from paleolith era till the Neolithic bronze), "especially for monuments with lifting material, excepting Gerasimov-ka" 56. Other picture Demino-Aleksandrovka represents XII where the cultural layer was buried soon after short functioning of a workshop and in which Paleolithic materials impurity of later time to appear not uspela57. Materials from Gerasimovka contain products as mustyeroid-ny (bifasa, scraped), and verkhnepaleolitichesky shapes (prismatic nukleusa, plates) that gave the chance to assume to the author a raznovremennost

49 Radio-carbon chronology of a paleolith of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Problems and prospects. SPb., 1997. Page 34.
50 Kostenkovsko-Borschevsky's paleolith of the area on Dona. 1879-1979. L., 1982.
51 M.I. Shabalin, N.D. Praslov, G.V. Holmova. Opening of a paleolith in the neighborhood of Voronezh / / the Voronezh State University / Geology Bulletin. Voronezh, 2004. No. 2. Page 44.
52shchelinsky V.E. The report on investigations of Paleolithic monuments by Paleolithic group of the Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition of LOIA Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1977//IIMK RAS Archive. T. 35. Op. 1977. 1977. Page 1.
53 In the same place. Page 7.
54 In the same place. Page 8.
55 A.A. Krotova. New kremneobrabatyvayushchy masterful eras of a paleolith on the Seversky Donets / / Materials of the Stone Age in the territory of Ukraine. Kiev, 1984. Page 43.
56 In the same place. Page 50.
57 In the same place. Page 50.

kollektsii58. However the uniformity of silicon material speaks about possible transitional (a mustya — the top paleolith) functioning time stoyanki59. Using the scheme of division of workshops made by P.I. Boriskovsky, A.A. Krotova carries the parking Demino-Aleksandrovka of XII to workshops of the first type, with specialization in flint preprocessing; Gerasimovka, on the contrary, belongs to the second tipu60.

Since 1987 regular field researches of an archaeological expedition of the Lipetsk state Pedagogical Institute under the leadership of A.N. Bessudnov begin. Its structure constantly increases, at the same time the known monuments are actively studied and new come to light. But any Paleolithic antiquities in the first five years of researches on Top to Don (within administrative borders of the Lipetsk region) were not vyyavleno61. Nevertheless, it is necessary to celebrate one the event connected with the publication in 1991 E.A. Spiridonova of a monographic research about evolution of a vegetable cover of the pool of Don in the top Pleistocene-golotsene62, very important for the considered period. Also in 1991 one of the first attempts to track Svidersky' manifestation and arensburgsky traditions in the silicon industry of early mesolytic complexes of forest-steppe Podonya63 becomes, and in 1992 an attempt of the complex analysis of antiquities of a final paleolith and mezolita64 is made. The next years in this regard become more successful: locations of flint, a paleofauna are found, mesolytic and neolytic parking from which are especially noted finalnopaleolitichesky — Zamyatino 14, Pisarevo, Gryaznoye65 are explored. In 1997 and 1999 under the leadership of A.N. Bessudnov the finalnopaleolitichesky parking of Samotoyevk at the village of Novokharkovka of Olkhovatsky district of the Voronezh region found and partially surveyed by T.Yu. Berezutska in 1995 to 66 Them is dug out Zamyatino's parking 14 in the Zadonsky Region of Lipetsk region, on the silicon equipment belonging to a circle gravettsky pamyat-nikov67 is explored. In 2003-2004 A.N. Bessudnov the first made an attempt of generalization of new Paleolithic locations in Podonye68.

58 In the same place. Page 49.
59 A.A. Krotova. Communications of the late Paleolithic population of the basin of the Seversky Donets and center of the East European Plain / / Features of development of the top paleolith of Eastern Europe / Works of the Kostenkovsky expedition of IIMK RAS. Issue 1. SPb., 2002. Page 132.
60 A.A. Krotova. New kremneobrabatyvayushchy masterful eras of a paleolith on the Seversky Donets//Materials of the Stone Age in the territory of Ukraine. Kiev, 1984. Page 51.
61 A.N. Bessudnov, Unsociable persons I.E., I.A. Kozmirchuk. Some results of continuous archaeological inspection of the Lipetsk Don region / / Theory and technique of researches of archeological sites of a forest-steppe zone / Theses of reports of a scientific conference. Lipetsk, 1992. Page 90-93.
62 E.A. Spiridonova. Evolution of a vegetable cover of the pool of Don in the top Pleistocene Holocene (the top paleolith — bronze). M, 1991.
63 A.N. Bessudnov. To a question of Svidersky and arensburgsky traditions in hunting arms of the population of the Stone Age forest-steppe Podonya / / Yelets and its vicinities / Theses of a scientific conference. Yelets, 1991. Page 83-85.
64 E.A. Spiridonova, Yu.A. Lavrushin, A.N. Bessudnov. Evolution of a natural situation and economic traditions of the ancient person of a final paleolith and Mesolith Top and Average Podonya / / the Palaeoecology and resettlement of the ancient person in Northern Asia and America / Materials of the International symposium. Krasnoyarsk, 1992. Page 228-231; Yu.A. Lavrushin, E.A. Spiridonova, L.V. Alekseeva, A.N. Bessudnov. Complex studying monuments of the Stone Age on average Pooskolye / / Theory and technique of researches of archeological sites of a forest-steppe zone / Theses of reports of a scientific conference. Lipetsk, 1992. Page 65-67.
65 A.N. Bessudnov. Archaeological researches in the Lipetsk region: some results and prospects / / Lipetsk region the 50th years / Materials of an interregional academic and research conference. Lipetsk, 2003. Page 164-166.
66 T.Yu. Berezutskaya. The report to Open sheet No. 85 on carrying out archaeological researches in the New Kharkiv residential district (Olkhovatsky district of the Voronezh region) in 1995 / / RAS news Agency Archive. 1997.
67 A.N. Bessudnov. Researches in Zadonsky and Stanovlyansky districts of the Lipetsk region / / the joint-stock company 2002. M, 2003. Page 91-93.
68 A.N. Bessudnov. To a problem of allocation of finalnopaleolitichesky antiquities in forest-steppe Podonye / / Contact zones of Eurasia at a boundary eras / Materials of an archaeological expedition WITH -

In 2004 traces of activity of the Paleolithic person in the area are found x. Divnogorye. Further researches allowed to reveal a number of new parking and locations in the mouth of river. A silent Pine from which the most interesting are Divnogorye 9 — "kostishche" placetotsenovy horses with insignificant number of silicon products and Divnogorye 1 — the nondurable hunting camp with the expressive silicon industry late Valdai vremeni69.

In 1989 the Yelets researcher N.A. Tropin published data on opening of a number of Paleolithic parking on the Palna River (the left inflow of river. A fast Pine) with attempt of allocation Paleolithic mikroregiona70. Further the anthropogenic nature of origin of chips of patinizirovanny color flint did not manage to be proved. In l992 of around Zadonskoy Luka (from Zadonsk to the mouth of river. Again) the Paleolithic group of the Kursk state Pedagogical Institute under the leadership of A.A. Chubur works. In spite of the fact that the remains of activity of the Paleolithic person were not found, the author considers that existence of a paleolith in this area (especially near the village of Ksizovo) "is represented very probable, to that there are all prerequisites: finds of placetotsenovy megafauna, classical priustyevy capes, typical situation in the valley of the river, existence of exits of flint, suitable for processing" 71.

Since the end of the 90th after a small break researches in Kostenkakh are resumed. Here two independent expeditions work: The Kostenkovsky Paleolithic expedition (since 1998), under the leadership of A.A. Sinitsyn and the Kostenkovsko-Borshchevsky archaeological expedition (since 1999) under the leadership of M.V. Anikovi-cha72. The first carries out the works on Kostenki's parking l4 (Markina the mountain) aimed generally at studying cultural layers of a beginning of the top paleolith, including a layer, unique on the contents, in volcanic peple73; Homo Sapiens tooth find in a cultural layer of IV6/i, become to the most ancient at the moment in Europe74 became sensational.

The Kostenkovsko-Borshchevsky archaeological expedition together with the State archaeological memorial estate "Kostenki" (the director — V.V. Popov) conducts researches on Kostenki's parking l, 8, 9, ll, l2. Works on these parking

IKM of P.V. Alabin and the International conference. Samara, 2003. Page 59-63; It. New verkhnepaleolitichesky locations of the pool of the Top and Average Don Kostenki and early time of the top paleolith of Eurasia: the general and local / Theses of the International conference (on August 23-26, 2004). Voronezh, 2004. Page 92-93.

69 A.N. Bessudnov — hp
70 Troping NA. The report on researches of the Upper Don group of an archaeological expedition of Voronezh State University in 1989 in the territory of the Lipetsk region. Yelets, 1990; It. Archaeological investigations in the pool of the Fast Pine//Theses of the 6th interuniversity scientific conference of young scientists. Lipetsk, 1992. Page 190.
71 Chubur AA. The report on work of Paleolithic group of an archaeological expedition of the Kursk state teacher's college in Zadonsky district Lipetsk and the Bryansk district Bryansk areas in 1992. Kursk, 1992. Page 7.
72 Priests V.V., Anikovich of M.V. Issledovaniye of a paleolith in Kostenkakh: history and current state//Kostenka and early time of the top paleolith of Eurasia: the general and local / Theses of the International conference (on August 23-26, 2004). Voronezh, 2004. Page 124.
73 Sinitsyn AA. Lower cultural layers Kostenok 14 (Markina mountain) (excavation of 1998-2001) / / Features of the top paleolith of Eastern Europe / Works of the Kostenkovsky expedition of IIMK RAS. Issue 1. SPb., 2002. Page 124-147; A.A. Sinitsyn, V.Ya. Sergin, J.F. Hoffeker. 120 years of researches of a paleolith Kostenok: traditions and trends//In the same place. Page 7-23; A.A. Sinitsyn, J.F. Hoffeker, G.V. Sinitsyna, E.A. Spiridonova, E.G. Guskova, Forman Sr., Next A.K., Bessudnov AA., D.S. Mironov, Reynolds of B. Kostenki 14 (Markina mountain)//Kostenki and early time of the top paleolith of Eurasia: the general and local / Theses of the International conference (on August 23-26, 2004). Voronezh, 2004. Page 39-59; Sinitsyn AA., Bessudnov AA., Next A.K. Researches Kostenok 14//joint-stock company of 2005 of M., 2007. Page 242244; Sinitsyn A.A. A Palaeolithic & #34; Pompeii" at Kostenki, Russia//Antiquity. No. 77. 2003. P.9-14, etc.
74 Anikovich M.V., Sinitsyn A.A, Hoffecker J.F., Holliday V.T., Popov V.V., Lisitsyn S.N., Forman S.L., Levkovskaya G.M., Pospelova G.A., Kuz&mina L.E., Burova N.D., Goldberg P., Macphail R.I., Giaccio B., Praslov N.D. Early Upper Palaeolithic in Eastern Europe and implication for the dispersal of modern humans//Science. vol. 315. London, 2007. P. 223-226.

allow to resolve important issues of a stratigraphy, correlation of cultural layers on various parking, to specify chronology of settlements, etc. 75. As a part of an expedition Borschevsky the group headed by S.N. Lisitsyn conducts work (since 2002). He carries out active work on identification of new Paleolithic settlements in Big Borschevsky to the log — at the moment them it is known already six, a number of silicon locations is also found. Researches on the multilayered parking of Borshchevo opened by S.N. Lisitsyn 5 proved

Elaine Helen
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