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Structure and features of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty



ETNOGRAFIYA, HISTORY

STRUCTURE AND FEATURES of SHAMAN ATTRIBUTES of VAKHOVSKY KHANTY

A.A. Bogordayeva

The structure of shaman attributes vakhovsky (Vakh River) of Khanty, including is defined: a tambourine, a string musical instrument, a beater, anthropomorphous and zoomorfny images of spirits assistants, a cone-shaped cap from fabric, soft and metal wreaths, a dressing gown, a caftan "from cervine skin", mittens and footwear from bear kamus. On the basis of the comparative and typological analysis of these objects the specifics of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty which consist in a combination of the objects having Ob-Ugrian origin to borrowed Selkups, Kets and Evenks are revealed.

Shaman attributes, tambourine, beater, string musical instrument, headdress, dressing gown, caftan, mittens, footwear, vakhovsky Khanty.

Despite an old story of study and great research interest, a shaman complex of the Ob ugr treats the least classified concerning structure and local features. Such situation was caused by a number of circumstances, including a variety and fragmentation of the available data. According to some researchers, features of Ob-Ugrian Shamanism are shown in its backwardness and incompleteness of formation, incompleteness of a shaman suit and other attributes [Karyalainen, 1996; Kulemzin, 1976; Prokofieva, 1971].

Among local groups of the Ob ugr are most representative in ethnographic literature [Dmitriyev Gardeners, 1911; Kulemzin, 1976; Aged men, 1928; Shatilov, 2000] and the published catalogs of museum collections [the Catalogue..., 1979] shaman objects of vakhovsky group of east Khanty. Against the background of scarcity of data on shaman attributes of other groups of Khanty and Ob groups in general the analysis of already available and again received materials on this group of Khanty can become a starting point for determination of specifics of clothes and other objects of shaman practice of Khanty and Mansi. An objective of this research is definition on the basis of the comparative and typological analysis of structure and features of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty in the Vasyugan vakhovskoy of group. Data of ethnographic literature and a complex of objects from funds of museum of local lore of the Regional historical and cultural and ecological center of Megion were for this purpose analyzed. The complex of shaman objects includes a headdress, 2 "fortunetelling" stones, the metal figure of a snake sewed from skin (suede) a figure of a lizard and a beater. It is known that these objects came to the museum in 1989 from I.P. Sigilyetov (item Kolikegan Nizhnevartovskogo of the district of the Tyumen Region).

The fullest data on structure and some features of shaman attributes of va-hovsky Khanty are provided in M.B. Shatilov's work published in 1931 which included the materials collected by the author during the expedition on the Vakh River. The author supplies with the short information on a tambourine 'which', a beater ‘палантив’, an elta-myul cap, a dressing gown, the special elta-research footwear and mittens 'elta-pass' [2000. Page 192-193]. In the same place the photo of the vakhovsky shaman — 'elta-ka' in a headdress (a cone-shaped cap with the sewed cross) with a tambourine in hands and the string musical instrument standing nearby is published. According to M.B. Shatilov, "in the sense of special shaman vestments, vakhovets already considerably lost a number of the moments which are considered as obligatory at many other Siberian natives" [In the same place. Page 193].

Further detailed and comprehensive study of shaman practice of vakhovsky Khanty as a part of the Vasyugan vakhovskoy of group was continued by V.M. Kulemzin. Investigating ways of acquisition of a shaman gift, function, acts of a kamlaniye, attributes and the social status sha-

man Vasyugan vakhovskoy groups of Khanty which vakhovsky, Vasyugan and aleksandrovsky Khanty enter V.M. Kulemzin gives the developed description of the string musical instrument 'panan-yukh', a cap (including with the embroidered images of the person and a cross), beaters, two soft wreaths, a metal crown of Vakh-myul and footwear of vakhovsky Khanty [1976. Page 52, 76-79, 86-91]. On the researcher's materials, at vakhovsky Khanty the shamans used a tambourine 'which', dressing gowns with the kopalukha wings sewn under mice which could attach also to usual clothes and also a dressing gown (possibly, a caftan) from "dressed cervine skin with the metal pendants attached on a back" [In the same place. Page 75, 79, 93]. In a trunk of the vakhov-sky shaman were found: a piece of fabric with pendants from a beads, clothes for spirits patrons, stones and images of spirits assistants, including anthropomorphous and zoomorfny (figures of snakes) [In the same place. Page 99-105].

The volume of the published materials and the detailed description of shaman attributes of vakhovsky, aleksandrovsky and Vasyugan Khanty provided by V.M. Kulemzin allow to distinguish from them the general and locally occurring things. In the comparative analysis of a complex of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty with others, belonging to the Vasyugan and aleksandrovsky Khanty, its bigger specific and quantitative structure is found.

The string musical instrument 'panan-yukh' and a tambourine belong to popular objects at vakhovsky, Vasyugan and aleksandrovsky Khanty. At the same time, as notes

V.M. Kulemzin, typologically used tambourines are not identical: a tambourine 'which' the vakhovsky shaman is found by a number of similar lines with tambourines of Kets, Selkups and symsky Evenks; the tambourine ‘куюм’ the Vasyugan shaman is similar to Evenki [In the same place. Page 136].

The beater of 'pas-lantiv', a metal wreath, a shaman trunk, images of spirits patrons and their clothes, anthropomorphous and zoomorfny images of spirits assistants, stones belong to number of the general objects for vakhovsky and Vasyugan Khanty. Let's stop in detail on these objects in the given sequence.

Descriptions of beaters of vakhovsky Khanty are provided by M.B. Shatilov and V.M. Kulemzin. The curved form and existence on the concave party of the image of a lizard, snake or cross [Kulemzin, belong 1976 to the general signs their production from a tree (birch). Page 91; Shatilov, 2000. Page 192]. At the same time the image of a lizard or snake was cut out on a shovel or shaped from a metal rod and attached to a shovel. V.M. Kulemzin notes that a form of a vakhovsky beater and also existence of the image of a snake on it are similar Selkup [2000. Page 136].

The shaman beater (of 592) vakhovsky Khanty from the Megion museum is cut out from a tree in the form of the flat extended rectangular shovel 22 cm long, 5-6.5 cm wide and (fig. 1) 3 cm thick. The handle, round at the basis (length of 10.5 cm and with a diameter of 2 cm) is flattened by the end where the opening is made. On the one hand the surface of the blade is pasted over with a piece of a skin of a bear, and on the other hand on it the animal figure, apparently lizards is cut out. In comparison with above the beater from the Megion museum has more flat form, however on such signs as existence of the image of a lizard and fur pasting, it approaches them.

Outlining a wide area of existing of a metal wreath with iron cervine horns in Siberia (at Evenks, Selkups, Kets, drill, Nanais), V.M. Kulemzin assumes that at vakhovsky Khanty he had the character borrowed from Evenks [In the same place. Page 137]. Judging by data which are provided by V.M. Kulemzin, this headdress at vakhovsky and Vasyugan Khanty was fixed in single copies. Agreeing with the version of loan of this headdress, we will notice that probably this process was more difficult and versatile what it will be told further about.

Considering the images of spirits patrons which are contained in shaman trunks, their clothes, images of spirits assistants and stones, V.M. Kulemzin does not exclude a possibility of their emergence as a result of action of individual imagination [In the same place. Page 99]. It is necessary to add to it that probably in this case at vakhovsky and Vasyugan Khanty the general is shown for most of groups of the Ob ugr tradition of maintenance of personal spirits patrons which provided with clothes and other gifts. Among them a specific place is held by various stones. Nakhodka of such stone — a doll of 'paka', on beliefs Vasyugan vakhovskikh Khanty, brought wealth and good luck, it should have been stored in specially made trunk and to sew every three years new clothes [In the same place. Page 100]. Similar relation to small kam-

to nyam-finds it is fixed practically throughout accommodation of Khanty and Mansi [Gemu-ev, Baulo, 1999. Page 179]. Stones finds used honoring and at the next people — Kets and Nenets [Alekseenko, 1977. Page 54; Homich, 1977. Page 12].

Two stones appearing in museum documentation as "fortunetelling stones" (rc 159) (fig. 2) also are a part of shaman objects from the Megion museum. One of them — the rusted and showered iron ore piece (marsh?) sizes of 2*3 cm. Another — the river galechnik having the form of the head of an animal (1.4*4 cm). Most likely, these stones belong to the category 'paka' — to the stones bringing good luck and wealth.

Fig. 2. "Fortunetelling" stones of vakhovsky Khanty

The following group of shaman attributes is recorded at vakhovsky and aleksandrovsky Khanty: a headdress in the form of a soft wreath, a mitten and footwear from bear kamus. The descriptions of two headdresses of vakhovsky shamans provided by V.M. Kulemzin show that they

treat the "soft wreath" type consisting of the strip of fabric sewed in a ring in which over the top the crossing strips are sewn [2000. Page 76-78]. Noting a special form of these wreaths, the researcher refers them to characteristic signs of the Khanty shamanism [In the same place.

S. 140]. In our opinion, uzkolokalny distribution in the environment of the Ob ugr has this appearance of a headdress.

The headdress of vakhovsky Khanty of this kind is stored in the Megion museum (of 323). It consists of two objects supplementing each other — the metal wreath forming a rigid framework, and the "soft" wreath sewed from fabric and decorated with pendants from fabric tapes, beads and a beads (fig. 3) which is put on over it.

Fig. 3. A wreath — a shaman headdress of vakhovsky Khanty

The metal wreath (diameter of 16.7 cm) represents the hoop made of wide (7 cm) of a plate which ends are imposed at each other and riveted. Two strips 22.5 cm long crossing on the top and 1.5 cm wide from white metal are attached to a hoop. Their ends are bent in a hoop and riveted at its bottom edge in front and behind, at the left and on the right. In a junction — over the top — strips are fixed by plasticine.

The wreath from fabric by the sizes and a form coincides with the lower metal wreath. It is sewed from black and white cotton fabric by cotton and tendinous threads. A part of seams is executed on the sewing machine, other part — manually. The basis of the lower part of a wreath (width of 7 cm, length of 55.5 cm) is sewed from three strips of black fabric, one strip makes a back part, two strips which are connected on a nape by a rectangular piece of fabric of black color of them — a front part. A front part is decorated with beadwork of white, yellow, blue, red colors. Beads are sewed in the form of the pattern representing two wavy (from above and from below) and the straight line passing between them. The lower and top edges of a strip of black fabric are sheathed by an edging 0.5 cm wide from white cotton fabric — calico. Also from white calico the strips crossing on the top sewn in front and behind, at the left and on the right are sewed.

Two strips of black cotton fabric about 2 cm wide and 64 and 63 cm long are sewn to bottom edge of an occipital part of this wreath. A strip are sewed manually by tendinous threads and are decorated with beadwork and pendants from a beads with metal rings. At the basis of each strip three biserina of blue color are sewed. The line from the white and red colors alternating biserin passes on all length of each of these strips. By the ends of strips at -

kreplena on 2 pendants from rovduzhny thongs with the strung beads of white, black, blue colors. The same pendants (on two) are sewn to the parties of strips at distance of 17-18 cm from the basis and on two — at distance of 17-18 cm from previous. On the ends of these pendants from a beads there are tin rings.

Other pendants also are sewn to bottom edge of a wreath. So, to the right of the above strips, at distance of 2 cm, the rovduzhny thong 42.5 cm long with the beads of white, blue, brown, red color strung on it and black with white-pink strips is sewn. In 30 cm from the basis the thong forks, forming two ends from nizka of a beads and a tin ring on one end. (On the second end probably the ring was lost.) Through 2 cm from this thong the tendinous thread on which probably the beads or beads lost by the present moment were strung earlier is attached to a wreath. As well to the left of the strips sewn to a wreath the tendinous thread 59 cm long with the white, pink, red, blue beads strung on it is sewn. The strip of fabric of red color is tied to the end of a thread. Near it two more tendinous threads 36 and 47 cm long with the strung beads are sewn.

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Besides, to a back part of a metal wreath, to its top metal plate, tied the tape weaved manually out of strings of plant origin (possibly, a nettle family) green, blue and gray-yellow color. On a tape the wavy pattern is traced. Three rovduzhny thongs with a beads and pendants are tied to a tape. The first rovduzhny thong reaches in length of 14 cm, on it beads of blue, green and yellow colors are strung, and to its end the metal ring is attached. The second, 11 cm long, has blue, white, blue and yellow beads and the nizka of black beads attached to it on a rovduzhny thong 28.5 cm long. The third rovduzhny thong, 11 cm long, is decorated with blue and white beads, and the strip of green cotton fabric is attached to its end. This strip has the extended trapezoid form, is sewed from two whole pieces of fabric and bordered with narrow strips of the same fabric. The face of a strip is embroidered with beads a stitch in 1 biserina of white color and a stitch in 2 biserina of yellow color. Stitches form a pattern in the form of three lines on strip perimeter (two — white color and between them one — yellow color) and wavy (of five rows — 3 white and 2 yellow) in the center. Are also sewn to a strip 37 it is low beads and beads on rovduzhny thongs, cotton and tendinous threads. For a nizaniye multi-colored beads and beads were used. By the ends it is low tin, metal and aluminum (1) rings and also metal sleeves (2), plaques (2), brushes from strips of color fabric are attached.

This headdress is interesting that in it two objects — a metal wreath and a wreath from fabric which use is fixed in ethnographic literature mostly separately are combined. Separately used metal and "soft" wreaths occurred at Kets, Selkups, Evenks, Yakuts, Dolgans [Prokofieva, 1971. Page 21, 34-35, 43, 48]. Metal wreaths were a part of shaman vestments of Udege and Buryats [In the same place. Page 54, 77]. Application of "soft" wreaths from fabric or rovdug in shaman practice is noted at Nenets, Enets, the Nganasan, Evens, Nanais [In the same place. Page 10, 15, 16, 49, 53]. The description of the Selkup metal wreath (basin of the Ket River) which iron basis is sheathed by red cotton fabric with a metal figure of the gagara fixed on the top is given in the Catalogue of ethnographic collections of the Museum of archeology and ethnography of Siberia of the Tomsk university [1979. Page 269].

The sizes, quality of metal and its processing, the nature of connection of details of a metal wreath from the Megion museum demonstrate its late origin which can probably be referred to the middle — the second half of the 20th century. Use of the sewing machine for connection of details of a wreath from fabric can also testify in favor of its rather recent origin. Nevertheless a number of details — pendants (beads, a beads, tin rings, brass plaques) of a soft wreath earlier origin, than its metal base and a head bandage (okolysh), perhaps have, it is the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century

Studying shaman suits of the people of Siberia allowed E.D. Prokofieva to come to a conclusion about evolutionary development of the headdresses which are their part: "from a head bandage to a soft wreath with one, then with two cross tapes, further repetition of the same form in metal" [1971. Page 100]. It is probable how in a case with a vakhovsky wreath on a metal base, and in a case with the Selkup headdress it is possible to speak about option of a transitional form of a wreath — from fabric to metal. The territory of resettlement of vakhovsky Khanty is included into an area of contacts with ethnic groups at which occurred as soft, and metalli-

chesky wreaths (Selkups, Kets, Evenks) that along with a possibility of direct loan by va-hovsky Khanty of this headdress does not exclude also modernization — combination of soft and metal wreaths.

The mittens and footwear presented as a part of shaman vestments of vakhovsky and aleksandrovsky Khanty were made of bear kamus with claws [Kulemzin, 1976. Page 78-79; Shatilov, 2000. Page 193]. At this top of footwear it is made of cloth, and a sole from moose or buckskin. V.M. Kulemzin notes that similar footwear and mittens from a skin from paws of a bear were used at Kets and Selkups at whom the important place in shaman practice was allocated for a bear and which, according to the researcher, influenced formation of a shaman suit of vakhovsky Khanty [Kulemzin, 1976. Page 136-137].

From the list of shaman objects given above probably to category of local, widespread vakhovsky Khanty in the environment, it is possible to carry humeral clothes with attached wings, a caftan "from cervine skin with metal pendants on a back", a cone-shaped cap with the embroidered images of the person and a cross, metal figures of snakes and a figure of a lizard from skin. In our opinion, the structure of this complex fully reflects features of formation of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty. So, actually Ugrian lines were reflected in use of humeral clothes from fabric in the form of a dressing gown, a cone-shaped cap. Influence of the next people is traced in application of a caftan from cervine skin with metal pendants (Selkups, Kets, Evenks), metal figures of snakes and a figure of a lizard from skin (Selkups, Kets, Evenks) and also in special jewelry of humeral clothes — wings. V.M. Kulemzin finds analogs of use of feathers and skins of birds in shaman clothes at Altaians and Teleuts [In the same place. Page 135].

The ritual headdress in the form of a cone-shaped cap occurred practically throughout resettlement of the Ob ugr [Bogordayeva, 2006. Page 213]. Characteristic difference of a shaman headdress of vakhovsky Khanty and aleksandrovsky Khanty from other groups is its figuration — a cross and anthropomorphous images.

The image of a snake in one form or another probably should be included in number of necessary attributes of shaman practice of vakhovsky Khanty. The image of a snake is checked in one of pendants of a headdress of vakhovsky Khanty, is present at a beater, is stored in shaman trunks [Kulemzin, 1976. Page 80, 91, 99]. Also the figure of a snake (rc 158) from the Megion museum of local lore which has length of 19 cm, width of 0.6-1.0 cm and thickness of 0.5 cm (fig. 4) is similar in a form and registration to iron dragons from a trunk. It is shaped from an integral rod of iron and has the form of slightly curved strip, the ends (head and a tail) of which are lifted up. The head (1.5*1.0 cm) is designated by dredging from two parties, made narrower by the end and bent at an angle 90o. At distance of 5 cm from the head 4 cross notches equally spaced (0.4 cm) from each other are applied on a trunk. According to the data received by V.M. Kulemzin at vakhovsky Khanty, figures of snakes were located in a cavity of a tambourine and were comprehended as the spirits assistants devouring evil spirits [In the same place. Page 100]. The image of a snake met on beaters of Selkups on which representations this amphibious was designed to help the shaman with "a way in all worlds" [Prokofieva, 1949. Page 344].

Fig. 4. Metal figure of a snake 130

The lizard which image as well as at vakhovsky Khanty became on a beater also contacted the same function at Selkups. The unique image of a lizard is included into a complex of objects from the Megion museum (of 464). The figure of a lizard is sewed by tendinous threads from rovduga pieces: a trunk — from 2 parts located lengthways and each paw — from a separate piece with one seam (fig. 5, 6). The connecting seam on a stomach is executed not completely — the section is left. In a figure (length of 18 cm and 6 cm wide) placed a piece of color cotton fabric with the dried-up lizard wrapped in it from whom fragments of bones and skin remained.

The trunk, the head, paws and a tail of a lizard are painted with wavy and direct strips of black and red paint. On the center of a trunk from the head until the end of a tail there passes the black wavy strip which on the head comes to an end with a rhombus. It is bordered by a direct strip of red color from which branches on paws are made — before them and under them. The red strip is bordered in turn by a strip of black color, also allocating paws. Strips are sheathed on a contour by a subcervical hair of a deer. On the head two biserina red and two — yellow color, the designating eyes are sewn.

Fig. S. Figure of a lizard. Top view

Fig. b. Figure of a lizard. Bottom view

Analogs this subject are not known. Technology of production — coloring and an embroidery a subcervical hair is more characteristic of Evenks and Selkups, however was known also to vakhovsky Khanty.

The conducted research shows that the subjects of 12 names are a part of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty (a tambourine, a string musical instrument, a beater, anthropomorphous and zoomorfny images of spirits assistants, a cone-shaped cap from fabric, soft and metal wreaths, a dressing gown, a caftan "from cervine skin", mittens and footwear from bear kamus). Most of them (10 names) is fixed also at the next groups of Khanty — aleksandrovsky and Vasyugan and also finds analogies at the next people — Selkups, Kets, Evenks. Possibly, it is possible to carry a shaman caftan from cervine skin with metal pendants to number of the objects borrowed these people by actually vakhovsky Khanty and metal figures of a snake. It is necessary to carry a string musical instrument, a cone-shaped cap and humeral oar clothes from fabric to Ob Ugrian complex (dressing gown). Thus, the specifics of shaman attributes of vakhovsky Khanty consist in a combination of the objects having Ob-Ugrian origin to the objects borrowed Selkups, Kets and Evenks.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

E.A. Alekseenko. Cults at Kets//SMAE. 1977. T. 33. Page 29-65.

A.A. Bogordayeva. Traditional suit of the Ob ugr. Novosibirsk: Science, 2006. 239 pages

I.N. Gemuyev, A.V. Baulo. Sanctuaries of Mansi of upper courses of North Sosva. Novosibirsk: IAET Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science publishing house, 1999. 240 pages

Dmitriyev Gardeners Gr. From the Vakh River of the Surgut County//ETGM. 1911. Issue 19. Page 1-21.

K.F. Karyalainen. Religion of the Yugra people. Tomsk: Publishing house Tom. un-that, 1996. T. 3. 264 pages

Catalog of ethnographic collections of the Museum of archeology and ethnography of Siberia of the Tomsk university. Tomsk: Publishing house Tom. un-that, 1979. Part 1: People of Siberia. 342 pages

V.M. Kulemzin. Shamanism Vasyugan vakhovskikh Khanty (the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries)//From the history of shamanism. Tomsk: Publishing house Tom. un-that, 1976. Page 3-154.

E.D. Prokofieva. Suit of the Selkup (ostyako-Samoyed) shaman//SMAE. 1949. T. 11. Page 335-375.

E.D. Prokofieva. Shaman suits of the people of Siberia//SMAE. 1971. T. 27. Page 5-100.

Startsev Mr. Ostyaki. L.: Surf, 1928. 152 pages

L.V. Homich. Religious cults at Nenets//SMAE. 1977. T. 33. Page 5-28.

Shatilov of M.B. Vakhovskiye of an ostyaka: Ethnographic essays. Tyumen: Publishing house Yu. Mandriki, 2000. 288 pages

Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

of The article determines composition of shamanistic cultic attributes with the Vakh (Vakh river) of Khanty, including a penzer, string musical instrument, beater, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic images of spirits-the-helpers, cone-like cap made of fabric, soft and metal crowns, robe, caftan "made of reindeer hides", mittens and footwear made of bear hides. Basing on comparative and typological analysis of these articles, subject to determination being specificity of the shamanistic attributes with the Vakh Khanty, lying in combining the articles of the Ob and Ugrian origin, with the articles borrowed from the Selkoups, Khets, and Evenks.

Shamanistic cultic attributes, penzer, beater, string musical instrument, headdress, robe, caftan, mittens, footwear, Vakh Khanty.

Paulina Linda
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