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Activities for ensuring safety of vestry property in monasteries of the Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses (the second half the XVIII beginning of the 20th century)



AKTUALNYE of the PROBLEM of NATIONAL HISTORY

UDC 86.372

ACTIVITIES FOR ENSURING SAFETY of PROPERTY RIZNIChN0G0 IN MONASTERIES of the TVER AND YAROSLAVL DIOCESES [the SECOND HALF of XVIII - the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY]

In the second half of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th centuries monasteries of Russian Orthodox Church had considerable number of valuable liturgical objects. Therefore the most important function of the state was supervision of safety of monastic vestries. In article the activities of the church authorities for preservation of vestry property in monasteries of the Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses are investigated, the order of transfer of monasteries when changing priors is considered. The state exercised control of production of liturgical utensils from silver. Priors made annual reports

about safety of monastic vestries. The current state and the movement of vestry property in all monasteries was fixed in the special inventories performing functions of registration documentation.

As a result of church reforms of the 18th century the state established complete administrative and financial control over economic activity of monasteries of ROC. Many monasteries which did not get to category of regular stopped the existence, and their property was seized. The remained monasteries because of a lack of state means hardly made ends meet. The analysis of structure of property of monasteries of ROC during the studied period shows that the greatest loss of their economic economic activity was caused by withdrawals of real estate (land, water, forest resources) and objects of trade craft activity. The government could use these objects for the solution of the current state needs or transfer them as property grants to new sluzhily estate.

The considerable part of personal estate of monasteries necessary for implementation of liturgical activity was left behind them. Church ut-

V.V. DENISOV

Uglich state historical and architectural and art museum

e-mail: uglmus@yaroslavl.ru

var, unlike other material objects of monastic life, had two important specific features. The first was the impossibility of its use for any other purposes, except church. Other feature consisted in its considerable material value as the majority of liturgical objects was made with use of expensive fabrics, pearls, precious metals and stones. Therefore one of the most important problems of the state was supervision of safety of monastic vestries. Article is devoted to studying activity of the church authorities concerning preservation of vestry property and liturgical utensils of monasteries of the Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses in the second half of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th centuries

To the middle of the 18th century in dioceses of the explored region finally sformiro-

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the order of transfer of property when changing priors of monasteries vatsya. As an example it is possible to consider the procedure of an acceptance which is carried out in the Tver Voznesenskaya of Orshiny monastery according to the decree of the Holy Synod of September 11, 1777. In the document it is said: "Definition the celibate priest is told to have to be in Orshin the monastery and to govern a position construction that for the sake of and to accept, you to Yury, from byvshago in this Orsha monastery of the celibate priest Pavel according to the inventory as tserkovnyya a thing vsyakiya, and monastic, and protchy that before your storage and prinadlezhashche..." 1. Delegation of power was carried out by drawing up the inventory which joined both liturgical objects, and economic property. It is important to note that during the studied period in monasteries of the Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses the important place was taken by the church utensils which remained from the medieval period. Besides, monasteries placed orders for production of new liturgical objects instead of become useless and also for again built monastery temples.

The changes happening in public policy in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, led to increase in regular maintenance and growth in incomes of the monasteries received as a result of economic economic activity. Despite some mitigation of a position of the state in relation to monasteries, the edition of normative documents concerning management of monastic property remained the most important activity of the government and spiritual department. In archival fund of the Uglich Alekseevsky Monastery of the Yaroslavl diocese the decree of the Holy Synod which arrived in March, 1826 remained. In it it was reported: "Diocesan Bishops and monastic priors during the management of dioceses or the charged monasteries have sometimes no due care about contents as vestry things and house or monastic property why it happens that on death them or at dismissal on rest, or when translating from one place in another losses, damages or extreme decay" 2 are in vestry and other brownies or monastic things more or less. This fact demonstrates that the order of transfer of monastic property established earlier by drawing up inventories was not always and not everywhere observed.

Therefore diocesan bishops until the end of the Synod period demanded that priors included data on an order of conducting vestry account in certificates of a condition of monastery. So, in fund of novotorzhsky Resurrection Monastery for 1897 there is an instruction: "Pribylyya tserkovnyya of a thing register in the inventory" 3. The similar message managed to be found in documents of the Kalyazin Aleksandro-Nevsky of the monastery of 1915: "The inventory to church property and monastic is..." 4.

1 State Archive of the Tver Region (SATR). T. 187. Op. 1. 1. L. 2.
2 Uglich branch of State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region (UF GAYaO). T. 39. Op. 1. 96. L. 217.
3 GATO. T. 199. Op. 2. 473. L. 1.
4 In the same place. T. 209. Op. 1. 4. L. 4.

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The decree which came from the Yaroslavl spiritual consistory to monasteries of the subordinated diocese on April 10, 1808 reported that "... copes and other church and besides the lutchy utensils are stored in small boxes why the rich parchevy and others clothes matters untimely lose the look and, breaking, fall into decay. Especially, as silver things as that: The gospel, vessels and a prochiya in the same boxes are put. In disgust of such disorder and damage of the church sums to order all decent the local diocese. to make shkapa or dressers for vestry things of such size that there was no need to bend and rumple clothes, and besides, vessels and other silver or another what was believed in osoblivy places from clothes" 5. This document had great practical value as requirements to the monastic equipment which observance ensured physical safety of liturgical clothes and other church utensils were established by it.

The similar decree from the Yaroslavl spiritual consistory dated on October 27, 1817 defined places of storage of objects from precious metals and limited access for strangers to them. The document contained the following order: "According to decree instructions about storage of jewelry vestry, the consistory has vsemestno on the diocese to order that pearl things with expensive stones, zolotyya and substances of this childbirth in the use being, Hierarchal under Consistoriyeyu, and in monasteries and churches under the monastic and church seals, in an osoblivy chest a decree order were stored in the house, in required cases were taken out and a pack ice relied in it." 6.

Annual reports of priors and brotherhood on integrity of cathedral and monastic vestries belonged to number of the major actions aimed at providing safety of the most valuable property and liturgical utensils. So Staritsa Uspensky Monastery the archimandrite Makari with bratiyeyu directed on December 29, 1827 the official report of the following contents: "In pursuance of the specified instruction of the Spiritual Consistory this successfully reportuy that the church utensils which are available in Staritsa Uspensky Monastery and a vestry with an undersigned bratiyeyu according to inventories are testified by me and the purity and neatness which are kept in integrity, in churches of this monastery are observed" 7. The similar official report dated on December 30, 1828 was directed the Tver Uspensky Zheltikov of the monastery by the archimandrite Konstantin. "In pursuance of his Imperatorskago Velichestva of the Tver Consistory of the sent 1782 of November of the 18th day for No. the 1643rd decree which are told: to monastic priors at the best celibate priests to repair survey to vestry and other church things, and about integrity of purity and neatness of it, upon termination of a year to reportovat in the Consistory" 8. The established order positively affected safety of monastic property as the most part of priors responsibly belonged to conducting annual checks of a condition of the vestries entrusted to them.

The state exercised not less strict control also of order of production of liturgical utensils from precious metals. In July, 1827 the decree of the Synod of the following contents came to office of the Tver archbishop Ambrose: "The Moscow Mountain board informs Department of Mountain and Salt affairs that the Astrakhan assay master Peretrutov in November, 1826 was called in the Astrakhan Consistory for survey of silver 3rd pood with pound, appeared 72 tests of which it is assumed to make in the Astrakhan Assumption Cathedral a throne; and the present Consistories and that cathedral the sacristan asked it, and after and Preosvyashchenny Astrakhan insisted that in what look

5 State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region (SAYR). T. 230. Op. 1. 2267. L. 102.
6 In the same place. T. 230. Op. 1. 4221. L. 3.
7 GATO. T. 160. Op. 1. 4054. L. 5.
8 GATO. T. 160. Op. 1. 4054. L. 25.

there is that silver to make the marked throne" 9. Peretrutov who saw violation of the law in this request refused to execute the order of the lord what notified Mountain board on.

Preosvyashchenny remained is dissatisfied with obstinacy of the assay master as he intended to do a throne for church, but not for sale, and was ready to be personally responsible. "Then Peretrutov was informed that that silver is alloyed by Astrakhanskago of port a medical nickname Alexey Onufriyev. The undercover splavka of metals, by assay tents, is strictly prohibited by the decree of 1758 of March of the 17th day, and decrees of 1801 of October of the 1st, 1779 November of the 5th and 1810 of August of the 10th day it is forbidden to masters to produce in business silver below ukazayemy 84th test under fear of the most strict collecting" 10. Therefore the refusal of the assay master to the bishop was recognized as reasonable. The holy Synod, having coordinated the position with the Ministry of Finance, made the decision, ".chtoba izdannyya were charged to free sale of precious metals of the resolution with all severity to church jewelry..." 11. To the diocesan authorities, priors of monasteries and cathedrals in order to avoid abuses, it was strictly forbidden to buy precious metals from strangers, and in case of need officially to address to assay chambers.

Sale of the decayed utensils and property after the died monks from which gained money registered in the book in arrival was one of articles of replenishment of monastic treasury during the studied period. Business of the archimandrite of the Uglich Alekseevsky Monastery Nicanor who applied in the Yaroslavl spiritual consistory for permission to destruction of shabby things demonstrates to it that "a .na the received money to make repair of church books" 12. In it it is said that the monastery, burning old cult utensils, sold the remained gold and silver threads and various jewelry to interested persons. At the same time the consistory strictly watched that things, suitable for use, were not destroyed, demanded the economical relation to the property which is subject to write-off. It should be noted that similar practice caused certain damage to preservation of cultural heritage of monasteries as during such actions the decayed, but valuable church utensils in the art relation were sometimes destroyed.

Destruction of the become useless monastic property with the permission of the Yaroslavl spiritual consistory was a last resort. Much more often the diocesan administration agreed to carrying out repair of the decayed utensils. The decree of a consistory of September 3, 1807 to the Mother Superior of the Yaroslavl Kazan convent Margarita was permitted to ponovit a cope of one of icons of monastery. In the document it to be said: ". This monastery Kazanskiya Pre-svyatyya of the Virgin of church of a local image Tolgskiya of the Mother of God who is available in real a nizanny vozglavia, a necklace and the tsat pravsky pearls which according to the opisny book to appear five valve cores. with 6 stones those pearls and a salary silver. a cope on this image of a nizan the Chinese plashechka, and all that nizanye from davnyago time decayed and turned black, to perenizat the best work on what to use pearls from a tsata and a necklace and on the same image." 13.

In archival fund there is also other example when the consistory forbade carrying out recovery work. In the decree of the diocesan administration of October 1, 1812 it was reported: "Redneck Adrianov of the monastery the abbot Dionysius a contango asked permission of rather church property the real circumstance that as between church that monastery of that monastery imushchest-

9 GATO. T. 160. Op. 1. 4043. L. 2.
10 In the same place. L. 2 - 2 about.
11 In the same place. T. 160. Op. 1. 4043. L. 2 about.
12 GAYaO. T. 230. Op. 1. 11925. L. 1 - 29.
13 In the same place. 2681. L. 44.

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vy on icons there is a wreath vetkh and basmennyya salaries, ubrusa and frills, nizan-nyya pearls, salaries and whether more shabby to remove pearls from icons or pieces to glue" 14. To the prior of monastery it was refused work on the ground that "to the .neena seeing this, exact manual it is impossible to do" 15. It should be noted that at the solution of a question of repair of monastic utensils not only the material value of objects, but also their art value, demand as objects of religious honoring was taken into account. Granting permission for repair of things, the diocesan administration coordinated also "technology" of work and availability of necessary materials.

The current state and the movement of vestry property was fixed in the special inventories performing functions of registration documentation. The general inventories represented standard documents which without fail were formed and were regularly updated in each monastery, irrespective of its size and the status. In archival funds of large monasteries it is possible to meet descriptions of separate groups of property also. For example, the following forms of account are mentioned in a documentary meeting of the Rostov Spaso-Yakovlevsky Dimitriyev of the Zachatyevsky monastery: "inventory" 16, "the inventory of vestry things" 17, "the inventory of the vestry things taken to repare" 18. The archival fund of the ostashkovsky Nilovo-Stolobensky desert was available "the inventory of a vestry and church utensils" 19, "the inventory of vestry things that arrived again against former on what they are used and as are changed and decorated" 20, "the inventory of a vestry" 21.

Throughout the studied period in monasteries of the Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses not only names of registration documents, but also their forms and contents repeatedly changed. For identification of the changes included in the monastic schedule it is necessary to analyze several similar sources made in various years.

The earliest on time of creation is the "Inventory of a vestry and church utensils" the Nilovo-Stolobensky desert dated 1764 godom22. The analysis of a source shows that to the middle of the 18th century the main requirements to drawing up similar documents were already created. The inventory was made of the standard sheets divided into two parts. In the first section the name and the description of objects was given, in the second data on repair, change or an exception of things of the inventory were entered. This principle was observed not always as sometimes in the second column the passed things registered or at once filled with data on separate objects all width of the page.

Structuring vestry things and church utensils in the inventory happened according to placement them in various buildings of an architectural complex of the monastery. The list of objects is preceded by the detailed description of each building in which the church utensils are stored: cathedral, churches, bell tower, inhabited and economic rooms. At inspection of interiors of temples and iconostases the fixing of data happened according to a movement route on an object ("on the left side", "on the right side"). Icons and pieces of utensils are described not really in detail, in the document only the main data according to which they can be revealed from set of other liturgical things are entered. At

14 GAYaO. T. 230. Op. 1. 2267. L. 296.
15 In the same place.
16 Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RSAAA). T. 1407. Op. 1. 619, 621, 680, etc.
17 In the same place. 641, 644, etc.
18 In the same place. 638, etc.
19 GATO. T. 476. Op. 1. 1695.
20 In the same place. 1566.
21 In the same place. 1687.
22 In the same place. 1695.

the description of vestry economy of monastery the following sections are mentioned: "fast vestry", "white vestry", "red vestry", "panikhidny vestry" 23.

The inventory of the Tver province and County of Voznesenskago Orshin of the monastery and its property made on a sample from the Eparkhialny Administration ordered, and the Holy Synod approved is following on time of drawing up ". 1848 of March 24 numbers" 24. All property of monastery was grouped in 26 sections in the following order: "About church"; Oltar; "Iconostases"; "St. Gospel"; "Church chandeliers"; "Candlesticks"; "Censers"; "Bowls, dishes, ukropnik, braziers and about-chiya similar thing grades"; "From polotents"; "St. Vessels, arks and pyxes with their accessories"; "Altar cross"; "Fencings for a throne and altar"; "Vozdukh"; "Veils"; "Clothes and veils naloynyya and nastolnyya and also scarfs and towels"; "Carpets"; "On clothes analogions"; "Priestly copes"; "Cassocks"; "Stoles"; "Epigonations"; Poyasa; "Epimanikia"; "Sticharions"; "Old books"; "Church furniture".

It should be noted that form and content of the inventory made in the middle of the 19th century significantly differed from a similar source of earlier period. Accounting of church property was carried out not on certain buildings of an architectural complex of monastery, and by types of property. From the inventory of the middle of the 18th century there were sections devoted to church, an altar and an iconostasis, however descriptions of objects are executed very briefly. The basis of the document is formed by the data on liturgical objects entered with different degree of completeness. The end of the list is closed by the sections devoted to old books and church furniture.

The last on time the description of monastic property was the "Inventory of a vestry of Nilov Monastery of the Tver diocese" made in 1909, and in August of the next year certified of Tver spiritual consistorii25. The structure of a source consisted of 23 departments united by types of property: "Gospel and Apostles"; "Altar cross"; "Sacred vessels and ladles"; Kadila; "Panagias"; "Napersny crosses"; "Mitres"; "Vestments of thrones"; "Vestments of altars"; "Covers on thrones"; "Covers on altars"; "Vestments on analogions and tables"; "Vozdukh"; "Vestments priestly nastoyatelsky, copes brotherly"; "Cassocks nastoyatelsky and brotherly, epigonations, belts nastoyatelsky and brotherly, epimanikia nastoyatelsky different material and different advantage"; "Diaconal vestments (sticharions and orarions)"; "Covers on cancer of relics of the Reverend Neil"; "Veils at royal doors"; "Pontificals"; "Dishes, umyvalnitsa and trays"; "Staffs"; "Vessels for consecration of bread"; "Vessels for water consecration".

The inventory of church property made at the beginning of the 20th century significantly differed in form and content from similar documents of earlier period. In it completely there were no data on a condition of architectural monuments and their interiors (altars, iconostases, fencings for thrones and altars). The main place in a source was taken by very detailed description of liturgical utensils without binding to concrete buildings. There were no sections devoted to furniture and library, there were only data on the gospel and apostles.

Thus, in the period of the second half of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century the state exercised strict control of a state and safety of vestry property and liturgical utensils in monasteries of the Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses that was explained by their considerable material value. Account and transfer of property were made by drawing up inventories which form and content changed according to requirements of time.

23 GATO. T. 476. Op. 1. 1695. L. 19 - 28.
24 In the same place. T. 187. Op. 1. 83.
25 In the same place. T. 476. Op. 1. 1687.

ACTIVITIES TO SECURE VESTRIES PROPERTY IN MONASTERIES OF TVER AND YAROSLAVL DIOCESES [SECOND HALF OF XVIII - EARLY XX CENTURY]

V.V. DENISOV

Uglich State Historical-Archival and Arts Museum

e-mail: uglmus@yaroslavl.ru

In the second half of XVIII - early XX century monasteries of Russian Orthodox church had considerable quantity of valuable things for the divine service. Therefore, important function of the state was to control the safety of monasteries& vestries. The author investigates activities of the church authorities on preservation vestries property in monasteries of Tver and Yaroslavl dioceses, considers the process of monasteries& transfer to a new abbot. The state authorities monitored making silver things for the divine service. Abbots submitted annual accounts about the safety of monasteries& vestries. Current composition and transference of vestries property in all monasteries were registered in special inventories, which fulfilled a function of registration documents.

Christian Brown
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