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Category: History

Role of Tatarstan in the Eurasian image of Russia: experience of cultural ties



Article is devoted to recovery of the subjectivity by Tatarstan on the world scene, to search by public and government institutions of identity (self-identification) of the republic and its role in formation of the Eurasian image of Russia.

The article is devoted to restoration of subjectivity of Tatarstan on the world arena, searching the identity of the Republic by social and governmental structures and the role of Tatarstan in formation of the Eurasian image of Russia.

cultural ties, identity, tolerance, tyurko-musupmanskiya, international activity, model of Tatarstan; cuttural communications, identity, tolerance, Turkic-Muslim, international activity, RT-model.

Today it is important to Russia to keep that traditional Eurasian image created by it during the previous period and allowing to build up effectively the versatile relationship with the East and the West. In support of this Eurasian image also the national republics can contribute. From this point of view the experience of Tatarstan which, actively developing cultural ties with the countries of the Muslim world is interesting, promotes that the value of these ties, traditional for Russia, was more full presented in image of Russia.

Cultural ties with the Muslim world were initiated by the public of Tatarstan. In representations of the Tatar intellectuals in the late eighties — the beginning of the 1990th the potential of the international relations consisted in belonging of the Tatar nation to Turkic and Islamic community and recognition of its intermediate and binding situation in the cultural and civilization relation between the East and the West. The Tatar Public Center (TPC) paid much attention to a problem of active participation of the Tatar society in the course of consolidation of Turkic cultures and assumed that it could undertake mediatorial function between the East and the West, relying on already available corresponding experience in the past and the key provision of Tatar in Turkic language gruppe1.

Theoretical designs of development of national culture and foreign communications were turned into reality differently. The most current problems became association dispersno to the settled nation and its representation on the international scene after long-term absence. The public organization on development of foreign communications with compatriots of Vatan created in 1990, using the potential of compatriots, actively was engaged in promoting of the Tatar art. It managed to get support of businessmen F. Bichuri and M. Suzer who agreed to be her representatives in Istanbul and Izmir and expressed readiness to develop business sotrudnichestvo2.

1 See: R. Gibadullin. The ethnopolitical concept of the state revival of Tatarstan in program provisions of the Tatar national movement//Islam in the Tatar world: history and the present, Kazan, April 29 — May 1, 1996: materials of inter@ of a symposium// of роШс$ / brine/tdekh.rir? ^=12$од =22
2 Central state archive of historical and political documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan (CGA IPD RT), t. 8251, op. 1, 29, l. 3 — 4.


Fagimovna — to. and. N, associate professor of history of the Kama state inzhenernoekonomichesky academy (INEKA) 1azkga/@ gatyeg. gi

The World Congress of Tatars (WCT) in 1997 appealed to authorities of the different countries to contribute to the development of cultural ties with RT.

Speaking about cultural ties, to appropriate remind that Tatar gained the international value more than once. At the beginning of the 20th century in life of Muslims the Tatar enlightenment began to play an important role. His ideas became widespread in the world of Islam, thanks to the Tatar book publishing functioning on the basis of the Arab graphics. Tatar at that time played a role of the distributor of modern knowledge among Muslims. And now there is an opinion that the provision of Tatar as key in group of Turkic languages has the international potential. It was widespread among the intellectuals in the early nineties, adheres to it also the Russian Federation. Hakimov is the state councilor on political affairs at the President of the Republic of Tatarstan in 1991 — 2008 1 On the eve of crash of the Soviet Union the Tatar was brought to deep crisis, and it was expected by the prospect of total disappearance. In the late eighties — the 90th of the 20th century the Tatar public organizations worked in the direction of creation of uniform information language space. In 1990 TOC appealed to the Congress and to the U.S. President to begin broadcasting in Tatar on the Voice of Asia system.

On the II World congress of Tatars in 1997 the question of use of the Latin graphics for the Tatar alphabet which is of special interest also in terms of simplification of cross-border information exchange and stimulation of the international integration became a subject of extensive discussion. Transition to Latin was considered necessary by figures Wattana which had to face unsolvable problems at literary exchanges, communication with diaspora, etc. The impossibility to use the uniform alphabet in written messages, literary communications, etc. complicates visual perception related and, respectively, similar Turkic languages, shortens the extent of the Tatar culture.

1 See: R.S. Hakimov. History of Tatars and Tatarstan: methodological and theoretical problems. — Kazan: Panorama-Forum, 1999; Who are you, the Tatar? — Kazan: Panorama forum, 2002.

The situation was aggravated with the fact that the State Duma of the Russian Federation, despite resistance of territorial subjects of the federation, in 2002 adopted the amendment to the Act of the Russian Federation of 1991. "About languages of the people of the Russian Federation" in which it is told about Cyrillics as a graphic basis of languages of the people. Subsequently the problem of use of Tatar in global information systems was partially solved by efforts of scientific and republican structures by inclusion in popular communication and application programs of opportunities of use of the Tatar fonts on the basis of Cyrillics.

The important factor defining success of Tatarstan in the sphere of the international cultural ties, according to the public, were Muslim traditions of the Tatar society and, first of all, experience of Jadidism — the reformatory Islamic current which arose at a boundary of H1H — XX of centuries 2 meanwhile in practice the foreign communications in the sphere of the religious relations had traditionalist character. Tatars met brothers in faith from Turkey, Lebanon, Kuwait, etc. countries. At the same time the great value was gained by educational programs. The Tatar Muslims had an opportunity to study at the foreign Islamic universities. In the 1990th the teachers of Islam became frequent guests of Muslims of the republic, and religious figures of the republic participated in the international conferences.

The own role in the world of modern Islam at Tatarstan appeared in 2005, thanks to an initiative of Council of muftis of Russia and the Islamic World televideo company. Then in Kazan the international festival of Muslim cinema "Gold minbar" was for the first time held. It was the only forum of Muslim cinema in the world and was supported by Muslims and professionals in the sphere of cinematography of the different countries. Among the festival purposes the organizers designated stimulation of creation art and documentaries on Muslim subject, association of creative Muslim elite.

2 See: R.S. Hakimov. Decree. soch.; D.M. Iskhakov. Problems of cultural borders at modern Tatar ideologists//Problems of formation and transformation of the Tatar nation. — M.: Master Lyne, 1997, page 178-192.

In the 1990th among scientists of Tatarstan the popularity was received by the idea of Liberal Islam in which saw the integrating potential. The manifesto of Liberal Islam called R.S. Hakimov's article "Where our Mecca?". According to the author of article, for production of competitive hi-tech products, development of own schools of sciences and the higher education system it is necessary to enter the standards close to European therefore Islam in Tatarstan it will become inevitable Europeanized. At the same time the mission of Tatarstan — in distribution of mutual understanding which will help to fasten with the general bonds everything chelovechestvo1. In the Tatar society the subject of Liberal Islam became debatable.

Thus, ethnoconfessional factors of geopolitics played an important role that Tatarstan took place as a subject of the international life. As a result the communications formed by Tatarstan in many respects promoted overcoming the crisis in the Eurasian geopolitics of Russia which was outlined in the 1990th.

When determining priorities in the international activity the president of Tatarstan was guided by the confessional structure of the population: "We have a population 50 on 50: a half — Muslims, a half — Christians. For maintaining balance we will not do a list neither towards the East, nor towards the West. We will combine them" 2.

The ideas of tolerance and sporting achievements became the international factors elected by the authorities and creating a recognizable image of the republic. Promoting of Tatarstan as example of tolerance promoted Institute of culture of the world under the auspices of UNESCO and regional department of this organization, opened in Kazan in 1999. The region where representatives of Muslim and Christian faiths peacefully get on, attracted great interest of the international community, first of all the European.

1 See: R. Hakimov. Where our Mecca//Website magazine "Intelros — Intellectual Russia//
2 Tsit. on: T. T. In the West we take new technologies, in the east we trade//the Official server of the Republic of Tatarstan//ГО=ce8fbd42172953c10cel4 badl36e31d1node_id=1185full=1890 & lt; http://www. tatar.pj/? DNSGO =ce8fbd42172953c10ce14bad136e31d1 node id=1185full=1890>.

The content analysis of translated articles of the foreign journalists placed on the official server of the Republic of Tatarstan allows to assume that the tolerance becomes the distinctive sign of the republic on international arene3. The modern policy of authorities of the republic is aimed at the development of this direction. Places in which in the neighbourhood Muslim and orthodox monuments are located are called requiring special attention. At the world market they are presented as unique for tourism.

Political circles of the European Union paid the attention to Tatarstan as economically perspective region with the qualified human resources. According to the chief representative of the European Union in Russia F.M. Valenzuela, "the growing role of Tatarstan and Kazan, both in Russia, and on the international scene, in the light of preparation of the Universiade-2013 which will take place in Kazan opens new opportunities which the European companies should not miss" 4.

Thus, foreign communications of the Tatar public and the international activity (foreign policy) of government institutions of RT gained versatile and complementary character. The Tatar public connects cultural, spiritual, economic and to some extent scientific and information revival of the republic with its tyurko-Muslim orientation, and in activity of government institutions it did not become the defining factor. At the same time, in general, the cultural ties which are carried out on the international scene through public and government institutions, identifying Tatarstan on the international scene as the recognized in the world, original tyurko-Muslim region, promoted formation of the Eurasian image of Russia.

3 See: Official Republic server

Tatarstan// ID=69bb5cfa930e0ac2fbb10568abe62342node_ id=1179pub_type=2

4 F.M. Valenzuela's interview on the eve of carrying out Day of Europe in Kazan//the Official server of the Republic of Tatarstan// NSID=0a22a93f8c38505f5d3bbcea17427244node_ id=1185full=6203
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