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The Japanese drift-net fishing of salmons in an economic zone of Russia in 19922004.



2006

TINRO news

Volume 144

UDC 639.2M3.7 (083.41) (265)

O.A. Rassadnikov, E.E. Loboda

The JAPANESE DRIFT-NET FISHING of SALMONS IN the ECONOMIC ZONE of RUSSIA In 1992-2004

Information on the quotas allocated to Japan for catch of salmons in an exclusive economic zone of Russia, fishing areas and catch of salmons in areas from 1992 for 2004 is provided

Rassadnikov O.A., Loboda E.E. Japanese gillnet salmon fishery in the EEZ of Russia in 1992-2004//Izv. TINRO. — 2006. — Vol. 144. — P. 65-72.

Japanese gillnet fishing of salmon develops in the Russian exclusive economic zone (EEZ) since 1992, basing on the terms of monetary reimbursement. Quotas for salmon fishery by foreign fleet are issued for each particular region annually, that is specified by intergovernmental agreements, as well as time limits of fishing activity.

In 1997, both scientific and commercial Japanese vessels were allowed to fish in the commercial region No. 3 (northern Kuril Islands). After that, catch rate of sockeye salmon in the western Kamchatka area had decreased. In opposite, three regions in the Russian EEZ were closed for Japanese gillnet fishery in 1996-2003.

In 1998, limit was established for total catch of sockeye salmon by Japanese vessels: 3000 tons in the whole Russian EEZ.

Detailed information on the quotas for Pacific salmon gillnet fishery provided for Japan is presented.

The main objective of this work is to acquaint experts with results of the Japanese drift-net fishing of salmons in IEZ of Russia in 1992-2004

By its preparation the following materials were used.

1. Data of statistical year-books of NPAFC, before INPFC (INPFC, 19601996; NPAFC, 1997-2000) and the materials of regional fishery institutes represented for putinny forecasts (Salmons of 2000-2004).
2. Orders of the State Fishery Committee, now Federal Agency for Fishery, Russia about quotas and fishing areas of the salmons in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Russia allocated for Japan.
3. The reports of Japan on results of drift-net fishing transferred at a joint meeting of the Russian-Japanese mixed commission.

Till 1991 Japan conducted intensive trade of salmons on extensive water areas of SZTO (fig. 1). At this time the Japanese fishermen caught more than 100 thousand tons of salmons. (INPFC, 1960-1991; Catches..., 1989).

In 1985 between Russia and Japan the intergovernmental agreement on cooperation at trade of the Pacific salmons in IEZ of Russia was concluded then catch of salmons by the Japanese fishermen was regulated by annual Protocols on an order and conditions of conducting salmon trade.

Since 1992 the Japanese vessels conduct fishing of salmons in IEZ of Russia on the terms of compensation (Gritsenko, etc., 2004). Annually the quota for catch of salmons by foreign vessels in IEZ Russian Federation is allocated for each certain fishing area (fig. 2) which is earlier stipulated by the intergovernmental agreement, koor-

65

Fig. 1. The fishing area of the Japanese drifters during the period from 1960 to 1991 (according to INPFC)

Fig. 1. Areas of Japanese gillnet salmon fisheries in 1960-1991 (Statistical Yearbook of INPFC)

125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180

Fig. 2. Fishing areas of the Japanese drifters in IEZ of Russia during the period from 1992 to 2004

Fig. 2. Areas of Japanese gillnet salmon fisheries in Russian EEZ in 1992-2004

66

dinata of areas can change. In these agreements also trade terms make a reservation. Usually it begins on May 15-20, and comes to an end, depending on the allocated quota and the fishing area, in the middle — the end of July.

In tab. 1 data about purchased by the Japanese associations of fishing cooperatives for trade are provided to IEZ Russian Federation in 1992-2004 volumes of salmons on trade areas.

Table 1

Volumes of the salmons who are purchased by Japan for trade in IEZ of Russia (1992-2004), t

of Table 1

Quantity for salmon acquired by Japan from Russia to be harvested in Russian EEZ

(1992-2004 period), t

Year 1 2 2a Trade areas 3 3a 4 5 8a All

1992 3500.0 3000.0 500.0 500.0 7500.0
1993 6950.0 8380.0 3170.0 800.0 200.0 2500.0 22000.0
1994 3400.0 5600.0 2900.0 2500.0 2300.0 2500.0 19200.0
1995 6300.0 7950.0 6650.0 1250.0 3550.0 2500.0 330.0 28530.0
1996 5500.0 6800.0 4700.0 1500.0 3500.0 180.0 22180.0
1997 5500.0 8900.0 4300.0 3800.0 3500.0 250.0 26250.0
1998 5979.0 8343.0 1212.0 636.3 1262.5 300.0 17732.8
1999 4900.0 6580.0 3620.0 700.0 1400.0 375.0 17575.0
2000 4960.0 6050.0 3500.0 350.0 1250.0 390.0 16500.0
2001 4920.0 4850.0 1500.0 400.0 330.0 12000.0
2002 4535.0 4605.0 1240.0 400.0 220.0 11000.0
2003 4120.0 325.5 825.0 499.5 5770.0
2004 3830.0 1250.0 880.0 1250.0 7210.0

In areas 1-5 trade was conducted by vessels of three associations: & #34; Никкэйрэн" & #34; Дзэн-кэйрэн" and & #34; Докэйрэн". In the Sea of Japan (the area 8a) worked & #34; Association of drift-net fishing of salmons Japanese моря".

In 2002-2004 under the intergovernmental agreement about 11000 t of salmons were allocated to the Japanese side, but in 2003 Japan bought only about 6, and in 2004 — 7 thousand tons of salmons (tab. 1, fig. 3), because of the fact that since 2003 Russia increased payment for the allocated quotas.

0J

yu About

30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0
2 3 5 with 00 from 0 1 2 3 5

from from from from from from from from 0 0 0 0 0 0

from from from from from from from from 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

Fig. 3. Volumes of the salmons who are purchased by Japan for trade in IEZ of Russia in the sum on all areas

Fig. 3. Quantity for salmon acquired by Japan from Russia to be harvested in Russian EEZ (all regions combined)

Because of weak commercial effectiveness of trade (the basis of a catch is formed by a look, invaluable for Japan — a humpback salmon) and increase in payment for quotas Japan since 2003 stopped trade in the area 8a.

In 1996 for the Japanese drift-net fishing the 5th was closed, in 2001 — the 4th, and in 2003 — the 3rd areas, but the new area — 3a is entered (see fig. 2).

Since 1998 Russia entered quoting on catch of a salmon (no more than 3000 t in all areas).

From 1992 for 2004 the biggest quota for catch of salmons in IEZ of Russia was allocated in 1995 and 1997, and in 1997 in 2- and 3 areas catch was the most considerable for all years (tab. 1, fig. 3).

Till 1997 and after it the 3rd area was available only to the Japanese vessels working according to scientific programs. Trade drifterolova to the area were not allowed as under the agreement they had an opportunity to expose up to 8 trade orders — 32 km of networks while for the scientific purposes the maximum permissible number of orders was twice less. The number of the vessels which are in this area was limited to two — three units, with obligatory exposure of control networks, with smaller, than at promsud, a cell.

In 1997 to the 3rd area the work permit 8 (scientific and trade) the Japanese drifterolov with allocation of the maximum quota in 3800 t was issued. In the 2nd area the catch quota made the size, also maximum for the given period — 8900 t of salmons.

Apparently from tab. 2, in 1997 the catch of a salmon (most valuable look) in these areas reached the biggest size from 1992 for 2004. In the same time in the 4th area (see fig. 2) the Japanese drifters extracted 520 more t of a salmon.

Table 2

The Russian catches of a salmon on the western coast of Kamchatka (May — September) and Japanese in the 3rd trade area (May — July) (according to KamchatNIRO and NPAFC), t

Table 2

Overall catches of sockeye salmon in the western Kamchatka (May — September) of by Russia and third commercial area during May — July period by Japan (according to data of KamchatNIRO and NPAFC), t

Year May June July August September All Russia The area 3 —

1993 2.2 82.0 957 7190 1987 10219 438
1994 - 26.0 3695 3064 784 7568 847
1995 - 68.0 1449 6021 373 7911 531
1996 - 48.0 6741 2902 - 9690 675
1997 - 1.0 2243 1422 55 3721 2555
1998 - 4.0 2415 2979 51 5449 439
1999 - 0.1 303 4254 411 4968 484
2000 - - 736 8185 - 8921 162
2001 - - 4515 7193 40 11748 244
2002 - - 3479 15113 2729 21321 272
2003 - - 3389 8853 505 12747 -
2004 - - 5432 5825 1812 13069 -

Such distribution of quotas and especially the work permit in the 3rd region of harvesting vessels could lead to decrease in the Russian catches of the West Kamchatka salmon. On spawning areas of river. Lake (the main in reproduction of the West Kamchatka salmon) 700 thousand copies were missed while, according to specialists of KamchatNIRO (Selifonov, 1988; Bulls, 1995), optimum filling requires from 1.0 to 3.5 million copies. Of course, by one year it is difficult to judge reliability of influence of drift-net fishing on coastal catch of a salmon, however these tab. 2 show that such influence nevertheless is possible.

In general the Japanese drift-net fishing if to judge by its share in the general catch in the Russian zone, should not have significant effect on a condition of stocks of the Russian salmons (fig. 4) as the quotas allocated for Japan make in different years from 3 to 17% the ODE (tab. 3). But it can influence development the ODE of a separate look in one concrete area, except a humpback salmon as at trade of salmons Japan applies drift networks from large (65 mm on the Russian measure) a cell. The humpback salmon as the smallest species of salmons, oblavlivatsya badly by such networks. Apparently from these tab. 4, trade networks from cells of 65 mm oblavlivatsya the largest humpback salmon. Besides, the Japanese fishermen in every possible way try to get rid of this a species of salmons, invaluable for them. During sample of networks the humpback salmon (especially small) breaks, is frequent not without the assistance of fishermen, and respectively does not join in a catch.

Fig. 4. Catch of salmons by the Japanese drifters in IEZ Russian Federation and coastal catch by Russia

Fig. 4. Overall catches of Pacific salmon by Japanese gillnet salmon fisheries in Russian EEZ and catches in coastal zone by Russia

Table 3

A quota for catch of salmons by the Japanese drifters in IEZ Russian Federation and the ODE of Russia, t

Table 3

Quota allocation for Pacific salmon by Japanese gillnet salmon fisheries in Russian EEZ and Overall Allowable Catch by Russia, t

Year Japan The ODE of Russia The Japanese catch, % from the ODE

1992 7500 145400 5.2
1993 22000 155250 14.2
1994 19200 113330 16.9
1995 28530 182452 15.6
1996 22180 142800 15.5
1997 26250 191019 13.7
1998 17733 204844 8.7
1999 17575 127271 13.8
2000 16500 170780 9.7
2001 12000 220209 5.4
2002 11000 141214 7.8
2003 5770 188248 3.1
2004 7210 255820 2.8

Data on the quotas (for 2003, 2004 — data on the purchased volumes) allocated to Japan for trade of salmons in IEZ of Russia, the actual catch (by types and areas) and also a share of development of the allocated quota are provided to tab. 5.

Table 4

The sizes of a humpback salmon from trade (a cell of 65 mm) and control (a cell of 55 mm) drift networks

Table 4

Body length of pink salmon in commercial (mesh size — 65 mm) and control (mesh size — 55 mm) gillnets catches

The size of a cell, mm Length the EXPERT of a humpback salmon, cm Quantity of the measured fishes, copy

55 46.4 110
55 46.9 138
55 45.8 169
65 48.6 83
65 48.3 130

Table 5

Catch of salmons by the Japanese drifters in IEZ of Russia in 1992-2004, t

Table 5

Overall catches of Pacific salmon by Japanese gillnet salmon fisheries in Russian EEZ

in 1992-2004, t

Area 1

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1992 512.0 659.8 170.1 0.50 23.1 1365.5 3500 39.01
1993 4120.1 2295.4 246.9 0.65 266.1 6929.2 6950 99.70
1994 2359.0 872.6 42.4 0.02 100.8 3374.8 3400 99.26
1995 4040.1 2086.4 98.9 0.00 56.2 6281.5 6300 99.71
1996 3093.3 2267.8 42.6 0.00 74.2 5477.9 5500 99.60
1997 2665.0 2607.3 68.4 0.05 24.7 5365.5 5500 97.55
1998 1004.0 4628.0 10.0 1.00 149.0 5792.0 5979 96.87
1999 1108.0 3587.0 41.0 0.00 107.0 4843.0 4900 98.84
2000 1288.0 2817.0 8.0 0.00 45.0 4158.0 4960 83.83
2001 1868.0 2871.0 63.0 0.00 57.0 4859.0 4920 98.76
2002 2695.0 1697.0 25.0 92.00 1.0 4510.0 4535 99.45
2003 1721.6 2113.3 142.1 8.90 35.1 4021.0 4120 97.60
2004 1793.0 1282.0 147.0 16.00 31.0 3269.0 3830 85.35

Area 2

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1992 1588.7 688.4 203.6 436.3 91.2 3008.2 3000.0 100.27
1993 3090.2 4310.1 673.8 167.0 123.4 8364.5 8380.0 99.82
1994 259.1 4896.4 309.5 28.0 35.3 5528.3 5600.0 98.72
1995 846.6 6030.6 800.0 199.0 48.8 7924.8 7950.0 99.68
1996 1132.0 4555.5 418.6 596.9 56.3 6759.3 6800.0 99.40
1997 3379.1 3853.5 783.0 377.5 316.3 8709.4 8900.0 97.86
1998 1048.0 5139.0 460.0 666.0 167.0 7480.0 8343.0 89.66
1999 884.0 4834.0 163.0 396.0 81.0 6358.0 6580.0 96.63
2000 538.0 4587.0 223.0 301.0 37.0 5686.0 6050.0 93.98
2001 593.0 3586.0 116.0 375.0 30.0 4700.0 4850.0 96.91
2002 222.0 2593.0 1019.0 35.0 532.0 4401.0 4605.0 95.57
2003 4.9 312.0 4.6 0.2 0.6 322.3 325.5 99.02
2004 82.0 881.0 53.0 37.0 6.0 1059.0 1250.0 84.72

Area 2a

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1992
1993 4.3 894.9 2162.8 11.40 7.1 3080.5 3170.0 97.18
1994 3.4 2823.0 25.5 0.03 3.9 2855.8 2900.0 98.48
1995 2.5 5479.5 1090.5 20.20 3.8 6596.4 6650.0 99.19
1996 13.7 4546.9 73.1 7.20 12.7 4653.6 4700.0 99.01
1997 30.8 3466.6 485.8 45.00 27.7 4055.9 4300.0 94.32

Continuation of tab. 5 Table 5 continued

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1998 3.0 1166.0 19.0 3.00 3.0 1194.0 1212.0 98.51
1999 9.0 3002.0 225.0 50.00 8.0 3294.0 3620.0 90.99
2000 11.0 2994.0 240.0 45.00 5.0 3295.0 3500.0 94.14
2001 10.0 1270.0 74.0 68.00 2.0 1424.0 1500.0 94.93
2002 11.0 1172.0 30.0 2.00 13.0 1228.0 1240.0 99.03
2003 1.0 808.0 3.7 7.70 0.3 820.7 825.0 99.48
2004 5.0 688.0 19.0 1.00 2.0 715.0 880.0 81.25

Area 3

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1992
1993 438.1 224.1 116.9 5.4 13.5 798.0 800.0 99.75
1994 846.5 1474.0 128.4 6.5 20.0 2475.4 2500.0 99.02
1995 531.2 537.8 166.2 4.7 7.8 1247.7 1250.0 99.81
1996 675.4 711.3 95.8 7.7 6.3 1496.4 1500.0 99.76
1997 2555.1 958.5 142.3 51.5 46.9 3754.3 3800.0 98.80
1998 439.0 150.0 23.0 10.0 7.0 629.0 636.3 98.85
1999 484.0 156.0 29.0 17.0 14.0 700.0 700.0 100.00
2000 162.0 162.0 19.0 5.0 2.0 350.0 350.0 100.00
2001 244.0 142.0 7.0 4.0 2.0 399.0 400.0 99.75
2002 272.0 108.0 14.0 3.0 3.0 400.0 400.0 100.00
2003 Trade ban

Area 3a

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

2003 290.1 199.5 5.9 1.2 0.4 497.1 499.5 99.52
2004 736.0 372.0 60.0 26.0 9.0 1203.0 1250.0 96.24

Area 4

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1992 15.2 153.8 92.6 0.4 1.0 263.0 500.0 52.60
1993 13.1 106.5 77.5 0.0 1.7 198.8 200.0 99.38
1994 189.8 1916.5 141.8 0.5 15.5 2264.1 2300.0 98.44
1995 699.3 2547.9 277.0 9.2 7.0 3540.4 3550.0 99.73
1996 730.0 2628.5 91.3 16.3 9.0 3475.0 3500.0 99.29
1997 519.7 2601.7 185.3 55.4 46.0 3408.1 3500.0 97.37
1998 151.0 929.0 111.0 29.0 3.0 1223.0 1262.5 96.87
1999 172.0 1078.0 60.0 23.0 13.0 1346.0 1400.0 96.14
2000 92.0 839.0 110.0 19.0 10.0 1070.0 1250.0 85.60
2001 Trade ban

Area 5

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Only A quota Mastered, %

1992 6.2 310.0 180.8 0.0 0.9 497.9 500 99.58
1993 39.5 766.0 1669.7 2.0 7.0 2484.2 2500 99.37
1994 41.8 2281.7 149.8 0.2 11.4 2484.9 2500 99.40
1995 26.3 2113.8 353.2 0.9 2.2 2496.3 2500 99.85
1996 Trade ban

Area 8a

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon Sima Only A quota Mastered, %

1995 221.7 7.60 229.3 330.0 69.48
1996 178.9 1.10 180.0 180.0 100.00
1997 191.9 0.88 192.8 250.0 77.11
1998 295.0 3.00 298.0 300.0 99.33
1999 284.0 0.00 284.0 375.0 75.73
2000 385.0 0.00 385.0 390.0 98.72
2001 137.0 2.00 139.0 330.0 42.12
2002 217.0 1.00 218.0 220.0 99.09

Termination of tab. 5 Table 5 finished

All areas

Year A salmon A Siberian salmon A humpback salmon A silver salmon A chinook Sima Only A quota Mastered by %

1992 2122.1 1812.0 647.1 437.2 116.2 5134.6 7500.0 68.46
1993 7705.3 8597.0 4947.6 186.5 418.7 21855.1 22000.0 99.34
1994 3699.6 14264.2 797.4 35.2 186.9 18983.3 19200.0 98.87
1995 6145.8 18795.8 3007.5 234.0 125.7 7.6 28316.4 28530.0 99.25
1996 5644.3 14710.0 900.3 628.1 158.5 1.1 22042.3 22180.0 99.38
1997 9149.7 13487.6 1856.7 529.5 461.6 0.9 25486.0 26250.0 97.09
1998 2645.0 12012.0 918.0 709.0 329.0 3.0 16616.0 17732.8 93.70
1999 2657.0 12657.0 802.0 486.0 223.0 16825.0 17575.0 95.73
2000 2091.0 11399.0 985.0 370.0 99.0 14944.0 16500.0 90.57
2001 2715.0 7869.0 397.0 447.0 91.0 2.0 11521.0 12000.0 96.01
2002 3200.0 5570.0 1305.0 132.0 549.0 1.0 10757.0 11000.0 97.79
2003 2017.6 3432.8 156.3 18.0 36.4 5661.1 5770.0 98.11
2004 2616.0 3223.0 279.0 80.0 48.0 6246.0 7210.0 86.63

Literature

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O.F. Gritsenko, N.V. Klovach, whether O.A. Mozhno's Nurseries to catch the Pacific salmons in the sea without prejudice to their reproduction and coastal trade?//Fishes. economic-in. — 2004. — No. 3. — Page 26-28.

Salmons — 2000 (putinny forecast). — Vladivostok: TINRO-center, 2000. — 86 pages

Salmons — 2001 (putinny forecast). — Vladivostok: TINRO-center, 2001. — 89 pages

Salmons — 2002 (putinny forecast). — Vladivostok: TINRO-center, 2002. — 88 pages

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Salmons — 2004 (putinny forecast). — Vladivostok: TINRO-center, 2004. — 112 pages

M.M. Selifonov. About an optimum of producers of a salmon of the basin of the river. Lake//Problems of a fertilization of the salmon lakes of Kamchatka. — Vladivostok, 1988. — Page 129-136.

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of INPFC (International North Pacific Fisheries Commission): Statistical Yearbook. — Vancouver, Canada, 1960-1996.

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Came to edition of 23.06.05

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