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Territorial chiefs in Russia and their role in the Russian village (on materials of the Voronezh province)



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TERRITORIAL CHIEFS IN RUSSIA AND THEIR ROLE IN the RUSSIAN VILLAGE (ON MATERIALS of the VORONEZH PROVINCE)

Century N. N.V. FURSOV11 of SAFRONOVA21

1) Voronezh state pedagogical university
2) Voronezh state pedagogical university

e-mail:

nat.val.saf@mail.ru

In article the attempt to rethink a role of administrative transformations of Alexander III in Russia becomes. In particular the reasons and the structure of new power institution in the village acting through territorial local chiefs are analyzed. On materials of the Voronezh province the role of territorial chiefs in the village taking into account a human, personal factor is shown.

Modern progressive development of Russia is impossible without the experience accumulated by generations. In the light of this circumstance especially important is a studying critical eras of the Russian history which, undoubtedly, post-reform time concerns. Transformations 6o-x years of the 19th century brought changes in economy, domestic policy, social structure of the Russian society. Changes in area of self-government concerned also the most considerable part of the Russian society on which the economic welfare of the whole country - the peasantry in many respects depended. In the village the position of the territorial chief given very essential authority including administrative and judicial functions is entered.

The history of institute of territorial chiefs in scientific literature was estimated ambiguously. So, in a pre-revolutionary historiography there were no special researches of power institution acting through territorial chiefs. Liberal historian of the beginning of the 20th century. A.A. of Kornilov1, characterizing Alexander III's actions and giving them a negative assessment, noted that it the reason of introduction of a position of the territorial chief became "on the one hand, the aspiration to create on places "the power, strong and close to the people" - the power which could be able to carry out all-powerful administrative guardianship, and on the other hand, recognition of need to provide to landowners-noblemen an opportunity to hold in local life honourable and influential position" 2.

Direct studying reforms of Alexander II and the subsequent transformations of Alexander III, began in a 6o-a years of the 20th century. Historians were come into the view by innovations in various spheres of life of society. So B.V. of Vilenskiy3, was engaged in studying judicial reforms of the second half of the 19th century and came to a conclusion that as a result of creation by Alexander III's government of new power institution acting through the territorial local chief in the village the police and administrative oppression over peasants amplified, and (in particular with the principle of separation of judicial authority from administrative) in Russia was finished many liberal elements of the judicial system.

History of a system of bodies of government and noble supervision N. submitted in the work Item Eroshkin4. The big contribution to studying a question of creation of institute of territorial chiefs was made by P.A. Zayonchkovskiy5. The historian in detail described fight of opinions in the highest state authorities of the power and in public circles at obsuzhde-

1 A.A. Kornilov. Course of history XIX of Russia of century M.: The higher school, 1993.
2 A.A. Kornilov. History course... Page 407.
3 B.V. Vilensky. Judicial reform and counterreform in Russia. Saratov, 1969.
4 N.P. Eroshkin. Essays of history of public institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia. M.: Uchpedgiz, 1960.
5 P.A. Zayonchkovsky. The Russian autocracy at the end of the XIX century (political reak-

a tion 8o-x - the beginnings of the 90th years). M.: Thought, 1970.

the scientific research institute of the draft of the Provision on July 12, 1889, gave the analysis of alternative projects of reform of local authorities.

Interest in study and reconsideration of many phenomena and processes of the past was outlined in a Post-Soviet historiography. In this context the reformatory activity of Alexander III draws special attention of researchers. However conclusions of historians are often opposite. So, according to authors of the collective monograph "Russian Autocrats 18o1-1917gg." 6 which appeared in 1993, Alexander III's activity in general had destructive character and pushed Russia to revolution. Other position Bokhanov7 in whose monograph the apologetics, both persons, and actions of the emperor who cared, according to the author, for the benefit of ordinary people is traced adheres to A.N.

Modern researchers try to estimate more objectively a role of transformations of Alexander III, resorting at the same time to the actual local material. So attempt to rethink a role of territorial chiefs in Russia, using materials of the Tambov province, N.A. thesis of Buzanovoy8 in which the author departs from sharp estimates of this power institution is, attaching great value to a so-called human factor.

Thus, it is possible to note that there are no special works devoted directly to institute of territorial chiefs, features of its functioning, certain representatives of this authority neither in pre-revolutionary nor in Soviet, nor in a Post-Soviet historiography.

A task of this article is the attempt to show ambiguity of assessment of a role of transformations of Alexander III on the example of the analysis of one of so-called "counterreforms" of the emperor - creation in the village of new power institution acting through territorial chiefs.

The Istochnikovy base of a research is presented by the law on July 12, 1889 9, containing data on a completing order, the rights and duties of a newly introduced position. Judicial powers of territorial chiefs are concretized in "Rules about production of the lawsuits subordinated to territorial chiefs and city judges" published on December 29, 1889 g10.

Memoirs of the Minister of Finance S.Yu. of Vitte11 which was negatively estimating new power institution and also officials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs are of undoubted value: Vladimir Iosifovich Gurko12 containing the information about the list of territorial chiefs and their activity and also Konstantin Dmitrievich of Kafafova13 giving the striking examples characterizing service of territorial chiefs. Not less interesting source is the Diary of the state secretary A.A. of Polovtsova14 in which the course of discussion of the bill of territorial chiefs is reflected in the State Council.

For reconstruction of portraits of certain territorial chiefs of the Voronezh province memoirs of the Korotoyaksky district leader of the nobility Leonid Mikhaylovich of Savelova15 who, directly contacted to officials of the county as obliges and left their capacious characteristics were used.

The special importance for a research is represented by materials of funds of the State archive of the Voronezh region. So, the fund of Office of the Voronezh governor (f.6) contains information on the persons appointed to a position of territorial district police officers on -

6 Russian autocrats of 1801 - 1917 the 2nd prod. M.: International relations, 1994.
7 A.N. Bokhanov. Emperor Alexander III. M.: Russian word, 1998.
8 N.A. Buzanova. Territorial chiefs of the Tambov province (1889-1917): yew.... candidate east. sciences. Tambov, 2005.
9 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. The 3rd meeting. (Further PSZ-3) T.9. No. 6196.
10 PSZ-3. T.9. No. 6483.
11 S.Yu. Witte. Chosen memoirs 1849-191PT. M.: Thought, 1991.
12 V.I. Gurko. Lines and silhouettes of the past: The government and the public in Nicholas II's reign in the image of the contemporary. M.: New literary review, 2000.
13 K.D. Kafafov. Memories of internal affairs of the Russian Empire//history Questions. 2005. No. 2. Page 73-96.
14 The diary of the state secretary A.A. Polovtsov in 2 t. T.2. M.: Science, 1966.
15 L.M. Savelov. From memoirs of 1892-1903. Voronezh: Petrovsky Square, 1996.

chalnik in the Voronezh province, their origin, age, property and office qualification; petitions of persons for occupation of vacancies; documents on confirmation to a post of the territorial chief or on refusal in it.

Adoption of the Provision on territorial local chiefs of July 12, 1889 and to introduction of a new position in the Russian village was preceded by active fight in bureaucratic and public circles.

Need of carrying out reform of local management in Russia was obvious. Also Alexander III wishing strengthening of autocracy and its main support - the local nobility agreed with it. However not only desire of the government at least partially to return to landowners lost during declaration of the Manifesto on February 19, 1861, powers of authority over the country world, was the leading motive of development of administrative reform. Noblemen, officials complained about weakening of a vertical and authority of the government in the village long ago. Need of streamlining of country management owing to the arisen vacuum of the power at the volost level after liquidation of institute of world intermediaries in 1874 was felt

For preparation of reform of local management at will of the emperor in 1881 the commission led by M.S. Kakhanov began to work. However the liberal project developed by the commission, assuming creation of vsesoslovny rural society, the vsesoslovny volost, participation of representatives of zemstvo in district and territorial management could not satisfy a conservative-minded wing of the nobility headed by the Minister of Internal Affairs count D.A. Tolstoy. The last could not receive from the emperor who was also inclining to more conservative position, affirmative answer on the offer on completion of work of the commission.

However the question of reforming remained open that predetermined emergence of new projects of transformation of a system of local management which implementation would promote strengthening of a role of landed gentry in the village.

The proposal of the alatyrsky district leader of the nobility A.D. Pazukhin supported by the Minister of Internal Affairs count D.A. Tolstoy, assuming introduction in the village of a position of the territorial chief connecting both administrative, and judicial authority in the hands became one of such projects (that involved liquidation of magistrate's court). The project met sharp criticism from liberally adjusted public therefore on January 16, 1889 at the General meeting of the State Council 13 people voted for the proposal of the count Tolstoy, against - 29. However personal intervention of Alexander III who finally got under influence of conservatives decided destiny of the project and on July 12, 1889 it was finally approved.

Thus, on July 12, 1889 in Russia, to be exact in the Russian village, new power institution acting through territorial local chiefs was entered. Negative attitude of the Soviet historians to an innovation was explained by the pro-noble nature of reform. The fact is that territorial chiefs, in the majority, were representatives of "noble estate", and having rather high property qualification whereas the direct sphere of their activity was permission of the questions connected with the rural world and country life. However it should be noted that according to Article 15 of the Provision on territorial district police officers nachalnikakh16, in case of a shortcoming of local noblemen the Minister of Internal Affairs was allowed to replace positions of territorial chiefs with other persons who had education not below an average. Thus, opened, though small, but a possibility of getting a position not only by noblemen, but also natives of other estates and social groups (the intellectuals, petty bourgeoises, merchants, even the peasantry). This circumstance calls into question definition of power institution acting through territorial chiefs as absolutely pro-noble and reactionary.

Historians criticized also low educational level and incompetence of new officials. Still count S.Yu. Witte caustically noticed in the memoirs: "Territorial chiefs were both judges, and administrators, and trustees. In effect the mode reminding the mode existing before release of peasants from a serfdom was, but only then good landowners were interested in welfare of the peasants, and hired territorial chiefs, mostly burned through noblemen and officials without the higher education, were most of all zaintereso-

16 PSZ-3. T.9. No. 6196.

bathtubs in the contents" 17. The analysis of the list of the territorial chiefs of the Voronezh province confirmed to the post on July 1, 1891 18, found by us in funds of the State archive of the Voronezh region showed that the vast majority of them (65.6%) had the lowest civil (the collegiate registrar, the provincial secretary, the collegiate secretary) and military (the lieutenant, the second lieutenant, the shtabs-captain) ranks. The most part of territorial chiefs was military in resignation. Living, as a rule, in the manors, they really sought to receive this not only the significant for the rural, country world, but also paid position (the law determined the sizes of a salary of the territorial chief in the sum of 2500 rub a year, including money for traveling and office expenses).

As for education level and competence of these persons, its degree is confirmed by the following data. Only 25% of territorial chiefs of the Voronezh province had the higher education whereas their vast majority - 68.5% - had secondary education, generally military, and 4 persons from 67 territorial chiefs received only house education. This circumstance says about no what the theoretical knowledge of law necessary for execution of judicial powers, they had. Thus, confirming obviously incompetent persons to the post of the territorial chief, the power cared not for efficiency of local management, and for a raising of the authority of local noblemen in the opinion of the peasantry, for strengthening of control of the country world from landowners.

Without having vocational legal education, nevertheless, the bulk of the territorial chiefs of the Voronezh province confirmed to the post in 1891, namely 77.4% of their number were not only are directly familiar with country problems and questions, but also had experience of permission of lawsuits and land disputes as served not less than three years in one of the following positions:

— magistrate (47.7%) and honourable magistrate (7.7%)

— indispensable member of presence, district on country affairs (17.9%)

— world intermediary (4.4%)

Appointment of these persons to a new position was logical as by "Situation" on July 12, 1889 the position of the magistrate was abolished, and the position of the world intermediary was liquidated in 1874. Thus, the noblemen holding earlier these positions appeared out of work. And, expecting this circumstance, the tsarist government as office qualification for holding the post of the territorial local chief specified three-year service life in these positions.

Naturally, on the one hand, we see that the government in every possible way cared, first of all, for nobility, but, on the other hand, new territorial chiefs had experience of judicial practice, permission of country disputes, that is were quite ready to execution of functions. And already the conscientiousness and quality of their execution depended on personal characteristics of the specific official.

Negative assessment among researchers was received also by extensive powers of the territorial chief. So, its administrative functions consisted not only in the management of "the land device of rural inhabitants" (Article 22), but also according to Article 23,

24 Provisions on July 12, 1889 supervision of decisions of bodies of country management (village, volost assembly), of actions of volost foremen and rural heads on protection of public order, prevention and control of offenses was entrusted to the new official. Besides the territorial chief had the right to bring to consideration on a volost descent necessary, according to him, questions (Article 25), to delete from positions of unreliable volost and rural clerks (Article 29) and also to stop sentences of volost and rural descents (Article 31).

However the territorial chief concentrated in the hands not only administrative, but also judicial authority, having received a number of functions which lay on magistrates (Article 47) earlier. Considerably control from the government acting through territorial chiefs behind activity of volost vessels increased. So the territorial chief approved volost judges from among candidates of rural society. On predstavle-

17 S.Yu. Witte. Chosen memoirs. Page 509.
18 GAVO. F.6. Op.1. 49. L.98-145, 170-173.

a niya of the same territorial chief the district congress approved the chairman of volost court. Decisions of volost court could be appealed to again territorial chief.

to

Thus, it is obvious that the territorial chief had a number of the powers allowing it to influence decisions of village, volost assemblies, to exercise supervision of activity of rural administration, to control volost court, thereby, the official had an opportunity in a certain way to regulate country life.

It should be noted that the territorial chief, controlling country life, itself remained in fact uncontrolled. Paradoxically, but the district congress of territorial chiefs had to inspect territorial chiefs. It is natural that such control was rather formal, than actual, many of territorial chiefs in the province, especially in the county, were connected by related bonds. For example, in the Voronezh province, in the New Khopyor County as territorial chiefs Arshenevskiye's brothers, served in Nizhnedevitsky - Reshetova's brothers and also relatives from family of Har-keevichey19.

Both the district leader of the nobility, and provincial presence which also had the right of audit actually did not control activity of territorial chiefs. About it V.I. Gurko knowing business firsthand wrote that "after the establishment he (institute of territorial chiefs - N.S.) was imagined most without due or rather any management" 20.

Naturally, such volume of powers of authority in some hands, on the one hand, the feeling of impunity and permissiveness with another, led to an arbitrariness on places.

From the report of the chief of the Voronezh gendarme management in department of police of March 3, 1903 we learn 4 sites of the Zadonsky County of Alexey Ivanovich Lermontov about unauthorized actions of the territorial chief. In the document it is said that Lermontov "... owing to the servants and workers abuse and also untimely settling with them, excited against itself local community. The injured persons initiated proceedings in a criminal order against the marked Lermontov several years ago, but these affairs are motionless in provincial presence. Lermontov, wishing to revenge local community, used hunger in 1901 and refused to peasants delivery of bread to them from Provincial committee. Local community, having extreme need in bread, asked Lermontov to allow them to take the bread from public shops, but also Lermontov refused to them it. Then peasants of the village of Donorova, Ivov-sky volost, self-willedally took the bread from shops for what Lermontov fined each of them from 25 to 50 rubles" 21.

It is obvious that actions of the territorial chief were beyond his powers of office owing to what his relations with the country world were extremely intense.

Not better the situation in the Korotoyaksky County of the Voronezh region was. In 1904 the peasants of the village of Mastyugina, Oskinsky volost, Korotoyaksky County appealed to volost proceedings on the case of return of 319 tithes of the earth which was at that time in hands of three private owners to them. This earth, on the plan of land surveying which was available for mastyuginsky society, was included into plots of peasants and they paid redemption payments for it. The volost court made the decision in favor of peasants. However, the territorial chief Boris Dmitrievich Garshin, having learned about this decision, withdrew business from volost court and "fired" all him sostav22.

The given examples show how often territorial chiefs abused the power in the interests, ignoring not only needs of peasants, but also direct execution of the powers.

Various characteristic of territorial chiefs of the Korotoyaksy county of the Voronezh region the korotoyaksky leader of the nobility in 1892-1903 left, the public figure and the genealogist, the person of liberal views Leonid Mikhaylovich Savelov who directly dealt with territorial chiefs, and therefore could estimate rather objectively their business, and often and personal qualities.

19 GAVO. F.6. Op.1. 49. L.128-132.
20 V.I. Gurko. Lines and silhouettes of the past. Page 181.
21tyazhelov Items. Economic and political situation of peasants of the Voronezh province on the eve of the revolution of 1905-1907. A separate print from News of the Voronezh state Pedagogical Institute. Voronezh, 1950. T. XII. Issue 1. Page 70.
22tyazhelov Items. Economic and political situation. Page 70-71.

According to Savelov the retired major Valentin Platonovich Trotsky, the territorial chief 3 sites of the Korotoyaksky County "was the kind, spineless person, fell to others influence and was under the team of the wife, Aleksandra Ivanovna, nee Shishkina, the woman fairly clever, quite imperious, violent, but on the substance of kind, they had an open house, the people were always pushed. As the territorial chief was, of course is weak also to him, after all, it was necessary to leave" 23.

The territorial chief of 1 site, the collegiate registrar Mikhail Pavlovich Tchaikovsky "represented the old times rest, he once ended a provincial gymnasium and was dug in the farm (near the village of Bezginki), except the district and nearest town (New Oskol, the Kursk province) did not happen anywhere, wished nothing, except the small economy was interested in nothing, unmercifully smelled tobacco. Tchaikovsky as the territorial chief was extremely weak, and the governor Kurovsky wanted to get rid very much of it, and he asked the leader of the nobility to give to Tchaikovsky his request to resign, but Tchaikovsky did not agree with it and answered that if the governor does not want to serve with it, then he does not meet obstacles to that that resigned, so it also stayed the territorial chief some more years, to the death" 24.

Cornet of a stock of an army cavalry Pyotr Aleksandrovich of Rainier, territorial chief

5 the site of the Ostrogozhsky County "it was killed through a window at himself in the estate as assumed, it was revenge for what it flogged one boy who shat into a well" 25.

Really, in April, 1899 in the estate with two shots in P.A. Re-nye's window it was killed. The petty bourgeois of Ostrogozhsk Pavel Belmasov suspected of crime, whose guilt was not proved by court, spent four years in exile in Chisinau.

The governor, being first of all on the side of officials and authorities in the province passed an opinion on the incident as follows: "... belonging to the state peasants, they (peasants of the southern part of the province - N.S.) almost did not know over themselves the landowner power therefore with displeasure and mistrust meet any actions of local authorities directed to maintenance in their environment of an order and legality" 26.

The given example brightly shows methods which some territorial chiefs in practice, about their relations with the country world and also with the higher power performing in the union with them used.

Besides such unflattering characteristics, Savelov at memoirs has also positive estimates and descriptions.

So, the nobleman Vladislav Boleslavovich Targonsky, according to the leader of the nobility, "was the efficient territorial chief" 27. And the collegiate asessor Pyotr Mikhaylovich Milovsky "the lawyer by training, was the great territorial chief" 28.

These two last quotes confirm a statement that it is impossible to negatively estimate categorically institute of territorial chiefs, many of them honestly fulfilled the duties, besides some of them were uncommon persons.

For example, councilor of state Vladimir Nikolaevich Tevyashov (1840-1919), territorial chief 3 sites of the Ostrogozhsky County who was honourable citizen of Ostrogozh-ska29. It came from the family of great antiquity originating from 14th century. Vladimir Nikolaevich's ancestors were natives of an environment of the khan of Tokhtamysha30. Vladimir together with the brother Evgeny owned a manor in the settlement Kolybelke of the Ostrogozhsky County where he was engaged in removal of new grades of a rye, winter wheat, apples which gained diplomas and gold medals at various agricultural exhibitions. In addition, Tevyashov was engaged in study of local lore, archeology and an archaeography, the publication of ancient manuscripts.

23 L.M. Savelov. From memoirs. Page 28.
24 In the same place there is Page 29.
25 In the same place there is Page 24.
26 V.N. Fursov. Class fight in the village of Central Black Earth provinces of post-reform Russia. Voronezh: Publishing house of Voronezh State University, 1991. Page 168.
27savelov L.M. From memoirs. Page 30.
28savelov L.M. From memoirs. Page 31.
29GAVO. F.6. Op.1. 49. L.99.
30akinshin A., O. Lasunsky. The Voronezh nobility in persons and destinies: istorikogenealogichesky essay of childbirth of the Voronezh province. Voronezh: Petrovsky Square, 1994.

One more example of the uncommon personality is the territorial chief 2 sites of the Voronezh County, the shtabs-captain of the 141st Infantry Mozhaisk Regiment Mikhail Pavlovich Parenago (1852-1920) 31. There was Mikhail Pavlovich from the sort originating with the 2nd a floor. 17th century. His father, Pavel Apollinariyevich was fond of art, played a violin, loved poeziyu32. These hobbies were in many respects transferred also to the son. Mikhail Parena-go, living in Voronezh in own house on Petropavlovskaya St., turned it into the whole gallery as collected engravings of HUT-HTH of centuries (by the beginning of 1900 brought together them apprx. 3 thousand), drawings, books. Besides Mikhail Pavlovich himself was fond of drawing and even gave uroki33.

The given facts demonstrate that at assessment of a role of the territorial chief in the village it is necessary to pay due attention to a human factor and not to approach consideration of the matter with obviously negative characteristic. It is also necessary to note that for objective understanding of events and the phenomena of the past it is important to refuse sharp estimates, including reformatory activity of Alexander III.

BAILIFFS IN RUSSIA AND THEIR ROLE IN RUSSIAN VILLAGE (BASED ON THE VORONEZH PROVINCE MATERIALS)

V.N. FURSOV N.V. SAFRONOVA21

In the article we try to reconsider the role of administrative changes of Alexander III in Russia. In particular we analyze the causes and structure of administration institution represented by bailiffs. On the basis of Voronezh province materials the role of bailiffs is shown taking into account human and personal factors.

1) Voronezh State Pedagogical University
2) Voronezh State Pedagogical University e-mail: nat.val.saf@mail.ru
31 GAVO. T. 6. Op.1. 49. L.24.
32akinshin O. A. Lasunsky. Voronezh nobility.
33akinshin O. A. Lasunsky. Voronezh nobility.
Gianni
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