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From the history of creation of regional state archives in the Baikal region



Today municipal (regional) archives - the most dynamically developing part of archives of the country. They are the most numerous link in the system of Archive agency of Russia. Consideration of history of their creation and activity is relevant in connection with demand of archival documents in the decision political and social and economic problems in the conditions of the administrative reform which changed legal status of local archives.

The history of archiving at the regional level begins from 1930th. Collectivization, radical withdrawal pains of the socio-political relations at the grassroots level designated in the sharpest way problems of safety of archival documents of collective farms, state farms and machine and tractor stations (MTS). For the solution of this task the network of regional state archives with variable structure of documents was created.

October 10, 1930. The presidium of VTsIK suggested the governments of autonomous republics, regional and regional executive committees to pay special attention to setting of office-work and work of archives in district executive committees, having conferred responsibility for their safety on secretaries.

Other important step in protection of archives of collective farms and state farms was the resolution of a meeting of CAU RSFSR and Kolkhozcentre of the USSR in November, 1930 in which it was specified: "Immediately to register archives of collective farms and their regional associations..., to take vigorous measures to protection of materials." 1

The provision on regional archival institutions approved by VTsIK and SNK of RSFSR on May 20, 1932 archival bodies on places acquired the right to resolve issues of storage and destruction of the archival documents which are in the territory of the region (area), control of their departmental storage, reception from regional and departmental archives. The resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR of October 17, 1933 on streamlining of archives in collective farms, state farms and MTS forbade destruction of any documents of the agriculture organizations without the consent of bodies of Archival management.

Unfortunately, archival institutions not always carried out directives of the government, and district executive committees and an aymis-half-coma did not take due measures for protection of documentation of local institutions and the enterprises.

For example, Archival management of BMASSR made and distributed to aymispolkoma the instruction about ways of account and storage of materials. But during check by inspectors of some aimags it became clear that in most of them responsible persons are not designated, documents continued to be stored in storerooms and corridors of rooms. At inspection of institutions and organizations of the Ekhirit-Bulagatsky aimag in 1933 it became clear that the archive of an aymispolkom together with the building of executive committee burned down in

1 Bulletin CAU RSFSR, No. 1 (108). - M, 1931, p. 3.

Vera Tsedashiyevna LYKSOKOVA — to. and. N, the deputy head of department for archives of the Republic of Buryatia

1926. In the report of the assistant manager by Archival management of BMASSR of A.I. Kupriyanova it is reported: "Those affairs which were created after the fire are scattered in a corridor where are broken out... The chairman of AIK Shabarinov allowed employees to choose white paper for the letter. In collective farm Komintern all old materials are burned by the former chairman G.A. Gelenov in the Russian oven..." 1 From public authorities and authorized bodies on archiving the acceptance of immediate measures on streamlining of regional archives was required.

In 1934 in RSFSR only 325 regional archives, i.e. less than in a third rayonov2 worked. Therefore VTsIK in the circular of August 10, 1934 suggested regional executive committees to strengthen in every possible way regional archives and to confer responsibility for them on one of members of presidium. The resolution of VTsIK And SNK of RSFSR "About regional archives" of December 10, 1934 recommended "to organize regional archives at executive committees of those areas which have the most valuable archive materials and to present them dry, fireproof rooms." 3. If to follow criteria of those years, then documents of the Soviet period were considered as the most significant, and from pre-revolutionary documents preference was given to the materials containing data on revolutionary movement. This resolution approved the number of staff of regional archivists in RSFSR for 1935 in number of 867 people of CAU together with Narkomat of finance it was entrusted to distribute states at the edges and to areas. About 40 units of regional archivists were allocated to Eastern Siberia.

This document became a logical conclusion of the initial stage of formation of archive agency in areas and the first act for the organization of regional archives in RSFSR.

However the real situation with network of regional archives remained crisis in view of lack of methodical developments, funds, shots, etc. for a long time. Nevertheless work on

1 NARB. F.R-273. Op. 1. 138. L. 44-45.
2 V.V. Maksakov. History and the organization of archiving in the USSR. 1917-1941. - M, 1969, p. 253.
3 SU 1934, No. 43, Article 275.

to collecting and protection of materials of a local link became more active.

During this period in BMASSR regional archives with variable structure of documents begin to be created. The first aymachny state archive was organized in 1934 in the Alarsky aimag. Same year the staff of Archival management began work on creation of a share card file of collective farms and state farms. In 1935 in BMASSR there are already 9 aymachny archives (Agin, Kyakhta, Selenga, Bokhansky, Alarsky, Ekhirit-Bulagatsky, Zakamensky, Kabansk, Mukhorshibirsky).

By the end of 1936 in Archival management of BMASSR the staff of workers in number of 32 people, from them 14 — on CAU and 18 — on aimags, and from the last 9 — managers of an aymarkhivama, the others 9 — registrars forwarding agents was approved at AIKAKH. Besides, the scientist's position was entered into the state.

In the East Siberian regional archival management which part since 1932 the Chita office was (till this time the Chita office was considered as office of the Far East regional archival management), creation of regional archives begins with implementation of the above-stated resolution CAU RSFSR and Kolkhozcentre of the USSR 1930. In January, 1931 the manager of Krayarkhbyuro P.I. Kudryavtsev distributed the circular letter to all offices Krayarkhiva about arrangement of archives of collective farms. Also the instruction for conducting archival office-work in collective farms was sent to areas. The resolution of presidium of the East Siberian krayispolkom of July 23, 1931 provided in 1932 increase in the credits for operational operating costs on collecting archive materials of state farms and collective farms.

In 1932 the Sretenka archival office was liquidated. The order of Krayarkhupravleniye of June 23, 1932 instead of it organized regional archive which should be considered the first regional archive in the territory of the Irkutsk region. At liquidation of office, materials of local character were left in regional archive, interdistrict documents pereda-

ny in the Chita office, and documents of regional value — in Irkutsk1.

January 31, 1935. The east Siberian regional executive committee decided to organize archives in 18 areas and to carry out full metering and concentration of materials in regional archive depositories inclusive till 1930. Responsibility for maintaining and a condition of the current office-work was assigned to chairmen of the Village Councils, collective farms, directors of state farms and MTS. As a result of the solution of organizational issues for January 1, 1936 13 regional archives with allocation of an established post of registrars — Cheremkhovo, Tulun, Nizhneudinsk, Shitkinsky, Brotherly, Balagansky, Nizhneilimsky, Ust-Kutsky, Kirensky, Petrovsky and Transbaikal, Gazimuro-Zavodsky, Nerchinsk and Ust-Kariysky were formed.

Organizational work on creation of archives generally depended on the regional executive committees (REC). They resolved the most vital issue

— providing archives with rooms. So, in Red and Chikoysky (The Chita district) the area under archive the special room, and in Tulun was built

— the decision on construction of the archive depository in 1936 is made. In the Nizhneudinsk district the special room is allocated. The being "red guerrilla" who made thrifty use of archival work was appointed the manager. In the Tulun, Ust-Kariysky districts archives RIKOV are put in appropriate order. In some areas the salary was raised to 186 rub. It should be noted work of Ust-Kariysky archive which besides processing of the materials, presented share cards to Krayarkhiv. And other archive — Shitkinsky

— carried out the description of documents and made inventories of funds.

However during inspection of storage of documents in areas by the regional Archival department in 1935 — 1937 revealed an unsatisfactory condition of archives in many district executive committees, state farms and collective farms. By the beginning of 1937 in the territory of East Siberia 21 regional archives are organized, without archival institutions there were left 22 more areas. In

1 GAChO. F. R-96. Op. 1. 75. L. 3.

the annual report of the Irkutsk regional Archival department for 1937 which is stored in funds of the State archive of the Chita region data that from 27 areas of the Irkutsk region the regional archives exist in 20 areas contain: Alarsk, Balagansk, Bokhansk, Bratsk, Zhigalovsk, Zalarinsk, Ziminsk, Kuytunsk, Kirensky, Kachugsky, NizhneIlimskiy, Nizhneudinsk, Usolye, Ust-Udinsky, Tulun, Taishet, Cheremkhovo, Shitkinsky, Ekhirit-Bulagatskom2.

At the end of 1938 in BMASSR in 15 aimags from 18 aymachny archives were organized. In the Chita region in 1937 11 regional archives instead of planned 25 worked.

According to the resolution of VTsIK of September 10, 1937 on streamlining of archiving to RSFSR, the Organizing committee of VTsIK across the Chita region decided "to organize at executive committees Vitimo-Olyokminsky and Agin national districts district archives, having concentrated all archive material of institutions, Village Councils, collective farms and MTS for 1934 inclusive" 3.

In general in the territory of the Baikal Siberia by the end of 1938, by our calculation, 46 regional archives were formed. Without archival institutions there were left in the territory of the Chita region 14 areas, in BMASSR — 3 areas, in the Irkutsk region — 7 areas.

At the end of 1937 VTsIK suggested executive committees to finish no later than the I quarter 1938 the universal organization of regional archives and providing them with the respective rooms.

Due to the lack of necessary conditions of safety of documents in the local organizations the departmental period of storage in them was established no more than three years. This time insufficiently for production needs was obvious, but the state storage guaranteed safety of documents.

It is possible to designate the thirtieth years of the 20th century rotary in strengthening of attention to local archives from the management and the departmental press. A legal basis of a regulation of work the area -

2 GAChO. F. R-96. Op. 1. 112. L. 1.
3 GAChO. F.R.-96. Op. 1. 82 "and". L. 1.

ny archives there were rules which appeared in 1938 1.

Thus, these years, thanks to the enhanced attention of the government of the country and CAU RSFSR, in areas, archives were created. In the subsequent acts the legal status, organizational and methodical questions of a new link of the state archives were defined. Feature of regional archives was that, created in 1933 — 1934, they had double subordination. They submitted, on the one hand, to municipal authorities, on the other hand — to bodies of archival management or department. It answered the general principles of the organization of archival institutions. The main difference of regional archive from other state archives was that they were storages of materials of "variable structure".

1 Rules of work of the USSR / CAU USSR and RSFSR regional archives. — M, 1938.

The materials coming to it from institutions were 5 years here then were transferred for permanent storage to republican, regional, regional archives. Up to the beginning of the 1990th the regional archives remained archives with variable structure of documents.

With creation of regional archives in regions the need of mass transportation of materials to Ulan-Ude, Chita, Irkutsk was eliminated that facilitated work of inspectors of archival managements and departments.

Thus, the organization in areas of the state archives allowed to keep materials on socialist reconstruction of agriculture which formed documentary base for practical and research work subsequently. In them rich information on political, economic, social, public life of each city, each village is recorded.

Patricia Nguyen
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