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Private charity and patronage in education of adults (the second half of xix - the beginning of the 20th century)


© 2006 of A.V. Dukhavnev


The relevance of a problem of private charity and patronage in education of adults is defined first of all by the fact that out of its consideration it is impossible to reconstruct the history of formation and development of that educational and cultural and educational institutions which were created in pre-revolutionary Russia especially for adult population.

The period of the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries which contemporaries called "the medichivsky period" in the cultural history of Russia differed in unknown blossoming of patronage and charity. "But never earlier the stream of donations and philanthropic activity was such deep, long on time and covering such wide groups of businessmen as it was 19 at the end - the beginnings of 20 century", - M. Gavlin demonstrates [1, page 10]. The outstanding figure of domestic culture F. Shalyapin, admiring scope of charity in Russia during this period, wrote: "Having visited almost whole world, having visited houses of the richest Europeans and Americans, has to tell that he did not see such scope anywhere. I think, as Europeans cannot imagine this scope" [2, page 206].

It is possible to allocate the certain factors which caused that situation when the private initiative and charity gained mass character in Russia and led to the wide philanthropic movement: favorable economic conditions which allowed industrialists and businessmen to receive an enormous excess profit, the incentive legislation for gratuitously giving. However the main reason which defined scope of this movement and here we are solidary with opinion of the researcher L. Lavrenenko, internal motives of the Russian donors leading them to awareness of personal responsibility before society and "need of the actions pursuing as the purpose not only personal, but also public benefit" acted. "Great Russian patrons perceived the material welfare only as a prolog (it is allocated by us. - A.D.) to wealth spiritual and freedom of expression, including through patronage" [3, page 114].

The initial thesis defining the main idea and logic of this article is the statement that at the initiative of really progressive focused and educated patrons and philanthropists such major area domestic educational developed

practicians as education of adults. Moreover, educational and the cultural and educational institutions created at the expense of a private initiative became the largest centers of education of adults in the Russian cities and regions, were "a sample for all others", defined the main directions of development of the theory and practice of this sphere of domestic education.

During the period to the second half of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries participated the people extremely diverse on the class structure, education and culture, social and financial position in patronage and charity. Among them it was possible to meet large industrialists, representatives of the whole industrial dynasties, businessmen, noblemen, the high-ranking officials, and ordinary employees, teachers, priests so "the social representation" of patronage "did not exclude any layer, especially - a class" [4, page 107]. And very often their charity was connected with the personal, private initiative based on the system of the world outlook ideas from as which leader the idea of need of broad education and education of the Russian people as the defining condition of economic and cultural prosperity of Russia acted. And one more circumstance united all these people - for them patronage became "moral standard" [4, page 108-109].

History of four generations of a dynasty of textile industrialists Prokhorov can be a striking example of charity in education of adults among the largest businessmen of Russia. They belonged to the industrial dynasty, most known in Russia, the famous Russian manufacturers, owners of the Three-mountain manufactory. This area of textile production was among the leading branches of the Russian economy working for the world market.

Charity in the field of education of this dynasty began at the beginning of the 19th century when the son of Vasily Ivanovich Prokhorov, the founder of a dynasty, Timofey Vasilyevich founded factory craft school for adults of workers in 1815-1816. Convinced that success of the enterprise in many respects depends on qualification of workers and also from their intellectual development it personally trained adults in reading and the letter. Important not that, is emphasized in materials to history of Prohorov's Three-mountain manufactory and commerce and industry activity of family of Prokhorov that Timofey Vasilyevich, his brothers Konstantin and Yakov Vasilyevichi, then Ivan Yakovlevich and his children founded and supported at factory within hundred years craft school and other educational institutions for adults, and the fact that they were directly involved in their activity [5, page 208]. In the 80th of the 19th century for workers of a manufactory the brothers Prokhorov opened evening and Sunday classes (men's and women's) in which from 400 to 600 people of adult population annually studied [5, page 211].

But Prokhorov cared not only for the general and professional education of factory workers. They paid huge attention spiritual moral to education of adults. In 1884 at the initiative of S.I. Prokhorov, classes of band music where young workers studied playing wind and string instruments were arranged. It is remarkable that professor of the Moscow conservatory F.B. Richter directing classes till 1901 was the first teacher-conductor. In 1885, spiritual and moral and educational conversations and readings with light pictures were founded. Readings were carried out once a week and visited by workers "very willingly". Since 1887 at the expense of the Manufactory, free national performances for which the special building with a capacity at 1300 persons was allocated got a job on factory. Prohorov's factory theater works of A.N. Ostrovsky, N.V. Gogol, A.F. Pisemsky and other wonderful Russian authors were staged. Employees and workers were performers generally. In the late eighties on the Three-mountain manufactory laid the foundation of library for adults at factory school. In 1906 Prokhorov got permission to the maintenance of independent library for employees and workers of its factory. By 1915 in it 5676 copies of books and brochures were registered. Annually about 1300 people used library. 20-25 read books were the share of each reader [5, page 260].

Charity of family of Morozov ("Tver") and the representative of this dynasty Varvara Alekseevna Morozova was not less significant contribution to development educational and cultural and educational institutions for adults. The daughter of the large industrialist, the famous collector of hand-written and old printing books A.I. Hludov, the widow of the textile manufacturer A.A. Morozov, Varvara Alekseevna since the beginning of the 80th of the 19th century organized and supported the whole network of charitable institutions, including hospital, nursing home. "There were no undertakings to which she would not respond", - P. Buryshkin remembered Morozova [6, page 103].

However put considerable means of V.A. Morozov in development educational and cultural and educational institutions for adults. "Sunday and evening classes for workers" (Prechistensky courses) which became the large center of education of adults over time were one of its main "creations", perhaps. Courses were open in the building rented by V.A. Morozova on Prechistenka in 1897 and during the whole time of their existence were supported by Varvara Alekseevna.

V.A. Morozova to public university of A.L. Shanyavsky had the most sincere feelings, constantly donating the most various sums for his needs. Only in a year of opening of its donation made 50 thousand rubles [7, page 8]. In total during 1908-1912 V.A. Morozova gave to the organization and development of the university more than 100 thousand rubles [8, page 315].

As a token of gratitude students and teachers of public university made the decision to appropriate to chemical laboratory which, by the way, was completely constructed and equipped on donations of the philanthropist, a name of V.A. Morozova [9, page 50].

Thanks to V.A. Morozova's donations (about 50 thousand rubles) the creation of the Russia's first free reading room of I.S. Turgenev became possible. It was open in 1885 in the building which is specially built for it in Sretensky Boulevard. It within the first five years V.A. Morozova undertook the initial equipment of reading room and contents. In the charter of new institution for adults it was said that it is urged to provide with books those estates of the population, "to which on a condition of their means the existing libraries are inaccessible" [10, page 71]. The open reading room enjoyed wide popularity among the population: if in a year of its opening the number of readers made 45 thousand people, then by 1910 the total number of visits reached nearly 2.5 million people [11, page 10].

Opening and the maintenance of factory sunday school at Association of the Tver manufactory (1870), support of the Moscow men's and women's sunday schools, the organization of working educational foreign trips - listeners of Prechistensky courses, active participation as the permanent member in activity of the Board of trustees of public university of A.L. Shanyavsky and Society for strengthening of means of the called university and many other things is all this by right gives the grounds to recognize to V.A. Morozov as one of key figures in development educational and cultural and educational institutions for adults. It brightly is confirmed also by memoirs of the leader of the Russian liberal movement P.M. Milyukov who personally got acquainted with V.A. Morozova in 1905: "... Varvara Alekseevna Morozov famous to all Moscow intellectuals is a person of surprising energy and readiness to serve a public affair in the spirit of the seventieth years. In it everything, from modest appearance and unpretentiousness of a suit to the personal surroundings created by it among surrounding magnificence demonstrated deep belief in an immutable ideal of social progress and in need to sow reasonable, kind, eternal." [8, page 314].

The Moscow city public university of A.L. Shanyavsky became the unique center of the higher education for all groups of adult population of Russia. By the way, the founder of this university, the largest Moscow patron, Alphonse Leonovich Shanyavsky, neither in the will, nor in a donative note did not express desire about assignment to public university of his name - the Moscow City Duma took care of it [12] subsequently.

Having made the decision to carry out "new undertaking for the benefit and revival of Russia", A.L. Shanyavsky addressed with the offer to the Moscow City Duma to accept in a means gift for creation national universi-

theta. The means offered in a gift to the city of Moscow contained: the real estate including the earth in 1.068 quarter also the house consisting of three cases and yielding gross revenue annually to 45 thousand rubles [13] is put off. The means presented by Shanyavsky allowed to open public university which by right was considered as the center of the higher education of adults in pre-revolutionary Russia in Moscow.

The business begun by A.L. Shanyavsky, the wife and the colleague L.A. Shanyavskaya who systematically on behalf of "unknown person" continued to give financial support to the university continued it. The analysis of documents from personal fund of Shanyavsky allows to restore charitable contributions which were made by Lidiya Alekseevna Shanyavskaya with exact addressing to their use. Total amount of its donations was 519 thousand rubles [14].

Charity of L.A. Shanyavskaya deserves special respect and recognition of contemporaries if to consider that it created female medical courses at the Ministry of Defence for which Lidiya Alekseevna donated 50 thousand rubles and the women's medical institute in St. Petersburg is open (1894).

The name of E.D. Naryshkin who enclosed in development of educational institutions for adult 1.5 million rubles - the sum for those times huge close up is distinguished from the Russian patrons.

The big contribution to development of education of adults in Siberia was made by Pyotr Ivanovich Makushin. Being the founder of Society of care about national education, he became the initiator of opening in the Tomsk province of a number of national libraries, sunday schools, book warehouses and shops. The gold medal of the St. Petersburg committee of literacy with which he was awarded in 1889

became the best recognition active educational and charity of P.I. Makushin

The problem of education of adults in pre-revolutionary Russia cannot be presented without name of S.V. Panina.

Sofya Vladimirovna Panina, the successor of two richest childbirth - Pan-others and Maltsevy, donated a considerable part of the huge income for the structure of educational and educational institutions for the people. "In those scales in which it was done by Panina, - D.I. Meysner remembered, - this case in Russia was the only thing" [15, page 169].

People's house (1903) for which building was specially built by Panina on Ligovsky Avenue of St. Petersburg was the main creation of S.V. Panina. It was, perhaps, the only center in the city for training and the general cultural development of adults and children: "Theater every Sunday, concerts, lectures, exhibitions, thousands of adults on evening schools and courses filling the rooms in the morning occupied approximately by the same number of children: libraries, legal advice, and during the war hospital for wounded - generally

The people's house satisfied to various inquiries both material, and spiritual, the surrounding population" [16, page 510].

The dramatic nature of fate of S.V. Panina, however, and her main child was that revolution of 1917 in many respects rejected and crossed out fruits of its long-term and creative activity. Having appeared in emigration, in Prague, S.V. Panina organized somewhat Li-govsky People's house in "a small look": with library, reading room, the dining room, the hall for classes and meetings.

Development of sunday schools as educational institutions for adults in Russia of the second half XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries became possible also thanks to a private initiative of many and many philanthropists. By the beginning of the 20th century in Russia there were 240 private sunday schools which became "successful manifestation of private activity" and served as "prototype" for many sunday schools of "other names". Private sunday schools opened and were completely financed their creators. They, as a rule, performed also the general pedagogical management of these educational institutions. It is important to note that organizers of private sunday schools carried out active work of distribution of this type of establishment in educational practice of Russia. Being initiators and indispensable participants of exhibitions, congresses concerning training of adults, authors of printing articles and collections, members of various societies on distribution of national education, they approved in public consciousness this type of educational institution for adults, contributed to the development of pedagogical bases of the theory and practice of this category of the population. In the history of sunday schools of pre-revolutionary Russia forever there will be H.D. Alchevskaya, O.V. Kaydanova, V.S. Kostromina's names, S. Starynkevich, E.I. Tsvetkova, E.O. Kislinskaya (Vakhterova) and many other "community work days" - philanthropists.

a Certain contribution in development educational and cultural and educational institutions for adults were brought by ordinary employees of public institutions, teachers, priests, book sellers, peasants. Archival documents and primary sources contain unique information on their great service to business of education of the people. In the Russian state historical archive S.'s correspondence - the St. Petersburg committee of literacy with different individuals, wishing to contribute the small share in development of education of the people was saved, and many of them preferred to remain unknown [17].

So, in a note of 1868 it is reported about collecting the sum of 3.5 thousand rubles from different individuals on needs of education [17, l. 28]. In 1870 the individuals (there is a list) donated S. - to the St. Petersburg committee of literacy of 6 thousand rubles for opening of educational institutions for the people [17, l. 36-37].

For many years the priest M. Zubarev corresponded with Committee of Literacy, notifying the size of the sum which was donated by locals with the obligatory indication of the purpose of its use in each letter. In the first letter, reporting about accurate 3 rubles silver, he, in particular, wrote: "If the Committee of Literacy once again entrusts me to do invitations and to collect donations in favor of It: that I will assume that duty with full pleasure" [17, l. 31].

In business there are several notes from publishers and book sellers who sacrificed in national libraries of the book. In particular, the publisher of "The Russian bookstore" N.N. Morev donated in 1892 160 copies of books of A.N. Nekrasov "After the alphabet" [17, l. 81].

The member S. - the St. Petersburg committee of literacy of A.M. Kalmykov annually donated national library worth 50 rubles to the village or the village, "where the sentence of local society about desirability of public library and about readiness it will take place then to support" [17, l. 86]. Sent one of such libraries of A.M. Kalmykov to the village of Vremevki of the Mariupol County of the Ekaterinoslavsky province where in 1882 the famous territorial figure and the teacher N.A. Korf opened the first Sunday and repetitive school for adults.

It is specified in the note dated 1914 about intention of individuals (the list is attached) to donate for needs of education of the people 3.525 rubles [17, l. 142].

"The best people of the nation" - the famous collector and the historian A.P. Bakhrushin so spoke of the contemporaries and friends, patrons and philanthropists P.M. Tretyakov, S.T. Morozov, S.I. Mamontov. These words rightfully can be carried to all famous, little-known and unknown patrons and philanthropists who played the defining role in formation in pre-revolutionary Russia educational and cultural and educational institutions for adult population.


1. Gavlin M. Rossiysciye Medici. Portraits of businessmen. M, 1996.
2. F.M. Shalyapin. Mask and soul//New world. 1988. No. 5.
3. L.Ya. Lavrenenko Istoriya charity in Russia. Spiritual and educational and cultural and logical aspects. M, 2002.
4. S. Novikova. From the history of domestic patronage//Crops. 1992. No. 2.
5. Prokhorov. Materials to history of Prohorov's Three-mountain manufactory and commerce and industry activity of family of Prokhorov. M, 1996.
6. Buryshkin of the Item Moscow merchant. Memoirs. M, 2002.
7. The report of the Moscow city public university of A.L. Shanyavsky for 1908-1909 academicians year. M, 1909.
8. "... Undertaking for the benefit and revival of Russia" (creation of the University of A.L. Shanyavsky): Sb. documents / Sost. I.I. Glebova, A.V. Krushelnitsky, A.D. Stepansky. M, 2004.
9. Moscow city public university of A.L. Shanyavsky. Historical essay. M, 1914.
10. Dumowang. Moscow patrons. M, 1992.
11. A. Plotnikov. Anniversary of Turgenev reading room in Moscow//the Librarian. 1911. No. 1.
12. RO RGB, t. 554, cardboard 1, 1. - Materials to the biography of the major general of the General Staff A.L. Shanyavsky (after 1905).
13. RO RGB, t. 554, cardboard 1, 6. - A.L. Shanyavsky. The statement in the Moscow City Duma for establishment in Moscow public university. On September 15, 1905
14. RO RGB, t. 554, cardboard 1, 39. - L.A. Shanyavskaya. Letters and statements in Board and the Board of trustees of the Moscow city public university of A.L. Shanyavsky for acceptance of money for needs of the university.
15. D.I. Meysner. Mirages and reality: Notes of the emigrant. M, 1966.
16. O.V. Kaydanova. Essays on stories of national education in Russia and the USSR on the basis of personal experience and observations. Berlin, 1938.
17. RGIA, t. 91, op. 3, 19. - Correspondence of the St. Petersburg Committee of Literacy with territorial justices, territorial warehouses and individuals. 18621914.

Novocherkassk state meliorative academy On January 31, 2006

Elizabeth Brown
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