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Spirituality sources: about the book Galimdzhana Barudi collection



UDK 94

section HISTORY

SPIRITUALITY SOURCES: About the BOOK GALIMDZHANA BARUDI COLLECTION

© E.N. Valeev

State Duma of the Russian Federation

Russia, Moscow, 103265, Okhotny ryad St., 1.

Ph.: & #43;7 (495) 692 19 85, fax: (495) 692 91 69.

E-mail: valemil@mail. ru, valeev@duma. gov. ru

The Pregnantnost of the historical plot connected with a personal collection G. Barudi (1857 — 1921) reflected the scientific, religious and moral, esthetic and philosophical interests of the brightest representative of the arising Muslim intellectuals. Its aspirations to initiation of a book meeting to the reigning House of Romanovs, providing free use to an opportunity of printing and hand-written texts to wide circles of the reading audience allowed to understand more deeply public and civil concerns, world outlook identity of the owner libraries, bright

the representative of ideology of Jadidism — the social and political movement of Muslims of the Volga region.

The beginning of the XX century in the history of the Russian state is marked by a number of anniversaries: the 200 anniversary of the Poltava battle which put to the beginning of a change in Northern war in favor of Russia, the 100 anniversary of Patriotic war of 1812, liberation war of Russia against Napoleonic aggression, the 50 anniversary of the country and territorial reforms contributing to the development of capitalism in the country. The special public response caused 300-year anniversary of reign of a dynasty of Romanov. The overwhelming number of the population of agrarian Russia reverentially honored the Russian tsars. In consciousness of the peasantry the monarch was a benefactor and the spokesman of their interests. Such consciousness was difficult to shake something. In the Kazan province the anniversary celebrations were followed by the concrete actions designed to improve matters of the multinational and politeistichesky people. Electoral vsesoslovny self-government institutions in the cities and counties opened schools, hospitals, people's houses, almshouses, built memorial chapels, laid out public gardens, squares, established in female and men's gymnasiums of a grant of a name of reigning persons. Actions for addition of hospital shortages, for an insurance fee, for the loans issued to peasants on purchase of horses for development of handicraft work, on restoration of the farm buildings destroyed by the fire were not less humane actions of local authorities. The Kazan provincial zemstvo "put 5,000 rubles of a debt which was for the poorest schoolgirls of territorial teacher's school" [1]. From treasury of provincial zemstvo richly illustrated edition - "Three Centuries of Reign of House of Romanovs" [2] which the annual subscribers of "The Kazan newspaper" free of charge received as the annex to the anniversary number which appeared 21 was financed

February, 1913. The book had 9 chapters, each of which is entitled by a name of the representative of a reigning dynasty - Mikhail Fedorovich, Pietro il Grande, etc.

The participation of the Kazan Muslims, clergy to the forthcoming anniversary was expressed in the specific creative actions directed to education of Tatars. In January, 1913 in Kazan the meeting of mullahs, representatives of merchants, public figures on which along with the choice of deputation from Muslims on capital celebrations, the question of opening of a female gymnasium in memory of 300-year anniversary of reign of House of Romanovs because "among the urban Tatar population the need to give to the daughters secondary education" [3] already ripened was considered took place. Donations of Muslims were considerable. A certain merchant G. offered 20,000 rubles, publishing firm - the house with the land plot for placement of a gymnasium in it on Ekaterininskaya city Street. Era of the time of troubles and accession to the throne of Mikhail Fedorovich, the biography of the most chief representatives of the reigning House were reflected in 6 brochures published in Tatar. Periodicals dazzled with headings - "By Great Day", "Anniversary of House of Romanovs" [4], "Kazan and citizens of Kazan in the history of accession of House of Romanovs on the Russian royal throne" [5]. These sources are of scientific interest to researchers owing to the remained rich fact-zha, the description with contemporaries of policy of the Russian monarchs for the Muslim world. "By the way special blessings of Sovereigns from this House for Muslims as, for example, establishment of Spiritual meeting, a position of the mufti and permission of formal transition disappeared in Islam" [6] were noted.

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In the context of the created broad public interest to this anniversary event it is necessary to consider voluntary opening by the mullah of the 5th Cathedral mosque of Kazan Galimd-zhan Mukhametzhanovich Galeyev for public use of a personal book collection. Its educational and humane action on an adverbial modifier of time was most of all necessary for Muslim society. It was the period of active development of social thought, formation of consciousness and ideology of Tatars. Understanding of public concerns which became a part personal characterize it as critically conceiving and wise person. The name of G.M. Galeyev is more familiar to scientists-orientalists as G. Barudi (18571921), the religious and public figure, the educator, the bright representative of ideology of the social and political movement of Muslims of the Volga region - Jadidism. One of postulates of this doctrine consisted in need of updating of religion, at preservation of aspiration to education of the Tatar people. "Many contemporaries noted that at Barudi the diligence and commitment were combined with the academic learning, talent of the organizer and high feeling of a civic duty" [7]. Barudi was the founder and the head of novometodny madrasah of Mukhamma-diya, the author of a number of textbooks on Islamic dogma and Tatar, the publisher and the editor of the Addin Ual-Adab magazine which was printed in Millyat printing house, the participant of a number of the All-Russian congresses of Muslims. "Among textbooks in religious and moral objects editions of the new methodologist, the Kazan mullah Galimdzhan Barudi sent from Kazan for the political reasons have special distribution. Its textbooks are simple and comprehensible for pupils" [8], - it was noted in the official report of the Kazan interim committee for the press for 1909.

The private book collection of the educator Mr. Barudi by 1913 contained more than 3,000 volumes and magazines on Islam, history, law, mathematics, medicine, physics, logic, psychology, philosophy and linguistics in the Arab, Persian, Kyrgyz, Turkish, Tatar and Russian languages. Works of religious figures and thinkers of Islam were presented both in originals, and in the translations supplied with comments. These are treatises by Ibn Kutayby (1X century) and Ibn Babashad (X1 of century), Mahomed Pars, Abdallakh an-Nafasi (X111 of century), Moussa ibn Mukhammada - are-Rumi (HU of century), ad-Damamini, etc. Entsiklopedichnost of knowledge, multilingualism of texts characterized the owner of library as most educated person of the time which scientific interests were focused on knowledge of the world of its many-sided manifestations. Service to the people on a field of education and education made contents it

civil credo. In anniversary 1913 the application was submitted to them to office of the Kazan governor about issue of the certificate on opening of public reading room in own house on Sennaya Street. "I wish to open library concerning joyful for all our Fatherland - Russia of anniversary of reign of House of Romanovs, to grant to everyone the right of free use of books of spiritual and moral, scientific and religious and general and educational reading" [9]. The library was supposed to appropriate the name - the 300 anniversary of reign on the Russian throne of a dynasty of Romanov. In the marked library which is brought together by the mullah during life there were many precious rarities. The famous scientist-orientalist Nikolay Fedorovich Katanov (1862-1922), professor of the Kazan university and Spiritual Academy, the member of Interim committee for the press, so characterized a book meeting of the spiritual leader: "All in library of 3,277 volumes listed in the catalog on 148 pages. Books are published in Russia, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, India. As a part of library there are no books of popular and political character on which the ban by Head department for the press could be imposed. The number of books included 780 manuscripts from which the most part is not published and have high scientific and material value. Among east manuscripts one appears, consisting of 2 volumes - "Talfi — a Sack — Akhbar", Murad-Efendiya's composition. It comprises false data on the relation in Russia to her subject Muslims. In this library there are compositions consider all best people of Islam one thousand three hundred too years" [10]. It is necessary to distinguish the Quran, tafsira, collections of Hadiths, tadzhvida from hand-written and old printing books of religious contents. Opening of library for free use of residents was preceded by long correspondence of the Kazan governor with office of the Minister of Internal Affairs. A subject of trial was establishment of the truth whether "opening of Muslim library serves the state and local interests, whether it will be consolidation of Muslim separatism".

Analyzing the rules of work of library developed by the founder, you are surprised scales of the humanity of this personality seeking to sow "spiritual seeds" in souls of the people. The library was open daily, except big Muslim holidays and days of a name day of the Russian sovereigns and empresses. Delivery on the house of especially valuable editions on the security for week term was assumed. The administration of library belonged to collegial body - Council from 6 people. The right of presidency remained in Galeyev' family before its termination.

After the death of the founder the library carried over parishioners of the marked mosque.

The Kazan interim committee for the press supported Galeyev's application because it "the Muslim library on selection of books is urged to serve religious moral, to scientific and general education reading Muslims". However by the Minister of Internal Affairs assignment to library of Romanov it was refused. According to the Russian acts the names of the tallest persons and members of an imperial surname could be appropriated to all educational, charitable, educational institutions from them "the highest pleasure and full financial security of institutions". These legislative provisions were in conflicts with constituent documents on Galeyev's library in which it was noted that after the death of the founder the additional sources providing financial wellbeing of the educational center have to be found by members of council of library. So in the history only the name of the mullah, educator Galimdzhan Mukhametzhano-vich Galeyev, the Hereditary Honourable citizen of Kazan was assigned to library. The library kept the press - "Galeevsky free public library. Kazan".

Returning to pages of history of Muslim library in Kazan, it is important to estimate objectively the level of the increased consciousness of Muslims, their humane aspirations by means of the book to transfer to brothers in faith, all multinational ethnic group of edge spiritual wealth, traditional values for moral progress and peacefulness. Acquaintance to a private library of G. Barudi which he collected during half a century gave the chance to define his outlook, scientific and literary interests, the environment partly surrounding it. The library was reflection of religious and moral, philosophical and esthetic searches of the scientist-humanist. On quantity characteristic and on semantic value before -

stavlenny works it was of an exclusive rarity and value in the Kazan region.

We investigated only one small plot of local history connected with opening and functioning of library which became more and more socially demanded in Muslim community. In process of distribution of education and literacy of the people the need for the developed communication was objectively formed, Wednesday which included people of different age, confessional views, estates and professional accessory gradually extended. N.S. Mordvinov (Nikolay Semyonovich (1754-1845) Mordvinov, the statesman, the Honorary member St. Petersburg AN, the president of imperial Free economic society from 1823 to 1840, the initiator of opening of public libraries in the 30th years of H1H of a century in the provincial cities of the Russian Empire) called this attitude a capacious concept "spirit of the public". The objective research of the historical and cultural processes, events and the facts connected with establishment of libraries by public organizations and individuals promotes development of the scientific platform deprived of ideological rudiments and the mythologized parables, promotes judgment of sociocultural evolution of the multinational people of the Kazan region of a boundary of H1H-HH vekov.

LITERATURE

1. Echoes of celebration of the 300 anniversary of House of Romanovs//Kazan newspaper. - 1913. - No. 10 (on March 10). Page 12.
2. "Three centuries of reign of House of Romanovs" (1613-1913) / Author of the preface E. Gern. - Kazan, 1913. - 68 pages
3. Anniversary of the 300 anniversary of House of Romanovs and Kazan Muslims//Kazan newspaper. - 1913. - No. 4 (on Jan. 27). Page 9-10.
4. Kazan newspaper. - 1913. - No. 7 (on Feb. 21). Page 1.
5. Kazan newspaper. - 1913. - No. 3 (on Jan. 20). Page 1-3.
6. HA PT. - T. 420. - Op. 1. - 248. L. 94.
7. Tatar encyclopedia. T. 1: A-century- Kazan, 2002. S. 306.
8. HA PT. - T. 420. - Op. 1. - 150. L. 74.
9. HA PT. - T. 1. - Op. 4. - 5632. NN. 1, 2.
10. HA PT. - T. 1. - Op. 4. - 5632. NN. 5, 5 about., 8, 8 about

Came to edition of 30.11.2007

Paul Ward
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