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The politician Napoleon concerning the French emigrants

elena of PISKUNOVA


The author analyzes a problem of return of emigrants to France. Napoleon's actions for reconciliation of the nation are considered and also various positions of royalists concerning the new power are presented. Political experience of the French government is useful and for Russia.

The author analyses problem of emigrants’ return in France and shows Napoleon’s actions directed to the reconciliation of nation and presents different attitudes of royalists to new power. The political trial of French government is also useful for Russia.

France, Napoleon, power, policy, monarchy, royalists, emigration, property, amnesty, reconciliation; France, Napoleon, power, policy, monarchy, royalists, emigration, property, amnesty, reconciliation.

The revolution on Brumaire 18 which brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power opens a new stage in the history of France. Reconciliation of the nation, creation of the new power which is above parties and political groups was Napoleon's purpose. He sought to win round both republicans, and royalists, to convince them to forget about political differences.

Political experience of the French government, ways of the solution of an objective and the achieved results are of undoubted interest. They allow to understand the problems arising on the way of creation of the new power striving for stability and consolidation. At implementation of the similar program it is necessary to take various opinions into account, to respect traditions and religious views, to consider the interests connected with a private property, to create ideological bases of new political system.

It is most indicative in this plan of the politician of the first consul concerning royalists whose considerable part was in emigration. Formation of the new mode which cornerstone the aspiration to consolidation of the nation was was impossible without solution of a question of the fate of the French who are outside the country.

Emigration of the French royalists originates since June, 1789. After 1791 it gains mass character. England, Russia, Prussia and other European countries become the residence of emigrants. Data on the number of emigrants are extremely contradictory. Their approximate number — from 100 to 150 thousand people. The complexity of calculation is connected with the fact that archival documents contain, mainly, the information about the emigrants who arrived on service to any given state, lists of the persons who were involved in military operations, and those who got permission to return to France. These lists did not join women and deti1.

PISKUNOVA In February, 1792. The legislative assembly adopts the decree

Elena about confiscation of property of emigrants. Later natsionaliziro-

Pavlovna- the bathing property passes to new owners, and

to. and. the N, the associate professor its considerable part is sold to peasants by small sites.

departments of archeology __________________

and foreign history of the Volgograd state university

1 Central state archive of the Russian Federation, t. 728. op. 2 "French emigration", 295 "Emigration 1791 a 1801. Liste des chevaliers de servir Souis. Liste des gentilshommes et officiers qui ont servi en Emigrations. I."; 296 "Emigration 1791 a 1801. Liste des chevaliers de servir Souis. Liste des gentilshommes et officiers qui ont servi en Emigrations. II."; 298 "Armee de Condee 1791 — 1801. Liste alphabetique"; 299 of "Liste alfabetique des chevaliers de servir Britannique"; 300 "Regiments au service de l> Autriche et de la Hollande".

Their property leads the aspiration to provide for buyers of the seized property to adoption in 1795 of extremely cruel law on Brumaire 25 the III year.

Napoleon starts the solution of a question of emigrants from the first days of the stay in power, but does it gradually and carefully. Officially he adheres to the former line, declaring inadmissibility of return of emigrants, but at the same time makes the order to the president of legal section of the State Council to prepare the law on closing of a leaf of emigrants which was adopted in March, 1800 1 Napoleon watched closely the moods reigning among emigrants. Since the end of March, 1800 in reports of the ministry of police the special sections devoted to emigrants begin to appear. Most of them dreamed to return as soon as possible to France and were ready to accept any usloviya2.

Separate exceptions of a leaf of emigrants became the following step of the first consul. With strengthening of position of Napoleon as the head of state of his action concerning emigrants become more resolute. On October 20, 1800 (28 vandemyer of the IX year) the resolution announcing an exception of the list of emigrants on categories was accepted. About a half of the French who are outside the country had an opportunity to return.

But to allow emigrants to return was only a half of business. Napoleon's purpose was to win round them, to prove that his power is not something temporary and passing. It is stable and promotes establishment of stability in the country, it honors traditions and seeks for their restoration.

It was impossible to win over royalists without support of church. The conclusion in July, 1801. The concordat with Rome promoted not only to the termination of resistance in the west of France. Its value was much broader. The clergy on the whole sharing royalist views from now on supported the consular mode. Some did it sincerely, others — submitting

1 Napoleon I. Correspondence. Vol.1 — 32. — Paris, 1858-1870, v. 6, No. 4457, p. 43.
2 Paris sous le Consulat. Recueil de documents pour l&histoire de l&esprit public a Paris/par. A. Aulard. Vol.1-4. - Paris, 1903-1906, v.1, p. 338, 692, 740.

will of Dad. The new government supported by church gained more and more legal character. Louis XVIII and royalists remaining outside France were not more defenders of religion. They lost a powerful argument and one of the main justifications of the fight.

On April 26, 1802 (6 florealya the X years) it was accepted senatus-konsult, finally resolved issue of emigrants. According to it, any emigrant who took the oath of fidelity to the new political system acquired the right of entry into France. Also the list of the persons excluded from amnesty was made. It were the most active representatives of extreme royalists and also all members royal semyi3.

Senatus-konsult caused big nervousness among emigrants. If earlier return to France was connected with restoration of the monarchy, then now everyone had to solve for itself a problem of how to combine maintaining fidelity to the king with desire to return, return is connected with oath of allegiance to the new mode. Some perceived this amnesty as insult and a call. Whether "You saw something similar, more rough, more offensive, than this amnesty? — one of the most famous representatives of extreme royalists, the count de Vodreille wrote. — This person wants to humiliate all those who condemn him: kings, religion, faithful citizens" 4.

However fluctuations continued not for long. The summer of 1802 was noted by the rapid movement of emigrants to borders of France. The foreign owners for a long time helping exiles did not hide that they are very happy with an opportunity at last to stop showing the mercy. For many it was one more motive for homecoming.

The royalists who directed home justified themselves with the fact that Napoleon's regime — nevertheless not the former republic, and it is temporary, waiting for the best times, it is possible to join also it. Their slogan was: "Without loving Bonaparte, to prefer him". They claimed that

3 TsGARF, t. 728, op. 2, 459 of "Premiere Liste formee en execution du Senatus Consulte du 6 floreal an X".
4 Vaudreuil J. - F. de. Correspondance intime du comte de Vaudreuil et du comte d&Artois pendant Emigration (1789-1815). Vol.1-2. - Paris, 1889, v. 2, p. 307.

the promise made to the government does not oblige to refuse at all the former principles to which they remain vernymi1.

Those who were excluded from amnesty continued to look for opportunities to return, appealed to influential representatives of the new mode. P.-L. Roederer provides the letter received by it from one of such royalists in the memoirs: "We belonged to different parties. You won. I am defeated and reconciled with it. I need to see my wife, I have to get acquainted with three teenage children. In it now all my policy" 2.

Not adopted amnesty, like the count de Vodreille, there was a little. Some could not go on any compromises with the Republic, kind of it was called now. "Nobody and anything will force us to refuse the oath recited to the king" — the duke de Vilcie in November, 1802 wrote the son living in Rossii3. He urged it to be loyal to the principles, noticing that for true royalists the return to France is possible only together with the king. Others were held by other reasons. "All that property which I had was sold, thus, even if I would like to return, it is useless" — the baron de Gilermi, one of advisers column Provanskogo4 wrote.

However hundreds of royalists who also lost the property, despite this came back to the country. Graf de Moriol remembers that emigrants never had, or did not want to have a fair idea of what became with their property in Frantsii5. Always it seemed to them that the law of Convention on smashing of emigrant lands and a sale to their peasants was practically not carried out by small sites. Besides, they believed that Napoleon's government, having made advances them in a question of return, will be so favorable to them and at settlement of disputes about property.

1 Paris sous le Consulat. Recueil de documents pour l&histoire de l&esprit public a Paris/par. A. Aulard. Vol.1 — 4. - Paris, 1903-1906, v. 2, p. 798.
2 Roederer P. - L. Oeuvres de comte de Roederer publiees par son fils. Vol.1-5. — Paris, 1854, v. 3, p. 312.
3 ^AP®, $. 728, on.2, g. 199 "Lettres du Duc de Villequier a son fils le Duc de Piennes", a. 4.
4 Guilhermy J. - F. - C. Papiers d&un emigre. 1789 — 1829. — Paris, 1886, p. 74.
5 Moriolles L. de. Memoires du comte de Moriolles

sur l&emigration. — Paris, 1902, p. 274.

The first joy of return soon passed, and many found out that they are in very fragile situation and though abroad where many felt the true material poverty, it was sometimes much worse, the amnestied emigrants began to show discontent. They blamed for all troubles the government, affording sometimes peracute attacks and judgments. "The come-back emigrants continue to pour out sneers on all acts of the government and on officials — it is reported in one of reports of the prefecture of police. — They despise and do not wish to see the former noblemen who did not emigrate as they, and treat them as with pants" 6.

The former emigrants considered that they were deceived, they came back in hope that will return them all their property. The question of the property of emigrants now belonging to other owners rose especially sharply. Buyers demanded from the government of guarantees especially as old owners were ready very resolutely. "Acquired our property will be forced to return us it. They used income during our absence whether they are obliged to compensate the cost of values which they spent?" 7 Such talk were very widespread and caused concern of new owners. To calm them, the resolution in which it was said that the amnestied persons cannot at all and under any pretext to demand revision of the acts and resolutions made the Republic before their amnesty was accepted. Partly to solve a problem in favor of the former owners, the sequester was removed from yet not sold property, and it returned to the former owners. But they were not going to be content with it and, having understood that to hope for the government is useless, looked for different ways of impact on buyers. "We will openly not use force for return of our property, but we will bother to such an extent got it that they will be forced to give us it" — it was reported about moods of emigrants in one of reports of the ministry yustitsii8.

6 Paris sous le Consulat. Recueil de documents pour l&histoire de l&esprit public a Paris/par. A. Aulard. Vol.1 — 4. — Paris, 1903 — 1906, v. 3, p. 254.
7 Ibid., v. 1, p. 813.
8 Ibid., v. 2, p. 777.

For implementation of the plan the emigrants lodged near the former manors, sought to catch sight as often as possible to their new owners, constantly reminding of the existence and the rights. This tactics did not bring desirable results, did not wake up at got sense of guilt, but led to the numerous conflicts and collisions.

It seemed, the question of return of property entirely engrossed attention of come back. Judging by reports of the prefecture of police, other problems almost did not interest them. From time to time it came that Louis XVI's process will be reconsidered and it will be posthumously rehabilitated, but, despite thorough control of police, to find more reprehensible talk about Burbons, Louis XVIII, the monarchy not udavalos1.

Nevertheless the first consul perfectly understood that at heart these people are still loyal to the royalist ideas. Without having an opportunity to resolve an issue of property in their advantage, he was ready to make advances in other questions, seeking to win their arrangement. So, the emigrants living in Russia could take the oath to the French ambassador and receive amnesty through him. Persons interested to remain on the Russian service got such permission. They could fulfill the former duties, being considered from now on as French grazhdanami2. The duke Richelieu got permission to remain on service in Russia personally from the first consul. Also all its property as it remained not sold was returned to it. The government paid to some former aristocrats considerable monetary summy3.

If to proceed from external manifestations, then it is possible to tell that the policy of the first consul for emigrants was crowned with success. They did not allow any more

1 Ibid., v. 1, p. 105.
2 Napoleon I. Correspondance. Vol.1 — 32. — Paris, 1858-1870, v. 8, No. 6330, p. 37-38; No. 6656, p. 260; No. 6730, p. 306.
3 Ibid., v. 8, No. 6551, p. 181; No. 6617, p. 230; No.
6747, p. 315.

sharp statements to the government and obvious discontent. They had to reconcile not only to society of not emigrating noblemen whom they first treated haughtily, but also with those whom they called "regicides" until recently. Moreover, some of them could fit successfully into a new system, having found out that the consular mode in many respects is not worse than old at all.

The former emigrants who arrived on service to the new government can be divided into two groups. Some completely refused the former royalist beliefs and became Napoleon's supporters. Others were loyal to the former views and an old dynasty, and considered the activity the temporary, caused necessity. However there was still the third, most numerous group of the royalists who came back to France. Those who considered inadmissible any cooperation with the consular mode and were ready to wait patiently when, having played the role intended to it, he gives way to legitimate authority acting through Louis XVIII entered it. Representatives of this group become reserved, without rejecting anything, but also without approving anything. "Many people who thought of revival of the monarchy, think of durability of the government now — it is said in one of reports of the prefecture of police — but they, nevertheless, remain dissatisfied; they concentrate on to themselves, save up money, living only for themselves, and absolutely retire from society" 4. Rejection of the new mode was behind external humility and indifference, and the first consul did not manage to change the attitude towards him of this group.

Thus, a considerable part of royalists accepted Napoleon's regime only externally, continuing to be loyal to the royalist ideas, expecting restoration of Burbons which, according to them, will have to resolve all problems.

4 Paris sous le Consulat. Recueil de documents pour l&histoire de l&esprit public a Paris/par. A. Aulard. Vol.1 — 4. — Paris, 1903 — 1906, v. 3, p. 260.
Mary Davis
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