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The number, resettlement and traditional economy of vyngapurovsky Nenets in the conditions of industrial development



CHISLENNOST, RESETTLEMENT AND TRADITIONAL ECONOMY of VYNGAPUROVSKY NENETS

1

In the conditions of INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

E.A. Volzhanina

On the basis of field materials of the author, contemporary office work and statistical records dynamics of number, resettlement and traditional economy of vyngapurov-sky group of forest Nenets are considered. At the beginning of the 21st century the semi-settled lifestyle, the leading role of fishery in life support, a high share of bezolenny and maloolenny farms, loss by some families of reindeer-breeding skills and the equipment, existence of two types of dwellings are characteristic of them: traditional figurative and stationary in the settlement. Their modern economy represents synthesis of the traditional and new lines acquired as a result of sociohistorical development and interaction with the government institutions and the industrial companies which are carrying out oil and gas development of the territory of their accommodation.

Forest Nenets, Purovsky district, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area, ethnography, ethnic history, ethnodemography, traditional economy, reindeer breeding, fishery.

Economic, sociocultural and ecological changes in XX — the beginning of the 21st century led to significant transformation of traditional culture of indigenous ethnic groups of the North, having aggravated problems of cultural and language and ethnic assimilation, psychological, demographic, social and their economic adaptation to a modern situation. As a result of discussions of the last two decades there was a steady opinion connecting physical and cultural survival of peoples of the North with preservation and development of traditional types of economic activity [Klokov, 1997, page 7; Logins, etc., 2009, page 44, 48]. Great opportunities in the solution of problems of indigenous people have oil and gas extraction regions — the Yamal-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi autonomous areas.

In this article changes of number, resettlement and the current state of traditional economy of the vyngapurovsky forest Nenets living in the Purovsky Region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area are considered. Now in the territory of the area more than 30 companies develop oil and gas fields, and the ecological situation is assessed as critical [Modern situation..., 2004. Page 44]. The designated aspects of a research allow to define degree of adaptation of local ethnic group to changes of the natural and geographical, social and economic environment of traditional environmental management. In our opinion, social and demographic indicators and dynamics of number are important indicators of health of indigenous people of the North, reflecting top trends of their development. The field materials of the author received during the ethnographic expeditions of 2007-2009 in basins of the Vyngayakh Rivers (right inflow of the Vyngapur River), Pyako-Pur and Nyaby-yakh (left inflow of the Ayvasedopur River) are the basis for work.

An area of resettlement of vyngapurovsky Nenets is the Pyako-Purovsky subdistrict covering the basin of the Pyaku-Pur River including its left and right inflows: Vyngapur, Purpe. The name of group comes from the name of a trading station to which the indigenous people was attributed in the 20th century, and it is offered to P.G. Turutina [2000, page 9]. In the considered area the trading station Vengo-Pur based in the late thirties in the mouth of the river Vyngayakhi was the only settlement prior to the beginning of the 1970th

The majority of the cities, the industrial and field camps which appeared in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area in the last third of the 20th century are in the territory of traditional resettlement of vyngapurovsky Nenets, and the railroad Tyumen — Surgut — Novy Urengoy divided it into the western and east parts. All new settlements have transport, oil and gas extraction and gas-processing character [the Atlas., 2004, page 248]. To large of them belong

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Work is performed with assistance of a grant within the Program of basic researches of Presidium of RAS "Historical and cultural heritage and cultural wealth of Russia".

the city of Gubkinsky (20,407 people), Muravlenko (35,926 people), Noyabrsk (102,949 people) located west of a branch line [Results..., 2005, page 340, 352, 366]. East of it genitive Hanymey which is at the same time the railway station is based. Building of various communications (the power line, pipelines, highways, etc.), the industrial and inhabited facilities providing their service is connected with arrangement of fields. Big inflow of the alien population caused high density, in certain places — more than 100 people on 1 sq.km [the Atlas., 2004, page 241, 248]. In all cities the Nenets make less than 0.1% [Results., 2005, page 341, 353, 367].

According to official statistics, the number of vyngapurovsky Nenets in the 20th century did not exceed the 300th persons. In 1926 on average a current of the Pyaku-Pur River and on its inflows of Lyche-yaga, 1 Takoleda-Pur, Vynga-yaga, 2 Kalmy-Pur rewrote 35 farms of forest Nenets with a total number of 269 people [the List., 1928, page 214-215]. In the project of creation of Pyako-Purovsky national council in 1934-1935 28 farms in which there were 158 people [GAYaNAO are specified. T. 12. Op. 1. 188. L. 133, 138]. On the survey map of the Yamal district made on materials sowing-roustroystva of 1933 and 1936 around the designed Pyako-Purovsky national council during the summer period it is designated 36, and in winter — 141 economy [RGAE. T. 1562. Op. 336. 1512. L. 4]. Till 1944 this group of Nenets was considered as the population f. Vyngapur of Verkhnepurov-sky village council, since 1944 — Tarkosalinsky village council, with abolition of the last in 1976 — genitive Tarko-Sal. Because of a nomadic way of life and inaccessibility of the places of residence of data on them are inexact and do not reflect real dynamics. If in 1957 there were 37 farms and in them 226 people, then in 1963 and 1965 — 36 and 119 respectively [GUTO GATO. T. 1112. Op. 1. 1616. L. 119 about.; 2987. L. 99 about.; 3975. L. 87 about.]. In 1977 their number was the greatest and equaled 401 people, but in 1980 the figure 165 people, and is given to 1983 — 273 people [In the same place. 7493. L. 18; 8943. L. 32; 10281. L. 94].

In 1984 f. Vyngapur it was closed after transfer of state-farm cervine herds to the North behind genitive Tarko-Sal in connection with industrial development in the south of the area and it ceased to be mentioned in official statistical reports. The information about Nenets of the vyngapurovsky tundra began to bring together with data on the population of genitive Tarko-Sal (since 2004 Tarko-Sal) and Harampur. Now it is possible to define their number only during direct visit of settlements. Additional difficulties of account create receiving by them apartments and a registration in new industrial settlements and the cities of Purovsky district, the conclusion of traditional patrilocal marriages (when the woman passes to live in plagues of the husband, keeping the old registration). The compensation construction which is widely developed in recent years and delivery of gratuitous subsidies for acquisition of housing promoted significant increase in number of the Nenets families having apartments. The big cottage settlement for vyngapurovsky Nenets is under construction in genitive Hanymey.

Books of pokhozyaystvenny account were attracted to establishment of number of vyngapurovsky Nenets in separate years us. According to primary sources, in 1957 there were 45 farms, in them — the 215th persons. According to results of field researches, in 2009 in the considered territory 59 farms live, in them 343 people 3 They have a different registration: genitive Hanymey, Mr. Tarko-Sal, Harampur, the village of Halyasavey — depending on the place of receiving the apartment. From them only 7 families constantly live in genitive Hanymey: two incomplete families consisting of mother with children, one family mixed Tatar-Nenets and four families which heads from the settlement go on fishing. Owing to noted circumstances the different registration meets at members of one family. At the elderly people who do not have stationary housing still as residence in the passport it is specified f. Vyngapur or Vyngapurovsky tundra. All children study at boarding school in Tarko-Sal.

International marriages are a little widespread among vyngapurovsky Nenets. Preservation of a traditional way of life and accommodation in the tundra cause the conclusion of mainly one-national marriages. In 2009 we revealed in the tundra only two mixed families —

1

Modern name of Lyti-yakh.

2

Modern name Vyngapur.

3

The census on plagues allowed to specify data of Committee of small peoples of the North of MO Purovsky district which analysis is submitted earlier [Volzhanina, 2007].

the Nenets-Selkup. The mixed families settle in the cities: Tarko-Sal, Gubkinsky, Murav-lenko — are also not employed in traditional economy.

The data obtained during forwarding work confirm increase in number of vyngapurovsky Nenets at the beginning of the 21st century in comparison with the middle and the beginning of last century. It, in turn, indicates positive natural increase, high-quality improvement of medical care for nomads and its availability and also preservation of the leading role of traditional industries in their life support despite intensive industrial development of the territory. The population still lives in the tundra, being engaged in reindeer breeding, fishery and hunting.

The analysis of demographic characteristics of vyngapurovsky Nenets confirms a trend of "rejuvenation" of nomads in the second half of XX — the beginning of the 21st century. It is indicated by a share of children in the general structure of the population, average and median age of men and women, average of children in economy (tab. 1). From 1957 to 2009 the share of children grew from 33.1 to 42.2% at reduction of number of able-bodied group, elderly and old men. Distribution on gender and age shows the high level of birth rate for 14 years (since 1995), in comparison with 1970- and 1980th. None of informants remembered cases of infantile mortality during this period. The high birth rate is observed in the early forties — the middle of the 1950th and the 1960th. Attracts attention the fact that began industrial developments in the area and inflow in a large number of the alien population in the 1970th were followed by sharp decrease in birth rate in the environment of indigenous people, including vyngapurovsky Nenets.

Table 1

Demographic characteristics of vyngapurovsky Nenets in the second half of XX — the beginning of the 21st century

Demographic indicators 1957 1979 2009

Number of people 215 248 343

Men, % 45.6 51.2 51.3

of the Woman, % 54.4 48.8 48.7

Number of men on 100 women 84 105 105

Children up to 14 years, % 33.1 34.3 42.2

Number of boys on 100 girls up to 14 years 103 133 118

Able-bodied (15-54 years), % 53.9 50.9 48.2

Number of men on 100 women at the age of 15-54 years 76 94 101

Disabled (55 years are also more senior), % 11.6 14.0 9.0

The number of men on 100 women at the age of 55 years are also more senior 66 106 76

Middle age, years (man) 29.4 26.0 22.9

Middle age, years (woman) 27.6 29.6 24.3

Median, years (man) 26.5 18 19

Median, years (woman) 28 24 18

Number of farms 45 50 59

From them nomadic 45 50 53

Average size of farms 4.7 4.9 5.8

Number of children (0-17 years) in economy 1.8 2.1 2.7

Note. Tab. 1, 2 are made according to Department of affairs of archives of administration of the Purovsky Region of YaNAO. T. 15. Op. 3. 10-11, 190. L. 59 about.-95 about.; 191. L. 4 about., 6 about., 83 about.; 194. L. 20 about., 26 about.; 203. L. 6 about.-41 about.; 204. L. 1 about., 2 about., 4 about., 5 about., 23 about., 36 about., 37 about., 41 about., 44 about., 45 about.; 205. L. 20 about., 21 about., 28 about., 29 about., 38 about.

Reduction of a share of elderly generation from 11.6 to 9% is explained by reduction of the general life expectancy of indigenous people, first of all men. For 1957-2009 the number of women at the age of 70 years are also more senior remained without changes (8 people), the most senior of them was in 1957 80 years, in 1979 — 93 years, in 2009 — 90 years. The number of men in this age group was reduced from 8 in 1957 to 3 people in 2009, and the age of the oldest of them differs in different years, but below, than at women: in 1957 — 80 years, in 1979 — 78 years, in 2009 — 85 years. Despite old age these men remain heads of family farms, taking part in economic and trade activity.

In the second half of the 20th century the ratio of floors in favor of men whereas in the district the return trend is observed changed. For the last 30 years the share of men and women as a part of vyngapurovsky Nenets looks as 51.2% (51.3) and 48.8% (48.7), and 105 men are the share of 100 women that approaches characteristics of the 1930th. At the same time in the first decade

Make minority in nurseries and able-bodied age groups 21st century of the girl and woman and the ratio of floors sharply changes after 54 years, confirming low life expectancy of men. Only in 1979 on 100 women at the age of 55 years is also more senior 106 men were necessary. The adverse situation for men is noted in the late fifties for when men there were 45.6%.

The ratio of floors which developed by the beginning of the 21st century favorably affected in marriage structure of the nomadic population. The brachnost coefficient calculated for men and women of marriageable age in 2009 was higher, than in the previous years, and above district indicators for Nenets of YaNAO (tab. 2). At the same time women have it one of the highest for the last 50 years. Significant decrease in coefficient happened only in the late seventies both for men, and for women. The absolute number of the women who are married are always more, than men. In 1957 and 1979 it is connected with existence of polygamous marriages which number decreased in the natural way to this period from 6 to 1. The younger generation does not adhere to this tradition any more. Among modern vyngapurovsky Nenets the polygamy does not meet absolutely. In 2009 it is more married women, than married men, due to marriage of the Nenets woman with the Tatar. All marriages of a patrilokalna. The high mobility allows to support marriage communications with halesovinsky, harampurovsky, tarkosalinsky and samburgsky Nenets.

Table 2

Distribution of vyngapurovsky Nenets in relation to marriage and age

Age 1957 1979 2009

Men Women Men Women Men Women *

16-19 — — — 91 250 200
20-24 200 429 571 167 333 833
25-29 800 615 800 778 615 875
30-34 750 625 1000 818 750 875
35-39 727 667 429 600 833 833
40-44 1000 1000 857 1000 1000 1000
45-49 800 800 1000 667 900 714
50-54 1000 667 667 750 800 1000
55-59 333 333 200 — 1000 667
60-64 — — 600 750 857 1000
65-69 — 500 1000 750 1000 —
70 years are also more senior 857 625 833 — Than 1000 250

The age is not specified — 1000

At the age of only 16 years is also more senior 683 603 568 518 674 685

* Including 2 women of the Selkup.

The majority of marriages is not registered still, mutual consent of newlyweds and their parents it is considered enough for public recognition by their husband and wife. Perhaps, in this regard the data of household books used for calculations of 1957 and 1979 do not reflect the real number of married men and married women in age groups of 1619. Field work allowed to reveal 18-19-year-old spouses at the time of its carrying out. Now the introduction in traditional marriage of 16-17-year-old girls becomes an unusual occurrence because of study at school. Children of indigenous people of the North begin training at boarding school at late age (7-9 years) and study 12 years, unlike Russians, at the expense of a "zero" class. By the time of end of the general secondary education they reach 1920. The fact that most of girls marry after 20 years, the young man — after 25 years is connected with it, having served in army.

Now most of parents, understanding value of education, allow the children (both to sons, and daughters) to receive the certificate about incomplete or senior secondary education and to continue study further. Only in certain cases (a disease or the death of one of adults, big family, etc.) parents do not release the child in school at achievement of 15-17 years, sometimes earlier, leaving at themselves as the assistant in traditional classes in the tundra. The traditional marriages providing payment of a small bridewealth and a courtship consist in such families. Statistics shows that in the tundra most often there are people with incomplete secondary and primary education, is rare — with an average and Wednesdays -

to them special. We revealed only one woman having incomplete higher education, forced to leave study in Leningrad to help family.

Stains are not characteristic of tundrovik, despite ease of marriage. However because of the high level of men's mortality the share of widows is high. If in 1957 the widows meet mainly after 30 years, in 1979 and 2009 — in 23 and 26 years. At the same time among vyngapurov-sky Nenets the share become a widow/widower considerably grew from 1957 to 1979, from 494 to 122 at men and from 154 to 193 at women. In 1979 these indicators exceeded district. At the end of the first decade of the 21st century the reverse situation is observed, widowers is 22, and widows — 130 in the total population of marriageable age. The women who are not married after 30 years it is already widows. The phenomenon of a final celibacy meets very seldom. In 2009 we met two women (1941 and 1972 of the birth) which refused marriage to help the aged parents.

In the second half of XX — the beginning of the 21st century of change of family structure concerned first of all the size of families (increased from 4.9 to 5.8 people) and a share of the complex families consisting of two married couples (increased from 6.8 up to 15.2%). The share of nuclear families is rather high, making 63.6% in 1957 and 62.7% in 2009. Only in 1979 it was sharply reduced, to 51.1%, due to complication of structure of families and growth of a share of incomplete family groups in comparison with 1957. At this time, characterized by high death rate of men and women, the first became heads of incomplete families (17%), the second, having lost the supporter of family, were included related farms. The prevalence of the incomplete families consisting of fathers and children and other relatives became result of a high share of widowers in 1979. At this time the families including mother with children completely were absent. Throughout the considered period growth of the average size of full families (from 4.2 to 5.2 people) and reduction — incomplete is noted (from 4.6 to 3.4 people). The last is connected with the fact that modern Nenets women early become widows, remaining with one-two juvenile children. Most often accidents are a cause of death of young men and in the fall during movement on snow-storms across the river or the lake in the spring. The incomplete families consisting of mother with children in 2009 contain 6.8%, the father with children — 1.7%. For comparison: in 1957 these indicators equaled 6.8 and 4.6% respectively. Various types of the complex full families including married couple and relatives on side, to the descending or ascending lines meet. The Posemeyny census in 2009 allowed to reveal 9 complex families representing the married sons who are in common living with parents at once (most often seniors). In them there are from 7 to 15 persons. In the summer that all members of big family could accommodate, are put two plague, and in the winter when children are in a boarding school — one.

According to the processes of growth of number of indigenous people described above in the Vyngapurovsky tundra, increases in the size of family, in 2009 prevail family farms of 5 people in size and more (61.1%), and by the number of children up to 17 years inclusive — with 3 and more. At the same time the share of average and large families (50%) demonstrates expanded reproduction of group. As a rule, the woman aged up to 25 years has already three-four children.

Throughout the considered period the able-bodied indigenous people of the Vyngapurovsky tundra worked in 1945-1961 as fishermen and reindeer breeders in collective farm "on March 8", in 1961-1994 — reindeer breeders in the state farm Verkhnepurovsky reorganized in 1994 into State Farm Verkhnepurovsky LLP, and in 1999 — in JSC Agricultural Production Cooperative (APC) Verkhnepurovsky. For today most of them (33.2%) is employed by fishermen in JSC Selskokhozyaystvennaya obshchina Pyako-Purovskaya organized in 2004 (tab. 3). The share of the unemployed very low, makes 16.9%. These are generally young women and men. The first do not work because of juvenile children, the second did not decide on the choice of the place of work yet, but take active part in trade activity.

From 2004 to 2008 the number of workers WITH Pyako-Purovskaya grew from 36 to 59 people, and production of fish — from 15091.3 to 49605.7 t. At the same time the maximum number of fish was caught in 2007 — 60242.3 t. Providing workers with all necessary fishing stock, overalls and the equipment, gasoline, oil, annual awards to the best fishermen in the form of boat motors, snow-storms, convenient location of production base, unlike owls -

Indicators are given in this paragraph in %%.

the hozny center located in Tarko-Sal make attractive the choice of community as the place of work for Nenets. The number of jobs for indigenous people is not limited. Providing employment of indigenous people in the traditional industries, the community is completely subsidized at the expense of means of district and regional budgets. Within a year each fisherman has to hand over a certain quantity of fish (in 2009 — 1.5 t), furs and berries according to the plan received by community from the regional management. With growth of the products which are handed over in community the average annual salary of fishermen rose from 20,000 rub in 2006 up to 30,000 rub in 2008. The income of the Nenets family consists of the salary in community, children's grants, nomadic (2 thousand rubles on each able-bodied family member in a month). Some families which concluded economic agreements with JSC Sibneft-Noyabrskneftegaz receive monetary compensation in the sum of 500 rub a quarter on each family member. Low consumer interest is confirmed by the message of informants that 2 thousand rubles a month are enough for accommodation of the woman with the child whom relatives provide with fish and meat. Therefore the choice of the tundra by Nenets as the permanent residence in the presence of the apartment is caused by the fact that in "the tundra to live cheaper, than in the city".

Table 3

The structure of employment of vyngapurovsky Nenets at the age of 16 years is also 01.08.2009 more senior

Occupation Men Women Only %

Fisherman of JSC SO Pyako-Purovskaya 43 18 61 33.2

Fisherman of JSC APO State Farm Vernepurovsky 10 8 18 9.8

Reindeer breeder, chumrabotnitsa of JSC APO State Farm Verkhnepurovsky 7 5 12 6.5

JSC SO Harampurovskaya 2 3 5 2.7

Does not work 9 22 31 16.9

Pension on age 16 21 37 20.1

Disability pension 3 1 4 2.1

Student — 5 5 2.7

Pupil 2 9 11 6.0

Only 92 92 184 100

The territory formalized for members of JSC SO Pyako-Purovskaya includes the basin of the Chuchuyakha River and the lake between the Chuchuyakha and Pyako-Pur Rivers. In fact here only 4 of 53 nomadic farms live. Settlements are located at distance from 25 to 130 km from the main production base of the community which accommodated in genitive Hanymey. It includes the production room with 5 fridges from which 3 are used for freezing of berries. At the same time in fridges about 5 t of fish who then is taken out on fish factory in Tarko-Sal can be frozen. A part of products comes to retail trade. Construction of the shop on processing of fish is conducted, in the long term planned to organize shops for smoking of fish and production of fish dumplings, to build the pigsty. The main fishing is made during the autumn and winter period, only some families hand over fish in the summer. Export is made in the summer and in the fall by car, from hard-to-reach spots — helicopter (only from the area of the Pyako-Pur River), in the winter — snow-storms. For this purpose the fisherman the day before on cellular communication reports to the management of community about a catch. The second production base is organized in 43 km from genitive Hanymey on the Pyako-Pur River where 2 fridges are installed. On the basis of the petition of the management of JSC SO Pyako-Purovskaya in Municipality Administration Purovsky district it got permission to organize fishing in the area f. Vyngapur crew from two families living about it. Now f. Vyngapur is not used by indigenous people, is away from the main thoroughfares of the area and JSC APO Verkhnepurovsky is leased to Surgutgazprom using it as recreation facility; journey to it is organic.

In the middle of the 20th century the farms living in the Vyngapurovsky tundra had very low income from fish production due to the lack of reservoirs of trade value, remoteness of places of acceptance from places of fishing (f. Vyngupar and the village of Tarco-Sale), existence of fish of black breeds (ide, a pike, a perch, a soroga) were also guided by fur trade and reindeer breeding [GASPITO.

5

According to the resolution of the governor of YaNAO "About compensation payments to persons from among indigenous ethnic groups of the North and to the other persons who are engaged in traditional economic activity and also the persons leading a nomadic and semi-nomadic life in the territory of YaNAO", accepted in December, 2004

T. 1481. Op. 27. 32. L. 55-55 about.]. In 1948 the livestock of deer in the considered territory was the greatest in comparison with the harampurovsky and halesovinsky tundra and totaled about 2500 deer, from them 530 riding (21.2%), and 1188 heads were in personal property [In the same place. L. 17, 62]. However in comparison with data of the Subpolar census it is possible to note its significant reduction. In 1926 in headwaters of the Pur River, taking its left inflow of the Pyaku-Pur River, riding vypasat deer in number of 8691, from them 30.6%, and the average size of herd was 167 deer [Reindeer breeding..., 1930, page 4].

The modern situation demonstrates change of economic priorities with change of conditions of traditional environmental management. Though still it is necessary to hear from the vyngapu-rovsky Nenets justifying in failure to follow the plan for delivery of fish: "We are not fishermen, and reindeer breeders. It at harampurovsky and halesovinsky is not present deer, here they also catch a lot of fish. And we cannot so" [PMA, 2008]. One of vital issues of the management of community is systematic failure to follow the plan by fishermen. For today fishery is the main source of a subsistence of maloolenny and bezolenny families. In the Vyngapurovsky tundra, many rivers and the lakes suitable for catch of fish within a year are located. Family relations and modern transport allow heads of families to go on fishing on the reservoirs rich with fish located at considerable distance from the place of permanent residence (Etypur, Ayvasedopur River). Still they use traditional methods of fishing: device of locks, installation of muzzles, networks, nevodba. Thanks to support of the district and regional authorities, oil and gas companies, modern fishery represents very profitable occupation. Therefore some dismissed the deer and settled on the river bank for the sake of fishing. For this place of summer and autumn settlements not only the prospects of catch of a large number of fish, but also proximity of the road for its export are chosen taking into account. Depending on the number of men, fishing trade is conducted, as a rule, by efforts of one or two related families. Some fishermen began to build the big locks (up to 45 m long) not characteristic of Nenets in the past. Such lock which is partitioning off the river on average a current is arranged on Vyngayakh that is considered by other Nenets as wrecking as the farms trading in the lower current are left without fish.

Traditional materials for weaving of muzzles (a talnik, a larch root) now are practically not used, they were replaced by an aluminum wire and a grid chain-link. Such traps are considered stronger and easier and can longer be used, than wooden. They can be various on volume, depending on desire of the owner and number of people participating in trade and to contain from 50 to 200 kg of fish.

Modern reindeer breeding of vyngapurovsky Nenets has private character. Now in the Vyngapurovsky tundra about 2.5 thousand deer vypasatsya. Owners of deer are two thirds of families. Small herds (up to 50 heads, sometimes 5-10 to family) which transfer to a pasture to the state-farm crews, families having bigger quantity of deer are extended or unite for a joint pasture. In the latter case large herds in 250-400 heads belonging to 2-8 related families are formed. In the Pyako-Purovsky subdistrict only one crew (3 families) of JSC APO Verkhnepurovsky vypasat deer. Despite considerable reduction of a livestock in comparison with the beginning of the 20th century among vyngapurovsky Nenets reindeer breeding and the related complex of material and spiritual culture remained more than at other groups of forest Nenets.

Reindeer breeding of vyngapurovsky Nenets represents the option of taiga reindeer breeding with use of semi-free content of deer practiced in the basin of Central Pur, described in ethnographic literature [Verbov, 1936; Karapetova, 1986, 2001; Kozmin, 2003]. Characteristic lines, traditional for it, such as small amplitudes of seasonal removements, guarding of deer during the mosquito period, the device of the opened and fenced dymokur, kings, fences, use of wooden foot blocks, remain still. Shepherds watch that deer did not come to roads and to fields where they become subjects to hunting of the alien population, can be hit by cars or get poisoned with industrial wastes. Close located industrial facilities (boring, the power line, etc.) have negative impact on growth of a livestock of deer, some families lost the deer completely. Owners of small herds (50-120 heads) for their preservation began to vypasat deer in foot blocks almost all the year round, to build the cervine sheds and fences interfering an exit of deer to the road.

The deer is already seldom used as the vehicle. It was replaced by a snow-storm and the car. The snow-storm is used for movement on the tundra and during removements within a year in the winter and in the summer. Vyngapurovsky Nenets began to go by a snow-storm in the summer already since the end of the 1990th. It affected quantity and types of sledge in economy among which the cargo sledge attached to snow-storms prevail. Some sledge are made in the form of a box for transportation of people. The number of riding sledge decreased, at the same time absolutely ceased to make female riding sledge. According to informants, by deer there go only elderly men. Guarding of deer on sledge is carried out by shepherds of state-farm crew and private reindeer breeders of the Big Vyngayakhinsky tundra. Ample opportunities of application of a snow-storm are connected with receiving gasoline under economic agreements and in community for the handed-over products of crafts. The deer satisfies needs of the Nenets family performed by ceremonies of a family cycle and also in meat, skins for winter clothes, beds, is more rare — winter nyuk for plague.

Because of low purchase prices of products of hunting the indigenous people hunts only for own consumption. Hunting has individual character, begins in the fall after completion of ice fishing of fish and continues prior to the beginning of summer. Subjects to hunting are the fur animal (squirrel, an ermine, a fox, an otter, a glutton, a bear), a bird (geese, ducks, swans, partridges), a wild deer. Modern hunting is made by means of guns, on partridges put loops. In the spring decoys on ducks are used. The place of hunting in formation of the budget of economy was taken by collecting. Pick first of all the berries maintaining long storage and transportations on which the high reception prices are established — cowberry and a cranberry. Berries are picked as hands, and by means of special adaptation — "bralka". All family members participate in trade: men, women, children and old men.

The families of vyngapurovsky Nenets living east of the railroad have economic agreements with JSC Sibneft-Noyabrskneftegaz for compensation of damage caused by negative impact of industrial development on natural and traditional complexes around their direct accommodation. According to the concluded agreements, the industrial company gives financial and material support to families, in territories of traditional environmental management and which primordial resettlement oil production is conducted. The conclusion of economic agreements practices since 2001, they were prolonged twice — in 2005 and 2009. Under agreements the Nenets receive every four years a snow-storm, at will the boat motor, the generator or the chainsaw, 2.5 t of gasoline on family (deliver in the fall and in the spring). The reality shows that these agreements provide good support to farms and give them the chance a lot of time to devote to reindeer breeding and to watch regularly a condition of herd. It is one of the reasons of preservation of a cervine livestock by them. On the other hand, allowing to develop the territories, Nenets voluntarily reduce own opportunities of maintaining traditional economy. Now many of them understand that they miscalculated, having signed these agreements.

Occupation in the agricultural sector of economy and existence of deer promote preservation of traditional settlements and figurative dwellings. But some families already lost skills of occupation reindeer breeding, objects and the related devices structural elements of the traditional dwelling (especially winter plague). Reduction of routes of movements, long accommodation on one place (20 years and more), including big settlements (up to 8 chum), construction of srubny log huts and various stationary designs (toilets, land sheds), not characteristic of Nenets in the past, use for temporary (for trade) or permanent residence of the balok and cars left by geological parties and expeditions, a combination of two views of housing became the new phenomenon: figurative in the tundra (plagues) and stationary (the house or the apartment) in the settlement. The first felling-nye and frame houses which walls were fitted by a black film with an earth floor began to build on the Vyngayakhe River in the late seventies the of family of maloolenny pensioners which passed to semi-settled lifestyle. Due to the distribution of diesel power plants now of plagues it is lit by means of electric, but not oil lamps, families buy TVs, RUHR players, tape recorders, cell phones, laptops.

For swimming on the rivers the modern vyngapurovsky Nenets use boats of various types (Ob, etc.) with boat motors ("Breeze", "Whirlwind"). The traditional boats made earlier of cedar bark do of tin sheets now. They are used for cleaning and check of fishing locks, small by the sizes. If before the river served as the main thoroughfares, then now this role passed to roads. Existence of times -

vetvlenny network of the highways connecting settlements among themselves liquidated former isolation of the Nenets farms during the summer period from the centers rural the district and the area. Families make regular trips to the settlement with various purposes: from purchase of food before visit of relatives. With transport availability the need to do large supplies of food disappeared. For movement between the settlement and a settlement, between settlements own transport, crew buses performing flights for transportation of people for work on industrial facilities and also the taxi is used. Trips to the regional center Mr. Tarko-Sal are carried out by train or the taxi.

Modern the population of the Vyngapurovsky tundra leads a settled and polusedly life because of reduction of the territory for a kochevaniye, on the one hand, as a result of industrial development and withdrawal of lands under construction of surface facilities of fields, with another — in view of the extensive nature of the traditional industry — reindeer breeding. Vyngapurovsky reindeer breeders make seasonal migrations around within the limited territory. Therefore "knocking-out" by deer of the territory around settlements is observed. This phenomenon makes impossible its repeated use for a long time. According to informants, they can return on the old place only in 20-30 years when the reindeer lichen is restored.

Depending on the primary economic activity, existence of deer and their quantity the family can take constant summer place for accommodation for a long time ("so far it will not become dirty"), being engaged in fishery and owning small herd, and for the winter to pass to live to the settlement from where already its head goes on fishing and hunting, and the woman with children lives in the house. The second option — when bezolenny or maloolenny family constantly lives on a settlement, including in beams, close to the place of fishing trade which has constant character, and the apartment is used at short-term arrivals to the settlement. At dostato

Brauer Frank
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