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Agriculture in Dalmatov Uspensky's ancestral lands of the monastery (the 60th the XVII 60th of the 18th century)

e. V. Lobov

AGRICULTURE IN DALMATOV'S ANCESTRAL LANDS of the USPENSKY MONASTERY (the 60th of XVII are the 60th of the 18th century)

Agriculture in the ancestral lands Dalmatova the Uspensky monastery during this period (the 60th of XVII are the 60th of the 18th century) was caused by the most important branches of monastic economy which played a major role in life and activity of the monastery.

E. Lobov


Agriculture in the bailiwick of Dalmatov Assumption cloister in this period was conditioned by the essential sectors of the monastery&s economy which played a dominant role in the life and activities of the cloister.

The end of XVII — the beginning of the 18th centuries was time of development by monasteries of the Urals and Siberia. By the beginning of the 18th century in this territory there were about 10 monasteries (their number fluctuated — some were closed, others appeared, they connected and divided). Of them were large: Verkhoturye (founded in 1602-1604), Dalmatovsky (founded in 1644), Kondinsky (founded in 1653). On the number of the patrimonial population Dalmatovsky treated the largest — for 1744 in its possession there lived 2150 male people; Kohn-dinsky and Verkhoturye had the ancestral lands of the average sizes — in them there lived respectively 775 and 543 persons (1764).

Dalmatov the Uspensky monastery built on the bank of the Iset River, founded in 1644 by the monk of the Nevyansky monastery Dalmatom (in the world the Tobolsk Cossack Dmitry Mokrinsky) played the defining role in development of agriculture of the Ur-Leningrad Region-Volga region.

The structure of monastic economy was rather difficult. The remained archives allow to track dynamics of monastic economy from the 60th of the 17th century till the 60th of the 18th century. Among branches of monastic economy, agriculture was the prevailing direction. On lands Dalmatova the monastery was applied two-trekhpolnaya the system of agriculture with the short-term relog (two-three years). Peasants left a part of arable lands "on change for a rozdykha" as the best earth, despite partial use of fertilizers, "will not give rise to more than ten bread, and other on five and less" [4, page 77]. So, in the Dalmatovy monastery in 1757 it was seeded winter and spring crops of 300 tithes, 270 also 830 tithes lay fallow — under a deposit [21]. The deposit was in this case the fourth field which was on long rest.

Quantity of an arable land in abbey-steads throughout the second half

XVII \there was no first half of the 18th centuries left invariable. According to the patrol book of the Siberian order for 1661, for the Dalmatovy Uspensky monastery was registered "arable lands — 41 tithes in the field". At the end of the 17th century the arable land of monastery made already 960 tithes in that field, and in the middle of the 18th century — 4332 tithes [6, page 61]. The Pashenny earth was divided into two disproportionate parts — actually monastic plowing and a country plowing. Dalmatova the monastery of the middle of the XVIII century actually monastic plowing made 5.5% (240 tithes) of 4332 tithes of an arable land [3, page 238].

When processing the earth in the Dalmatovy monastery plows, harrows from pine boughs were used a plow, when harvesting — braids, sickles, tsepa. The main grain culture in lands Dalmatova the monastery was a rye. So, in 1674 from 3784 quarters of the bread which was in monastic granaries, the rye made 2980 quarters (78% of grain stocks) [8, l. 10 about]. The receipts book of bread for 1726 gives the following data on 10 villages of Dalmatova of the monastery: a rye 104,602 sheaves, wheat — 50,569 sheaves, barley — 60,379 sheaves, oats — 64,162 sheaves [13, l are collected. 11]. The rye continued to prevail in the total amount of monastic bread and in 50-60 of the 18th century. In 1750 from 3576 quarters of the bread picked in monastic granaries, rye there were 2205 quarters (61.6%). In 1763 the rye made 4585 quarters (63.9%) of 7170 quarters of collected bread [18, l. 21 about].

Oats were the second most important grain culture in the Dalmatovy monastery. Following the results of the receipts book of 1726, oats 64162 sheaves [12, l were collected in 10 villages of the ancestral lands. 7 — 9 about.]. According to 1734 "from all villages it is collected any bread: neigh — the 554th couple, oats — 516 chety..." [14]. In 1750 from 3576 quarters of the bread picked in monastic granaries, oats made 566 quarters (15.8%); in 1763 from 7170 quarters — the 7415th quarter (11.3%) [19, l. 34; l. 21].

Wheat in structure of the bread which is grown up in the dalmatovsky monastery ancestral lands possessed only the third place. It considerably conceded in the quantitative plan to oats. In 1734 from all monastery villages only 74 quarters of wheat were collected (oats for comparison — 516 quarters). In the inventory of grain "supplies" for 1750 the share of wheat makes only 11.2% (399 quarters). Apparently, wheat share in structure of bread of the monastery is rather stable (11-12%), but does not show sharp growth.

The percent of the barley which is grown up in the monastery ancestral lands was quantitatively close to wheat. According to 1750, 320 quarters of barley (8.9% of monastic bread), according to 1763 — 10.4% were collected.

From other grain crops incidental mentions of peas meet. The peas share in structure of monastic bread was very insignificant (within 1.1-1.25%) [20, l. 34; l. 21].

It is curious to compare Dalmatov the Uspensky monastery on structure of the grown-up bread to monasteries of Central Volga area. According to the Samara researcher E. Dubman, "on the volume of the sowed grain the rye in all possession was in the first place, and in the oldest economic regions its specific weight among other cultures was from 40 to 50%. On the second place there were oats, on the third — wheat (from 10 to 17% of all sowing fund). The last considerable sowing culture was barley (5-10%). Crops of peas did not exceed 1-5%" [2, page 38]. As we see, not only the structure of the sowed bread coincides, but also their percentage is very close that allows to draw a conclusion on some community in managing of church feudal lords of Central Volga area and the Trans-Ural region.

Bread in the Dalmatovy Uspensky monastery was sowed summer and winter: summer (oats, barley, wheat) sowed in April —

the beginning of May, the winter rye (she fed the monastery) was sowed in August. Cleaning of summer cultures began at the end of July and came to an end in August. In years when there was especially bad weather, the end of harvest works fell for September. The peak of a harvest season had usually for August. Harvests depended on weather conditions, from the number of working hands and always turned out different. Let's compare average yield of grain crops Pafnutye-va of the Bohr monastery in Moscow area and Dalmatova the Uspensky monastery in the Trans-Ural region in the first quarter of the 18th century. According to 1701, the productivity of grain crops in Pafnutyev the monastery was Borovsk following: a rye — 3.1; oats — 1.8; wheat — 3.0; barley — 2.6 [1, page 186-187]. For the same year productivity of grain crops Dalmatova the Uspensky monastery was: a rye — 1.5; oats — 3; wheat — 3.1; barley — 3.2 [9, l. 5]. Except for a rye for some reason not born that year, key parameters of productivity of grain crops of both monasteries are rather close. Similar data are provided on monasteries of Central (Samara) Volga area by E. Dub-man. On its figures the average yield of the main grain crops of the monastery ancestral lands of Nadeinsky Usolye at the end of XVII — the beginning of the 18th century was following: oats — 2.5; wheat — 3; barley — 3.4. Only the productivity of a rye considerably differed from the similar data provided on two above-stated monasteries. It averaged itself 5.1 [2, page 39].

In the second half of the 17th century the dalma-tovsky monks ground the received grain manual millstones. Business it was extremely labor-consuming. Therefore as soon as the monastery was more or less approved, it at once constructed mills. The monastic mill on the Iset River in 1708 had "a fencing... rub a postava and different farm buildings: hothouse,

in it do malt on monastic potreba, at it buried for malt. At the same mill barns where monastic grain stocks" [7, l are stored. 9 about.].

In the 20th years of the 18th century the Dalmatovy monastery constructed "two mills dvupostavny on inflows of Iset by Ol-hovke and Krutikhe and two mills about three postava on Suvaryshe and Techa" [4, page 148].

Except an arable land the monastery earth was used on the haymakings eve and kitchen gardens. If there were not enough working hands for processing of an arable land, then it quickly turned into a heathland. These become empty pashenny lands took away on the mowings eve which leased or mowed. Extensive haymakings were also at Dalmatova the Uspensky monastery. According to G. Plotnikov, to the middle of the 18th century Dalmatova the monastery possessed meadows on both sides Suva-rysha — 300 tithes, on Hmelevsky pose-league — 31 tithes, on the Techa posel — 66 tithes, on the left coast of Techa — 50 tithes, on a stream Skakunok — 21 tithes. Itogovaya Square of meadow massifs made impressive figure in 468 tithes of the earth. From all meadows of the monastery, according to the same researcher, it was mown in 1732 up to 32,450 haycocks [5, page 137]. The similar amount of hay assumed considerable pastoral economy.

In the document "Diplomas of Board of Economy" dated 1709 for the Dalma-tovy Uspensky monastery was registered: "draft geldings — 30 heads, one-year-old foals — 50 heads, six-month-old foals — 50 heads, milk cows — 135 heads, calfs — 95 heads, sheep — 450 heads" [10, l. 5 about.]. Considering the ban monashestvuyushchy to taste meat, it is curious to track spheres of use of the cattle in the monastery. First of all the cattle was used as tyagly force in agriculture and means of transportation of products and craft products in the market. It explains existence of "draft geldings" in monastery stables. Secondly, the cattle was

one of types of a monastic loan to peasants. In monastic archive the document entitled "The book of delivery in a loan of the cattle and bread to peasants" for 1711 remained. In it it is recorded that "February..., the horse is sold — the mare red a three-copecks piece at the cost of 40 bobylyu a sheep is given to Zhdan Moiseyev" [11, l. 2-3]. Thirdly, cattle breeding products (oil, cheese, meat, wool, fat) went for sale, were sent in the form of gifts to Tobolsk to the metropolitan. In 1727 the monastery received from sale "beef meat — 4 rubles, for fat — 3 rubles" [12]. In 1738. The monastery sent to the Siberian metropolitan to a gift "oils cow — 50 shmatok, lard — 50 shmatok" [15]. At last, dairy products went to food monashestvuyushchy (in not fast days), wool was used in clothes and footwear. Wool was spun and sewed from it clothes of the nun of assigned Vvedensky Monastery.

Therefore natural growth of pastoral economy of the dalmatovsky monastery ancestral lands in the first half of the 18th century seems. In "The book of the inventory of the monastery at reception by the archimandrite Sylvester (1739)" 164 heads, from them white — 39, gray — 15, gray-haired — 6, bay — 7, brown — 4, kaury — 4, roan — 14, igreny — 4, others appeared "geldings

— 16". Stallions in the monastery that year there were "18 heads, three-year-old — 16 heads, one-year-old — 24 heads, mares

— 360 heads, fillies one-year-old — 3". Cattle at monks also was more than enough: "bulls — 105, bulls two-year-old — 33, bull-calves one-year-old — 10, a calf one-year-old — 58". Also the livestock of small cattle was considerable: "sheep — 316, rams — 178".

The inventory of monastic property of 1761 gives the fullest picture of monastic herd. Let's give a fragment from the specified document. According to the inventory, "at the monastery of geldings — 77, stallions — 11, foals two-three-year-old — 16, cows —

10, bulls — 3, calfs — 7". This quantity of the cattle was in the monastery [17].

As a result of progressive development of monastery lands the sphere of economic activity of the explored monastery extended that respectively filled up a financial state and raised position of the monastery in hierarchy of church and monastic institutions. But rapid growth and wellbeing were given by the hard price. Expansion of an economic part demanded big physical expenses that involved search of labor. This problem was more favorable to be solved due to increase in number monashestvuyushchy, but not at the expense of hired labor which it is necessary to pay off. Significant increase in number of monks for the purpose of preservation of economy had negative consequences — the true meaning and purpose of the monastery changed. Instead of strongly praying and vowing, monks worked on wellbeing of the monastery day and night, quite often forgetting the real destination.

Proceeding from the aforesaid, it is possible to conclude that the volume and scale of such branches of agriculture as agriculture, livestock production, in Dalma-tov's economy of the Uspensky monastery were more considerable in comparison with other monasteries of the Uralo-Volga region. The rye was the prevailing grain culture. Except a frost-resistant rye, grew up oats, barley, wheat. The small percent of the last is explained by severe climate of the region. In economy Dalmatova the monastery is traced growth of the pastoral direction in agriculture.

As a result of increase in volumes of agriculture and cattle breeding in agriculture of the monastery, expansion of lands, its economic potential which allowed the monastery to occupy Uspenskoma Dalmatova the top steps in hierarchy of monasteries of the Uralo-Volga region increased.


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