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semenko Alexander Borisovich

applicant of department of the theory and history of state and law of the Kuban state agricultural university

(ph.: 89184833729)

Transformations of the Soviet economy to the period & #34; перестройки": reasons, maintenance and legislative fixing


In article reforms in the economic sphere of the Soviet state in years & #34 are considered; перестройки".


Reforms are considered In article in economic sphere soviet state at years & #34; realignments".

roizoshedshy changes

P the Soviet gosudarstvennoekonomichesky system in years & #34; перестройки" (1985-1991) in historical and legal literature are lit from different positions and cause, as a rule, ambiguous estimates though a question of the reasons & #34; перестроечных" transformations has the dominating common denominator connected with negative manifestations in economy, brought, in turn, to decline in living standards of the Soviet citizens. At the same time there are discrepancies on the fact that was initially in a causal complex - political or purely economic factors. In this context as it is represented, that circumstance that the essence of reorganization was in first of all to improve socialism within the developed (socialist) social and economic system [1] quite often is overlooked. Apparently, the political and ideological factor was initially obviously predominating, and such positioning of the Soviet ruling elite was based, in our opinion, on obvious underestimation of possible negative consequences, catastrophic for the Soviet society, in the sphere of the economic relations.

Respectively, originally under

& #34; перестройкой" two phenomena were meant generally: & #34; acceleration social and economic развития" countries, or simply & #34; ускорение" and & #34; гласность". And though real efforts of reformers were concentrated after all on economic problems, their decision was meant during this period & #34; перестройки" within socialist planned economy which functioned in the USSR before. It was supposed due to some democratization of the public relations (& #34; гласность"), strengthenings of production discipline, the additional stimulation of workers which is not going beyond a bonus system to provide economic growth. One of the purposes & #34; ускорения" there was an elimination of lag from the USA and Western Europe in a number of the key directions, first of all in the field of technologies and a scientific and technological revolution However, for a wide range of ordinary Soviet citizens the lag from the capitalist world first of all was realized in deficiency of household things, in absence on counters of shops of food. Therefore from reorganization the ordinary Soviet person waited first of all for it, at the same time dreaming of freedom of speech and & #34;30 types of sausage without очереди" [2]. As for the highest imperious echelons, there after arrival on an imperious Olympus of M.S. Gorbachev pretty fast began to form

THEORY AND HISTORY of the RIGHT AND STATE program of transformations.

At the same time several characteristic stages of the period & #34 are usually allocated; перестройки" in which a number of authors includes not only the last years of existence of the USSR, but also the beginning of the Post-Soviet period [3]. Actually & #34; перестройка" it is the share of the first two stages which, despite essential differences, passed within socialist reformatory models. The thesis that economic downturn in the Soviet society is caused not by socialism as a socioeconomic system at all was an ideological core of the first stage (1985-1986). On an April plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU of 1985 from lips of the Secretary general of party it was stated that & #34; potential opportunities of socialism were used недостаточно" and society in this regard should overcome vicious Stalin model of socialism and to move to & #34; лучшему" & #34; настоящему" to socialism, i.e. Lenin [4]. The second stage of reorganization (1987-1991) was characterized by registration of a new ideological design which maintenance was stated on January 1987. Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Due to the detection of serious shortcomings of the Soviet socialism their elimination consisted in destruction of a komandnoadministrativny system under the slogan & #34; It is More than democracy! & #34;. The XIX All-Union party conference (June, 1988) and alternative elections to legislature of the USSR and activization of process of transformation of the Soviet planned economy, the first for years of the Soviet power, to the Soviet market economy which took place after it, need for which eventually was recognized as the Soviet ruling elite, though not without the most difficult internal political opposition which ended with notorious GKCHP, became the culmination of this stage.

Despite an obvious contradiction of new approach (the market relations are attribute of a capitalist system and if the USSR began to be guided by the market to the detriment of planned character, then upon it refused one of bases of the socialist state), up to the end of 1991, i.e. before the legal collapse of the USSR (resolution of Council of the Republics of the Supreme Council of the USSR of December 26, 1991) the management of the CPSU could not refuse communistic terminology. The collapse of the USSR meant that the former socio-political and economic system sputtered out. Lack of accurate strategy of reforms, fast disappointment in & #34; перестройке" and also

an August putsch of 1991 caused transition to the third stage (1992-1994) which received the name radical liberal. There is also other periodization which assumes allocation of four stages: March, 1985 - January, 1987 - & #34; it is more социализма"; 1987-1988-" it is more демократии"; 1989-1990 - the beginning of reform of political system and the period of disengagement and split in the camp of reorganization; seven months 1991 - crisis of Gorbachev leadership, coming to power of radikalnoreformatorsky groups, creation of GKCHP and an August putsch [5]. It is thought, this periodization reflects the course of the taken place events to a large extent.

At the same time and here underestimation of economic factor is traced. And meanwhile already April (1985). The plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU put forward the program of acceleration of nauchnotekhnichesky progress, reconstruction of production in the economic sphere and updates of socialism in policy [6]. At the same time it is impossible to forget that in terms of chronology the first attempts of reconsideration of a concept & #34; социализм" were undertaken still by Yu.V. Andropov who saw his future in strengthening of a role of the state in economy. For improvement of an economic mechanism the idea of self-government and development of an initiative on places was put to the forefront [7]. Improvement of the political relations came down to fight against so-called nonantagonistic contradictions. Socialist democracy was considered as & #34; the democracy guaranteeing the widest rights and protecting the interests of workers ready to call to order those who raise a hand against socialist gains народа" [8]. The question that economic failures are caused by the most planned economy (lack of the competition, a private property as the propeller of an economic initiative) then even was not put.

And meanwhile the economy of the USSR as the famous economist and the publicist N. Shmelyov noted, still in the late fifties began to lose efficiency. Falling of labor productivity, low quality of products, losses demonstrated to it. For example, average annual growth rates of national income fell from 9% in the 1950th up to 4.4% in the first half of the 1960th and continued to fall also in the 1970th. Since the end of the 1950th the rates of economic growth constantly fell and decreased to the middle of the 1980th almost to zero [9]. The attempt of reform of the middle of the 1960th [10] is known not so much for the

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economic consequences, how many certain ideological turn, transition of the description of economic reality from language of directive planning (funds, standards, etc.) on language of profit, self-financing, etc. [11]. What in the Soviet terminology was designated by a concept & #34; хозрасчет" did not mean, however, either rehabilitation of the market relations, or transition to & #34; socialist рынку" preached then by the Czech and Hungarian economists, and meant self-government on the Yugoslavian sample [12] even less. That is, as a matter of fact, partial transition only to the terminology inherent in the market relations was carried out, at preservation of a socialist planned basis.

And in general that attempt to undertake reform at simultaneous curtailment of process of democratization in the political sphere was unsuccessful [13]. As V. Popov, & #34 notes; most precisely to characterize the Soviet stagnation of the 1970-80th as loss economic and social динамизма" [14]. And though a number of authors believe that in years & #34; застоя" previous & #34; перестройке" there was a number of positive results (first of all in the social sphere, including in expansion of housing construction, development of education, medicine, etc.), it is necessary to recognize that intrinsic economic parameters (labor productivity, power consumption, use of the latest scientific developments, the average salary, etc.) lagged behind the countries of the West.

So, the economy of the USSR in the last decades of its existence not only did not develop, but also substantially fell into decay. Its reanimation by means of introduction of scientific and technical achievements, developing the skills of shots, mechanization of manual work, economy of resources, - at preservation of socialist type of economy became the general keynote in the choice of methods of improvement of affairs then. The economic component & #34 also began with it, actually; перестройки". Appeals and in this respect there was a lot of talk, and affairs practically stood still. The economy by inertia continued to develop considerably on an extensive basis, was guided by involvement in production additional labor and material ресурсов" [15]. Such assessment is represented quite objective.

In the adopted legal acts and official documents of that time directed on

The THEORY AND HISTORY of the RIGHT AND the STATE stimulation of more effective work [16], the questions of cardinal change of a system of compensation or responsibility of specific workers for bad performance of objectives were not raised. At the same time in the same 1986 the Law of the USSR & #34 was adopted; About individual labor деятельности" [17], which at all restrictions of this activity gave rise to the follow-up law-making activity in the direction of liberalization of the Soviet economy, and in this context this law, from our point of view, is underestimated in historical and legal literature.

In 1988 on the basis of decisions XIX of the All-Union party conference of the CPSU where taking into account the continuing crisis of economy, it was at the top of the voice expressed the need to pass from words to business, real changes began. The same year within the constitutional reform the structure of the Supreme authorities and an electoral system was changed. In 1988 the Law of the USSR & #34 was adopted; About кооперации" [18], the given impetus of real is frequent-nopredprinimatelsky activity, and in 1989 the soviet leadership had to recognize economic independence of the Baltic republics by the publication of the special law [19]. Further the legal framework fixing transformation of the Soviet economy in market continuously extended, especially in 1990-1991 [20] This process became irreversible, and this circumstance demonstrates its objective character.

By the end of formal existence of the USSR (December, 1991) the Soviet economy already defakto stopped being socialist planned economy. By then the CPSU as ruling party lost control of an obshchestvennoekonomichesky situation in the destroyed USSR, the plans developed by it & #34; перестройки" were forgotten. Entry into the civilized market relations already outside the period considered by us & #34; перестройки" happened to big contradictions, it is in many respects spontaneous and it entailed big negative consequences which are felt still. As it is represented, the CPSU too was late with & #34; перестройкой" and & #34; подтолкнуть" it there was nobody that, the turn, confirms the truth checked for centuries that in society with political and economic monopoly the long-term effective economic development cannot be provided.

1. V.A. Chernositov. Organizational and legal transformation of local councils of People's Deputies at the final stage of the Soviet state (1985-1991). Yew.... edging. yurid. sciences. Krasnodar, 2007. Page 31.
2. Matveev M.N. Vlast and society in the system of local government of Russia in 1977-2003. Avtoref. yew. Dr.s east. sciences. Saratov, 2006. Page 33.
3. Vert N. Istoriya of the Soviet state. 1900-1991. M, 2002; V.V. Sogrin. Political history of modern Russia. 1985-2001: from Gorbachev to Putin. M, 2001; M.A. Vernichenko. From reorganization to change of model of social development. M, 1999; S.V. Kuleshov, A.N. Medushevsky Russia in the system of world civilizations / Under a general edition of O.V. Volobuyev. M, 2001, etc.
4. Materials April (1985). Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. April 23. 1985 M.: Politizdat, 1985. Page 17.
5. Barsenkov Ampere-second. Introduction to modern Russian history of 1985-1991 M., 2000. Page 66.
6. Materials April (1985). Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. M.: Politizdat, 1985. Page 12.
7. Andropov Yu.V. Ucheniye K. Marx and some issues of the Soviet construction in the USSR//the Chosen speeches and articles. M, 1983. Page 243.
8. In the same place. Page 242.
9. Barsenkov Ampere-second. Introduction to modern Russian history 1985-1991. M, 2000. Page 66.
10. Materials of April (1985). Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. M.: Politizdat, 1985. Page 12.
11. Andropov Yu.V. Ucheniye K. Marx and some issues of the Soviet construction in the USSR//the Chosen speeches and articles. M, 1983. Page 243.
12. There . Page 242.
13. Popov V. Zakat of planned economy//Expert. 2008. No. 1. Page 43.
14. Gorbachev M.S. Political report of the Central Committee of the CPSU of kXXVII to a congress of the CPSU//the XXVII congress of the CPSU. Verbatim record. T. 1. M, 1986. Page 78.
15. Resolution Goskomtruda of the USSR, Secretariat of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of 21.03.1986 N 98/6-71 & #34; About the adoption of the Standard provision on an order of application of collective forms of compensation on the end results of work in the design and technological organizations and in the relevant divisions of production associations (enterprises) and research institutes (institutions) & #34;//Bulletin Goskomtruda USSR 1986. No. 8; Resolution Goskomtruda of the USSR; The Secretariat of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions from
03.11.1986 N 464/26-64 & #34; About the adoption of the Standard provision on brigade self-financing and a team contract, the Standard provision on the collective contract on production sites of associations, the enterprises and организаций"//Bulletin Goskomtruda of the USSR! 1987. No. 3; The Letter of the System of arbitration of the USSR from
04.12.1986 N I-1-2 & #34; About increase in responsibility of associations, the enterprises and organizations for implementation of contracts of delivery of products and товаров"//Spravochnopravovy system & #34; Consultant & #43; & #34; (date of the address - on August 20, 2011), etc.
16. Law of the USSR & #34; About individual labor деятельности" from 19. 11. 1986 No. 6051-Х1//Code of laws of the USSR 1990. T. 2. Article 48.
17. Law of the USSR & #34; Окооперации" ot26.05. 1988 No. 8998-Х1//Code of laws of the USSR 1988. T. 5. Article 6.
18. Law of the USSR of 27.11.1989 & #34; About economic independence of the Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian ССР"//Sheets of the UMP and VS of the USSR 1989. No. 25. Article 490.
19. Law of the USSR of 04.06.1990 N 1529-1 & #34; About the enterprises in СССР"//Sheets of the UMP and VS of the USSR 1990. No. 25. Article 460; Law of the USSR of 06.03.1990 N 1305-1" About property in СССР"//Sheets of the UMP and VS USSR. 1990. No. 11. Article 164; Law of the USSR of 01.07.1991 N 2278-1 & #34; About the main beginnings of privatization and privatization предприятий"//Sheets of the UMP and VS of the USSR 1991. No. 32. Article 904, etc.

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Johnston Lewis
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