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Origin of a new form of the reference in Russia in the 18th century


the reasonable explanation has peration of the Soviet power. The state saw point of its existence in achievement "certain more common goal - creation of new socialist society, and paid attention to cost efficiency of cooperative work a little... From here at all similarity of communistic and cooperative ideals there were sharpest conflicts between the state and cooperation" [1. Page 195-196]. Remained to time for existence of cooperation very little.

As well as all generalized models, the presented model of the Russian cooperative practice of the state and society it is not free from errors, though supported with examples. But, like any historical phenomenon, process of cooperation was more many-sided and therefore it hardly gives in to the linear description. Existence of capitalist motives in participation of the peasantry in cooperation completely cannot be denied. But cooperative realities clearly demonstrated that capitalism in the village "sinned" with underdeveloped forms of the development. capitalist in a form, but often social according to contents the cooperation was done in different degree by both objective conditions of social and economic development of the country, and political regimes, and even peasants in whose world many ideas gained the special, homebrew sense and realization.

In the country where there was no long-term imperious liberal tradition, just there could not be other myshleniye and actions.


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UDC 343.264 (09)



Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history

The reference as a form of punishment changed throughout all the existence. The beginning of the 18th century updated new forms of the reference. Due to considerably the increased need for labor forms of the reference and areas of resettlement of exiled changed. In article examples of application of the reference kolonizatsionny and unbearable are given and also processes of expansion of application of the reference and a hard labor during the different periods of time are considered.

The 18th century brought with itself big changes. They to be struck in the Russian right, and in its narrower section - concern social and economic and political punishments to which the reference belongs. Since the history of Russia. Peter the Great's transformations, eras of transformations of Peter I, to the reference there was a vnese-era of palace revolutions - all this could not but from - on essentially new system of work - podnevol-

ny hard labor. Here it is appropriate to draw line between two forms of the reference - the reference of the manumission and penal servitude as the reference dependent. The first is characteristic of the 17th century: then the exiled was forced to work, proceeding from conditions in which he was set by the state, i.e. he in parallel solved nation-wide problems. At the same time the state spent for it the minimum quantity of means and is forced to leave it a certain civil status, otherwise it could not work. Penal servitude - the same reference, but at the same time the criminal is brought to the space of punishment for guards, limit its freedom of travel, operate his physical capacities more strictly, deprive of all civil rights, but he still carries out tasks, necessary for the state.

the First thought of use of criminals by galleys (rowing vessels) arose in 1668 and belonged to Andrey Vinius [1]. In 1699 to penal servitude 269 Sagittariuses were sentenced for participation in a revolt of 1698. Other decree of times of Peter of November 24, 1699 said: "The Venevsky territorial head and other venevsky posadsky people for capture of money with elective to customs and tavern fees, and it is equal also those persons who gave money to them and were bought to collecting, to put on an executioner's block, and, from an executioner's block having lifted, in exile to Azov with wives and children and to be it on penal servitudes in work" [2]. The reference to penal servitude begins to play the prevailing role among punishments soon. The need for mass labor when building city, fortresses, ports, canals led Peter I to a thought of mass use of free work of criminals for the benefit of the state. Therefore since the beginning of the 18th century the government pushes into the background the reference kolonizatsionny and begins to use work of criminals on hard forced labor in the state, on its southern and western outskirts, during creation of the fleet, construction of the state plants. Works at first were "ship, Admiralty and port", works in mines and factory appeared later [3]. The hard labor at first in Azov, and then in Rogervika (port on Baltic, modern Paldiski) and on construction of the new capital - Sankt-Petreburg was used [4].

The reference to a hard labor relied for high treasons, and not only direct participants, but also members of their families referred, as before. So was with participants of a streletsky revolt of 1698, together with men their wives and children were banished "on the eternal settlement", with families supporters of the hetman Mazepa were banished; his family referred with the criminal and in case he was convicted of robbery or theft during the fire. The reference to penal servitude was followed by additional punishments - a beating a whip, batoga, branding, a vyryvaniye or reduction of nostrils, confiscation of property, penalties. As criminal penalty the reference to penal servitude relied by the Article military 1715 for suspicious "skhotbishcha" for submission of petitions, for non-execution by the military personnel of the duties because of failure to pay a salary, this

offense was considered as a revolt and indignation, for malfeasances, for a number of military crimes, for some crimes against the personality (manslaughter, etching of a fruit). The reference to penal servitude or to the settlement was appointed to the remote areas, for a period of 1 year up to 10-15 years, "to the decree" or "forever".

The reference of prisoners of war took place. So, Peter I banished to Siberia "teachers" - captured Swedes, having ordered to local community, on pain of cruel punishment for disobedience, to marry to them daughters and sisters [5]. Banished prisoners of war during this period and to the Urals where their work was used at the plants. So, in 1711 500 captured Swedes were sent to the Alpayevsky plant. At the Ural enterprises it was applied forced labor and criminals. The first party of kolodnik was sent to the Ekaterinburg state plants from Moscow in 1729 [6]. For work at the plant also local criminals referred.

Along with broad application of penal servitude as forms of the dependent reference the usual reference, in particular for crimes against belief and morality continues to be applied. So, for blasphemy, according to the decree of the May 2, 1725 which is in affairs of the Moscow detective order, guilty persons were banished to the monastery. punishment by a whip and exile to Orenburg forever is mentioned in the same decree [7]. Exile to the monastery, to Orenburg, punishment of a shpitsrutenama and the exile for 10 years to state work for insult of the priest relied. Say articles of the Article about it Military (Article 15) and the Sea charter (Article XI. of Chapter Seduction and apostasy, split and heresy, evasion from performance of church resolutions, commission of pagan rites and superstitions, magic, sacrilege and false oath belonged to the religious crimes prescribing such punishment as exile to the monastery, to Siberia, in Rogervik, to a state and hard labor. So, for commission by dissenters of religious rites in 1721 the priest Yakov Semyonov was found guilty for this crime. Under sentence of Office of secret search affairs removed a dignity from it, sentenced to a beating a whip and exile to Solovetsky Monastery to earth prison [8]. Exile and penal servitude were provided in quality of punishments for crimes against morality, such as fornication and indecency, adultery, incest, rape, corruption, skotolozhestvo and sodomy [9].

When determining term of the reference the social status of the criminal played a role. Belonging to the highest, exclusive circles promoted mitigation of punishment. Under sentence of Peter I in 1700 the steward of yaks Poltev for the words "ruined us in the end and in the end to us to die from the ships and then to our ships the end will be, to head Coca on it will not be" was banished on penal servitude for three years, and the peasant Smakin for a similar talk was bit a whip, "zapyatan needles", will subject to cutting nostrils and is banished on penal servitude for life [10].

reference application is only multiplied [22]. Deprivation of the state awards, ranks, ranks and property was a consequence of exile [23]. On the basis of the two first points of Anna Ioannovna Ukaz of April 10, 1730 of the persons sentenced to political exile deprived of ranks, ranks, their personal and real estate which was seized in favor of treasury. Confiscation was full or partial, in the latter case a part of property, usually patrimonial ancestral lands, were transferred to possession of relatives of convicts, and the rest was alienated in favor of the state. Thus, one may say, that the reference along with removal attracted deprivation or restriction of the rights of a state. The exiled under the law was considered as politically dead and was subject to withdrawal from jurisdiction of the state: its family legal relationship stopped, the wife could enter with the permission of church new marriage, the property was subject to transfer to successors, birth status, distinctions was lost [24]. The most remote, inaccessible settlements (jails, winter quarters) or the cities were appointed places of the reference. Also women, or together with the husbands as Menshikova, Dolgorukiy, Lestok, Münnich [25], or in itself for the political sins, for example, the princess E. R. Dashkova [26] were included in the reference. Female persons were placed also in monasteries, and the imprisonment to the monastery was followed by a taking the veil. Some state criminals from the highest estate were sent even for penal servitude. The reference for most of grandees represented the peculiar disgrace sometimes burdened by additional deprivations. The reference such was carried out or the emperor at the beginning of the century, or the Supreme Privy Council in the 1720th years, the Cabinet at a boundary of the 1730-1740th years, and then these functions passed to the Senate restored in the rights by the empress Elizabeth Petrovna. the Secret office of search affairs, the Secret expedition of the Senate and the Siberian provincial office participated in this process. The reference of grandees in the 18th century had several options. The first - exclusion abroad, it concerned either diplomats, or the foreigners who are in the Russian service (the fate of brothers Massonov, 1796), it was applied not often. The second option - the reference under sentence "to villages" or "to distant villages". It was considered as less heavy of possible punishments such though before it deprived of all awards, ranks and "monarchic favor". Contents could be free, could be under guard. Exile to the village could become the facilitated punishment form after Siberia, but the person remained the defective citizen in legal sense. It could not without permission leave the village, its mail was perlustrated and so on. The third option (most widespread) - Siberian exile. Appointment of the disgraced dignitary to some administrative post in Siberia where there was the gradation in places of the reference was the "softest" form of Siberian exile: or "to banish to the distant Siberian cities" (Tobolsk, Tyumen), or "to banish in most

distant cities" (Kolyma jails, Yakut jails) [27]. As a rule, to one settlement no more than two exiled were appointed, did an exception only for members of one family [28]. Reference sentence most often was life, however, change of the emperor on a throne, change of a situation at court could be followed by amnesty for exiled. There were examples when exiled waited for the second and even the third change of the emperor, therefore, real terms of return fluctuated from several months to several decades.

At the end of the 18th century one more type of administrative exile practiced - it is the reference at will of the landowner. The rights of the landowner concerning the personality and property of the peasant in the legislation of the second half of the 18th century were considerably expanded. In 1765 the decree granting the right to landowners extrajudicially to banish the serfs on the settlement and on penal servitude for any term was issued, and banished it was set off to the landowner for the recruit [29]. In August, 1767 Catherine II issues the decree under which any, even the most fair complaint of peasants to the landowner, appears the worst high treason. Given it were considered as "villains and disturbers of the general rest", were subject to punishment by a whip and the reference to penal servitude [30].

So, in the 18th age of a task, solved by means of the reference by the Russian State, changed a little. The idea of colonization remained relevant, but receded into the background. The element of forced labor as the state during Petrovsky transformations needs working hands acts as the main thing. Seeking to derive the maximum benefit from the criminal, the power put in the forefront exile - penal servitude. It covers with itself the reference kolonizatsionny, on the settlement. Exiled go there where their work is necessary more. Therefore at the beginning of the century the Siberian exile decreases, and increases - to Azov, Rogervik, St. Petersburg. If the exiled could not be involved in hard work in the center of the country, then it was sent to Siberia, but also there it forced to work too. In orders it was more often and in more detail told to voivodes about forced labor of exiled, than about their settlement [31]. The problem of extraction of benefits from work of exiled was not forgotten also by Pyotr's successors. They changed only a sort of work: instead of works in ports, the cities, exiled began to direct to works in fortresses where began to banish especially often since reign of Elizabeth who replaced urgent penal servitude with works in fortresses. At Catherine II's government, working houses appear and, at last, under Paul I's decree of September 13, 1797 of criminals began to send to works to Nerchinsk and on the Irkutsk cloth factory [32]. The government, practicing the reference to any works in wide scales, did not forget a problem of the reference kolonizatsionny. Use of the reference to the settlement "semyanisty and diligent to a domostroitelstvo" continues [33]. At the same time, care and of safety of the state, in the form of the reference (removal from the center on the outskirts) criminal prestup-is taken

Richard Moore
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