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Category: History

To the gender history of Germany the XX centuries: the Jewish woman during a national socialism era

segodnya we can ask only on what way and under the influence of what mechanisms there was a formation of identity, finding of gender consciousness of both women, and men. Work on is represented perspective

crossing, on the one hand, theories of modernization (macrolevel), with another - humorous and game concepts (average level) and, at last, concepts of installation, unconscious, addressing inner world of the personality.


1. Bakhorsky GYu. A subject of sex and a floor in the German shvanka of the 16th century//Odysseys. Person in the history. M, 1993.
2. F. Brodel. What is France? Prince 2. Part 1. M, 1995.
3. The Nodia G. Chelovek laughing in the context of culture philosophy//Philosophy. Culture. Person. Tbilisi, 1988.
4. A.D. Mikhaylov. Old French city story of fabliau and questions of typology of medieval literature. M, 1986.
5. N.A. Hrenov. Game manifestations of the personality during transitional eras in the history of culture//General sciences and the present. 2001. No. 2.
6. L.P. Repina. Women and men in the history: New picture of the European past. Essays. Anthology. M, 2002.
7. A.D. Mikhaylov. Notes//Fifteen pleasures of marriage. M, 1991.
8. Family history. The review of new concepts//Culture and society in the Middle Ages in foreign researches. M, 1990.
9. Fabliau. Old French short stories. M, 1971.
10. Zh. Dyubi. Courtois love and changes in position of women in France the 12th century//Odysseys. Person in the history. M, 1990.
11. Immortal Yu.L. Braque, family and love in medieval France//Fifteen pleasures of marriage. M, 1991.
12. Immortal Yu.L. Zhizn and death in the Middle Ages. M, 1991.
13. F. Rabelais. Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel. M, 1991.
14. Bakhtin of M.M. Francois Rabelais and national culture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. M, 1965.

G.G. Suprygin


Tomsk state pedagogical university

The Jewish population appeared in the territory of Germany in the 4th century together with Romans. During accommodation in the German society it knew the periods of rather stable existence, protection from governors and hard times of persecutions and prosecutions, for example, during an era of crusades, during wars, social crises, epidemics. Despite long joint history, ordinary consciousness of a considerable part of aboriginals of Germany perceived Jews as "strangers" as they practised other religion, were with firmness committed to the ceremonies and traditions. The local community sometimes was inclined to explain the economic difficulties with consequences of operations which were performed by group of usurers of the Jewish origin, noticeable by number [1, S. 12].

Fixing of anti-Semitic prejudices in social psychology of Germans was promoted by Martin Luther who had a huge impact on spiritual development not only contemporaries, but also the subsequent generations. In the beginning he hoped to attract Jews to Protestantism, however the resistant commitment of Jews to Judaism caused rage in Luther. Soon it branded them, urged compatriots to expel Jews [1, S. 13].

The period of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries was marked by a new wave of anti-Semitism. It was vyzva-

on reaction of a part of indigenous people of Germany to process of emancipation of Jews during a modernization era. Before the reunification of Germany the majority of restrictions for Jews in trade and crafts, after education in 1871 was cancelled. The German empire they received equality. Emancipation promoted penetration of representatives of Jewry into banking, the sphere of justice, science, into new profitable industries, etc. This process was perceived by a part of indigenous people as illegal "eminence" of Jews. Penetration of representatives of Jewry into spheres, significant for society, awakened an anti-Semitic archetype in consciousness of a part of Germans. Anti-Semitism was not a phenomenon of only one German history, and had the European measurement. But, according to the modern German researcher M.-P. Hiller, by the end of the 19th century "in Germany aggressive anti-Semitism without which it was impossible to present a Holocaust" [2, S developed. 41]. Nevertheless the difficult and contradictory way of search of identity, the place in the German society during an era of modernization of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries came to the end for the most part of the Jewish population in favor of the status of "the German Jew" - the citizen of Germany of the Jewish origin. Those they were perceived also by most the German society.

Process of emancipation affected also the Jewish women though they to a large extent, than men, were committed to traditional values, are focused on family. But, when at the beginning of the 20th century in Germany the reception of girls in the universities was allowed, young Jews used this chance. Jew Lidiya Rabinovich-Kempner, R. Koch's employee became the first female professor in Germany in 1912. In days of the Weimar republic the Jewish women acquired the rights, equal with men, and mastered modern professions.

In 1925 564 thousand Jews lived in Germany, 52.3% from them were women. At the end of 1933 70% of the German Jews were residents of the large cities. More than 60% of the Jewish population were traditionally engaged in trade and transport (from other citizens of the country - only 18%). In agriculture less than 2% of Jews worked. To the Great depression the economic situation of the urban Jewish population was more favorable, than at the bulk of indigenous Germans. V. Benz, one of prominent modern researchers of Germany on stories of Jews, specifies that the income of the resident of Berlin of the Jewish origin in 1928 exceeded the income of the average Berliner almost twice. The bulk of the urban Jewish population belonged to "average estate" [3, S. 270-271]. This difference in welfare did not remain unnoticed by indigenous Germans.

The Jewish women in general were in more advantage, than representatives of other groups of the German population. Their considerable share belonged to a well-founded layer, they had families with a small amount of children, rather worked out of family business less and, as a rule, had servants. During a modernization era the installation was fixed in the assimilated wealthy families to give a good education not only to sons, but also daughters. However, an overwhelming part of the Jewish girls was limited to receiving any profession while young men studied at the universities. Nevertheless at the beginning of 1933 the number of students of the Jewish origin exceeded number of students from other groups of the population seven times [3, S. 138]. Participation of unmarried women in social labor became the widespread phenomenon. By the beginning of the 1930th the share of the working Jewish women reached 27% (non Jewish-34%) [4, S. 137]. Jews differed also in higher level of common cultural development, a habit to visit not only theaters, concerts, exhibitions, but also public lectures, scientific reports. At the same time in the Jewish families the traditional cast was more firmly observed. Main, almost exclusive obyazannos-

tyyu the Jewish woman under any circumstances care of family and the house was considered. To most of Jews family education, community imparted feeling of ethnic solidarity, religious unity.

Arrival of Nazis to the power caused regress in social development of the Jewish population, especially its female part, caused crisis of national consciousness. The national and socialist party of Germany since 1919 conducted militant anti-Semitic promotion, skillfully using archetypes of consciousness and prejudices of the German population. Nazis inspired in the inhabitant that the Jew is "disabled" and cannot be the full member of society.

Already on March 7, 1933 according to the decision of the management of NSDAP the attack planes conducted a campaign of intimidation of Jews with use of violence for the purpose of their "replacement" from Germany, clarification of "living space" from them for Aryans. These actions were curtailed because of negative reaction of international community. But on April 1, 1933 the campaign of boycott of the Jewish shops and goods under the slogans began: "The German, buy in the German shops!"; "The one who buys from Jews - that traitor of the fatherland!" and so forth [5, S. 26-27].

For holding anti-Semitic actions the Nazis were forced to give a definition "who such Jew" and that such "Jewish enterprise". Earlier such attempts were not crowned with success because of complexity of identification of Jewry, high percent of mixed marriages in Germany. National socialists quickly adopted a series of the laws which were base for policy of racism, a segregation and subsequently genocide of Jews. The decree of April 11, 1933 established that "non Aryan" is everyone who occurred from the non Aryan, especially the Jew, even in the third generation. In only 19331939 about 400 laws and resolutions which quite often had absurd character and aimed at replacement of Jews from life of the German society were issued. In 1933 the laws ordering to all public servants, workers of justice, the higher education system, doctors, editors of non Aryan origin to retire or be dismissed from the positions held by them were adopted.


the Start of a new anti-Semitic campaign was given by the resolutions adopted in September, 1935 at NSDAP congress in Nuremberg. The laws "About Citizens of a Reich" and "About Protection of the German Blood and the German Honour" were their center. The first law said that a citizen of a Reich is only the citizen of the state of the German or related blood. Forbade the German nation, the second for maintaining "purity", marriages and intimate relationships between Jews and citizens of Germany. Narushi-

a body were punished by fines and imprisonment. For divorce there was enough decision of the prosecutor, but not court. Many Jewish female were left the muzh-yami-German feeling fear of the mode [6, S. 152-153]. The "Nuremberg" laws were repeatedly supplemented and received in modern German literature the name "exclusive" as removed the Jewish population for a side of the "normal", i.e. common law continuing to work for members of Community of the People. They had accurately expressed segregatsionny character.

Till 1937 formally to Jews it was not forbidden to carry on business. However during implementation of the 4-year plan of preparation for war adopted in 1936 the deficiency of means was found, and in 1938 the campaign for capture of the Jewish property which received the name "arization" began. By blackmail and violence the Nazis forced the Jewish owners to sell the property to "Aryans" for nothing. By April, 1939 three quarters of the Jewish enterprises fell into hands of the German owners [7, page 28]. As a result of "ariza-tion" many Jewish families lost means of livelihood.

At the end of 1938 the Nazis passed to terror to force the Jewish population to emigrate from Germany. In the night of November 10, 1938 they in scales of the whole country carried out the action which received the name of "crystal night". It developed into mass riots, robberies, burning of synagogues, arrests, was followed by murders which filled with fear of women for life of husbands, male relatives. With invasion of the German army on the territory of the USSR the stage of "the final decision of a Jewish problem" began. Extermination of the Jewish people became its main task.

The anti-Semitic policy in the first years of the Nazi regime undermined material bases of life of the Jewish population. First of all unemployment fell upon the Jewish women as they were employed mainly at the enterprises which belonged to tribespeople and "politicians of alignment" of number of the Jewish and German enterprises, then violent alienation of the Jewish property were closed owing to boycotts, during policy of "arization". They were fired first of all also by the German employers as in 1933 the Nazis began a campaign for elimination of "double employment" of women - in a household and at work. To the middle of the 30th of % of the Jewish women working before arrival of Nazis to the power in trade and handicraft trade became the unemployed [4, S. 140].

Cardinally chances of the Jewish girls when receiving the general and professional education changed. A set of the Jewish youth in the higher school was limited to 1.5%. It was offered to reduce a share of already studying Jewish students to 5%. (In May, 1933 in higher education institutions of Berlin the share of the Jewish students made 8.2%.) In the beginning devush-kam-Jewish still managed to remain in higher education institutions if their parents were wealthy and had the status in society. But in 1934 the "non Aryan" girls among students of higher education institutions of Prussia made only 0.8%. In Berlin many students were forced to pass into the only Jewish gymnasium in the city. At comprehensive schools the "Jewish" classes were allocated in the beginning, then the "Jewish" schools were organized. In 1937 till "crystal night" of 60% of the Jewish girls and boys attended national schools [8, S. 24, 26]. Obligatory studying the racial theory, participation in official Nazi holidays, use of a greeting "Heil Hitler", insults which children and so forth faced were the important reasons of their leaving usual school

Scanty training quotas in higher education institutions made illusive hopes of the Jewish girls for receiving a modern profession. Really assessing a situation, the majority them began to choose professions, unattractive for them. In 1937 more than a half declared them the decision to receive a profession for work in the sphere of handicraft trade, trade, in the field of social guardianship, a household on hiring. Many girls studied a profession, meaning not work in Germany, and emigration to Palestine, the USA and other western countries [4, S. 140]. Chances of girls of receiving a profession worsened also because parents and services of social assistance of the Jewish community at distribution of limited number of places of professional training gave preference to young men who, according to tradition, were potential chapters of families. So, in 1938 the magazine of the Union of the Jewish women reported that the local office of service of mutual aid allocated 72 places for vocational education to young men and only 10 girls [4, S. 141].

"The exclusive legislation" of Nazis radically changed existential conditions of the Jewish population. Women met great difficulties with performing homework, labor duties, in care for the senior relatives and members of community because of shutdown of phone, confiscation of electric devices, the ban not only to own, but also to use the car and even bicycle, street payphones. In many lands of Germany Jews were forbidden to use public transpor-

volume, they could enter only special cars with the fenced-off front platform isolating them from "Aryans", and that only in case "from the house before work there were not less than six kilometers" [9, page 215]. To them it was refused receiving social and high-quality medical care. Great difficulties arose at women in connection with the resolution forbidding to Jews to shop in usual shops. They could get products only in "the Jewish benches", specially allotted for them, in certain hours and with more and more poor range which since the beginning of war was often limited to swede and cabbage. They were not allowed to buy the goods which are not relating to necessities: sweets, cigarettes, flowers, coffee and all other that could give pleasure.

The configuration of their habitat changed. Women lost habitual cultural leisure owing to the ban to visit theaters, concert halls, libraries, public reports, to sign and buy printing editions, to be engaged in the photo. To the Jewish persons the entrance to pools, restaurants was closed, it was forbidden to appear in resorts. The resolutions issued in the summer of 1935 deprived in the beginning of the Jewish women of an opportunity to walk with children, family, friends in parks and gardens, then for them closed certain territories of the city, for example the center, government quarters. Their time of stay outdoors was strictly regulated: in the late thirties Jews had no right to appear on the street between 21 h evening and 5 h morning [10, S. 120-121].

From the beginning of war living conditions of the Jewish families considerably worsened. They were expelled everywhere from apartments which were provided to the "Aryans" who lost apartments during bombings or simply having the worst housing [5,

S. 29]. After Jews began to lodge in certain quarters, after reduction of number - in certain houses with the plate of "Judenhaus" - "Jewish Home" where accommodation gained municipal character. Repeated reorganization of life of families fell mainly on women.

During an era of Nazism the appearance of the Jewish women changed: it was offered to them to hand over woolen and fur things in "fund of the state", they did not receive coupons on clothes, and it became more and more modest, a time poor. Many women because of density in the places of residence, lack of conveniences in them, impossibility to use hairdressing salon, shortly cut hair. Since September 19, 1941 in all public places where Jews could meet Aryans, they had to carry the Jewish distinction - Press a yellow six-pointed star -

yes, on which the black inscription "Jew" appeared. Yellow color in the Middle Ages was distinctive color of Jews, color of the evil which should have been avoided. According to the scientist-philologist V. Klemperer and many others, the worried twelve infernal years of Nazism, it was one of the ordeals for Jews. He writes that "each Jew with the sewed star carried a ghetto with himself as a snail the lodge". The scientist, noted that men, and especially women, were weighed upon a star and sometimes the coupling, a scarf or a bag "covered it, perhaps, inadvertently and for some seconds, and maybe is conscious - there is a wish to walk just once down the street without brand". But it was extremely dangerous - for attempt to hide a star the concentration camp relied [9, page 214, 216, 220]. V. Benz "Jews in Germany 1933-1945" gives a fragment of the letter of the Jew in the basic research Y. Makover to the sister. In it it shares the feelings which left a deep print in her consciousness from carrying a star of David: "We carried a star all the time... it deeply wounded to a shower and. literally corked with the terrifying image all your being, and you something were similar all the time to the clown so then this (feeling) it was never impossible to etch. And the worst was in it that once you had to realize how naked and plain that is peculiar only to animals, can appear human nature and that you comprehend all people from prospect of the deep basement (in which you hide). Also it was talked not only of Gestapo. and that also and all other people to a greater or lesser extent abandoned you" [3, S. 629].

The majority of designations was entered for the purpose of isolation of Jews and caution of "Aryans" from contact with them. On the first page of the passport of Jews the special stamp - a three-centimetric red letter - "J" was put that meant in German "Jude" - "Jew". This press of the derelict accompanied them everywhere. On food stamps which women showed in shops, printed one letter "J" in the beginning, after them marked with the word "Jude" located on diagonal, and in the end printed it on each coupon, in some cards to sixty times [9, page 103].

In a national socialism historiography in Germany from 80th works which belong to so-called oral history began to appear. Some of them contain a large number of an interview and memoirs (quite often anonymous) Jewish female who endured children or adults a part or all era of Hitlerism. These researches give a detailed idea of living conditions and psychological state of the Jewish girls and women these years. Majority available in

literature of certificates such is given descriptions of burdens of everyday life, interaction with the hostile circle of the Jewish girls and women and feelings which covered them. In M. Kley-ner-Fruk's work "It was talked of survival" one of interviewees by the name of Zander narrates: "At that time to us, the Jewish schoolgirls, it became impossible to study further. Around us there was an atmosphere of hostility and hatred, any person did not recognize us more, we were shit. We four together stood on change in a schoolyard corner. Nobody played with us. And every day children who were our companions on games before, cried out to us all new curses". The Jewish girls and boys painfully endured an exception of cool collective, perceiving it as unmotivated discrimination (tsit. on: [8, S. 31-32]). Sometimes persecution of the Jewish school students caused in the German teenagers an impression something unnatural, forced to think. E. Damanski and Yu. de Long "The long shadow of war" contains in the book the story by the respondent born in 1920. He narrates that in 1936 in its class the Jewish girl with whom so badly managed that this picture is always on his mind studied: "School students faced a class and sang the Nazi song with words: "if the Jewish blood scatters from a knife, then business goes well". And it stood near - absolutely killed look. It shook me. After a while parents took away it from school. But we for the first time realized it when she died in a class" [11, S. 112].

Sensation of fear, alienations from society transfer also the recorded memoirs of adult women. They are presented in one of recognized works such "The Jewish life in Germany: certificates on social history 1898 are 1945" Monica Rikhartts. In numerous interviews of the woman tell about the experiences which they experienced, having faced unemployment, loss of property, public to insults, violence over husbands and brothers. But, by recognition of respondents, the break with friends, isolation from the habitual communication environment was not less painful. One of them narrated that in the city in which she grew up it developed to meet a tradition once a month girlfriends of the non Jewish origin. "But after arrival of Nazis to the power — she tells — I did not go to these meetings any more not to create them the difficulties connected with presence of the Jew". But once she met in the city one of them which convinced the respondent that she should not doubt that all of them remained her girlfriends. After this conversation she decided to go to the next meeting. The day before she did not sleep all night long, feeling fear for herself

and Christian friends. She was convinced that she at a meeting will understand their true attitude towards herself, will notice even the slightest feeling of rejection at the time of its emergence. But it turned out that it "has no need to peer into their eyes and to catch the attitude towards her on tone of their voices: the table in a small niche in which we were always going to cafe was empty and spoke most eloquently". The woman summarizes: "... I could not reproach them; they should not have risked the situation only to prove to me that Jews in Germany have still friends" (tsit. on: [4, S. 139]). As showed reality, Jews in Germany had (the truth, less and less numerous) friends, but the general shift in public consciousness and behavior of Germans was negative for Jewry.

The Jewish women and men differently felt anti-Semitism of society of "the third Reich". Women faced its manifestations mainly through events of everyday life. The men occupied in bureau, firms got an idea of it through laws, instructions, regulations which gradually undermined their own business or turned into the unemployed. Daily the woman saw the look of neighbors or acquaintances taken aside at a meeting on the street or in the house stairwell, heard humiliating remarks of passersby concerning typical lines of appearance. Nazi editions were completed with caricatures, poems of offensive character. In them blond "Aryan" with braids, "radiating light", was opposed dark-haired "shortly short-haired", "similar to the guy" to the Jew [12, S. 25]. Hitlerite promotion repeated that the Aryan never has to touch intentionally the Jew - unless in brothel [13, page 334]. M. Rikhartts gives anonymous memoirs of the Jewish woman who told about the life filled with fear: ".i soon "there was a feeling that our belonging to Jewry became all the hated taboo object", and it was "unreasonably depressing, worked almost also hard, as well as the riots which began later"". It continues: "If in shop I needed to address employees, then I was afraid that they will answer me hostilely if they find out that I am Jew; when I on the street expected the tram, I all thought that the driver will not stop if understands that I am Jew. I expected something similar any instant, and this fear tormented me, without leaving for a minute. I refused visit of theater and cinema still long before it was forbidden to us by Nazis because I not in forces was to take out stay among people who hate us" [4, S. 139].

Other factor which is pushing together the Jewish women with realities of public life, considerably imbued with anti-Semitism were experiences of their children. Jewish mother the first learned that she happened to her children at school, and it appeared before need to compensate the injuring impact of hostile environment of school on mentality of children. Of course, this task faced also fathers, but they were more busy with getting of means for family, and women tried not to burden husbands stories by children about difficulties of school life. So, the cool tutor called in school first of all mother, but not the father to report that their child is excluded from school actions. M. Kaplan "Everyday life of the Jewish woman in Germany 1933-1939" is given in work the story by the Jewish mother, together with children enduring attacks of the Nazi environment: "My daughter did not cry when she could not go together with all to a theater production as it was excluded from group because it was not rather good for the school friends any more. It seems to me that the teacher Nazi sometimes was ashamed when she saw sad eyes of my girl. So, several times she called me and asked not to send the child to school at all if for a class something remarkable was planned and interesting" [4, S. 141-142].

Nazi promotion constantly glorified the German mother for performance of function of "a detoro-dyashchy belly", enhancement of "a gene pool of Aryan blood", but Jewish mother was strictly estimated from racial positions. Nazis sought to discredit it, including in the opinion of her own children. M. Kliner-Fruk gives memoirs of the respondent by the name of Appel narrating about mother's holiday at school. "On a Mother's Day the big school celebration was organized every year, and pupils sang songs in chorus. This day my daughters approached the teacher of music. She told them that they can participate in a holiday, but they cannot sing together with all. Children protested with tears in the eyes, saying that they want, as well as everything, to sing for the mother. But the teacher obviously did not want to understand feelings of children. She answered briefly and haughtily: ".ya I know that you have mother too, but this is only the Jewish mother" [8, S. 68].

In the first years the performers of anti-Semitic actions were given installation: "to the .neena to apply violence against women even if they were Jews". It was caused by need to consider reaction of international community. But then Nazis began to apply widely arrests of wives, mothers, daughters of the Jewish emigrants and Jews living in Germany. In the first half of the 30th

40% of the women arrested as hostages were Judaic belief. Before deportations of 1941 the violence against Jews was sporadically applied in small settlements. Even in "crystal night" the beating was put to mainly Jewish men, but women made the most part of 30 thousand hostages seized to force the Jewish population to pay 1 billion brands of a penalty to the Nazi authorities [4, S. 62-63]. But they more often than men, were exposed to such barbaric type of violence as sterilization. It was carried out according to the adopted racial legislation on purity of Aryan blood. In total in Nazi Germany 360 thousand people, and considerable part of them, along with addicts, prostitutes, lesbians, mentally defective were sterilized, the Jewish women who underwent this procedure for racial motives [14, S made. 19].

Aggression against the Jewish women everywhere was expressed in verbal forms. The Jewish women who did not bear names of obvious Hebrew origin and had the names habitual for German had to add to it still Sara, and the man - Israel. In "the third Reich" Frau was forbidden to address the Jewish woman - "Aryan" could only be her. The word "Jew", for example "Jew Levenstein" had to is obligatory to face a surname of the woman. The Jew, along with Slavs, belonged to the category Weib or, moreover, to "the brutish person" (Menschentier). Himmler in October, 1943 said in their occasion: "We, Germans, nearly only in the world, are mercifully ready to animals, but would be crime against own blood, against ourselves to care for them" [13, S. 17]. The similar policy caused crisis of identity in Jewish women. Lotta Payepke who endured Nazism thanks to marriage with the German demonstrates to it in the book "Under Others Star": "Jewish woman? She was a being who was nothing, pettiness. And she did not take even the last place among people, she had no place among them" (tsit. on: [4, S. 68]).

The aggression of the external environment induced the Jewish parents to look for ways to send at least children out of borders of Germany. But the international community provided not numerous transports: in 1934-1939 only 18 thousand children were taken out to Palestine and the western countries. The Jewish mothers who left children, on the one hand, hoped that they are in safety, and with another - suffered from lack of news from them and impossibility to see them. However it was much heavier to those women, children to -

tory remained in Hitlerite Germany. Since 1937 they studied at the Jewish schools with the crowded classes often under supervision of casual, unskilled teachers. From the beginning of war the Jewish children were forbidden to appear in the yards in which children of "Aryans", in parks, on sports grounds, even in suburban groves played. The Nazi authorities issued the mocking resolution allowing the Jewish children "to play in cemeteries" and "to look after them". Total regulation of life of the Jewish families developed into the ban to hold the cats loved by children, dogs, canaries and a campaign for their killing. Children received a poor ration and more and more modest clothes, were deprived by the special resolution of sweets. They were doomed to solitary life, and the Jewish mothers as could consoled and supported them, called for courage and patience. In process of forces the Jewish mothers were engaged in their development, together mastered the school program, organized their leisure.

Adaptation to extreme conditions demanded mobilization of all skills and abilities of the Jewish woman. In constantly worsening vital conditions many husbands and family members by tradition continued to hope that women will solve the majority of the arising household problems. Moving to small apartments and rooms in which quite often except family the homeless relatives lived demanded from women of additional physical and psychological efforts. The magazine of the Jewish union of women edified the readers in the summer of 1938: "The debt and prudence obliges the Jewish woman to make thoughtfully the hourly plan for the house, so to organize everything that the rights of everyone were observed. She has to provide to the husband, the host, time in which he could be alone and remove stress; to show it readiness to do a favor, without falling into submission - under modern vital conditions the need for it is much higher, than before".

Though the tradition conferred responsibility for smooth functioning of a household on the woman, nevertheless in extreme conditions of an era of Nazism some shift was outlined in performance of traditional roles in family between the man and the woman. M. Kaplan provides in the work the careful statement of the Jewish woman about it: "the .neena could avoid not to shift a part of homework to our men. The way was for this purpose paved gradually through discussions and exchange of experience at our meetings" [4, S. 141-142].

their organizations, first of all the Union of the Jewish women, the religious community were one of the few structures which came to the rescue of the Jewish women during a Nazism era. In extreme conditions, despite personal difficulties, women acted from positions of ethnic and religious solidarity. Many of them not only did not leave, but also intensified participation in charitable and social work. This activity, as before, increased prestige of the woman, however many of them carried out it on internal motivation, helped tribespeople even in the years of war in the Polish ghettoes and concentration camps.

The union of the Jewish women sought to rally women on the basis of national traditions, to organize the help to distressed. As many women, especially from the structure of wealthy families, had no necessary skills of housekeeping, the union developed programs for them under the slogan "Help Yourself!". Its local offices organized courses for participants on preparation of simple food, sewing, repair of clothes and housing, patient care, economical housekeeping. At offices of the union, similarity of kindergartens in which Jewish mothers could leave the children were organized to solve household problems. After the "Nuremberg" laws liquidated the right of Jews for the "winter help" received by the distressed citizens of Germany at the initiative of the women's unions the similar help for the Jewish population was organized. Women raised money, clothes, fuel for especially persons in need, migrants. In 1936 only in Berlin 18 assembly points which transferred to the families experiencing deprivations, 30 thousand packages of things worked.

After an exception of Jews of women's organizations of Germany the union helped the Jewish women to adjust work of professional groups: teachers, nurses, nurses, social workers, etc. Women remembered that in the conditions of "disorder, loss of former work. we had an opportunity to meet our colleagues and to listen to interesting reports". The union sought to encourage the participants. With its assistance parties for the Jewish women living in one quarter, "after-dinner meetings" at which women could get advice were given render each other the spiritual help. Women's organizations and community stirred up educational activity in which center put history of the Jewish people, its historical heritage, achievement of individuals. In days of national socialism many women became stronger in the religious feelings, began to study more deeply Judaism, gathered to read

— Z1 —

and to discuss to Cider (weekly section of the Torah), addressed female images in the Bible, got acquainted with works by modern Jewish writers, in particular M. Bubera. To brighten up existence of tribespeople, local offices of the Union of the Jewish women in 1935-1936 organized mobile libraries, exhibitions of the Jewish artists, charity concerts.

The union of the Jewish women tried to adjust social infrastructure for the Jewish families. For the children who are not receiving good nutrition of the house, women organized "dining tables", improving shelters in rural areas. They created similarity of holiday houses for women?

Cecilia Morgan
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