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Predivny monk Kapiton


A.V. Borodkin


There was a time when the name of the monk Kapiton was said in the royal palace and in the patriarch's rooms more than once, rattled in corridors of the Moscow orders and together with investigations of "church rebels" a disturbing echo responded from many counties of the extensive Russian state.

The dubious honor of "introduction to a historical turn of a gloomy and ominous figure of Kapiton", belongs P.S. Smirnovu1. S.M. Solovyov considered Kapiton the ally "disgraced God-lovers, the unusual postnichestvo attracting attention and therefore the passed righteous person" 2. V.S. Shulgin considered "kapitonovshchina" one of currents a staroveriya, other than sectarianism, but with pronounced eschatological orientation" 3. L.N. Gumilev agreed with "the beautiful expert "on a buntashny century"" A.M. Panchenko that "a sermon of self-immolation... it was preceded by the theory of "samoumoreniye" of the aged man Kapiton" 4.

Similar "width" in Kapiton's estimates remains and now. To the standard point of view for Kapiton as founder of self-destructive death in split, joined And. Item Bogdanov5. Influence of the doctrine of Kapiton for emergence of self-destructive death in the Russian Old Belief is lit in M.V. works by Pulkina6 and E.M. as Yukhimenko7. S.V. Lobachev is sure that "the kapitonovshchina had nothing in common with "book spravy" and ceremonial reforms of the patriarch Nikon" and saw in "kapitonovsky heresy of the beginning mystical sec.-tanstva" 8.

Any address to Kapiton's identity demands care because the banal scarcity of sources is behind abundance of emotional characteristics of "all-outer". Whom was he actually?

The monk Kapiton - one of leaders of the opposition, public and religious movement of opponents of church reform of the patriarch Nikon. The wordly name is not known. The birthplace is not known. Presumably - the neighborhood of the village Danilovsky of the Kostroma County: "this ubo chernets was tonsured there is no place near the house, a yak to a byasha is poor sy and a neimyasha chy in the world pitatisya, otshed far from the village of Danilovsky" 9. Or Kornilyev's vicinities of Komelsky monastyrya10. The social status is not known, it is possible "поселянин", according to other version - the peasant, "the man is dark". There are no data on education that allowed the metropolitan Igna-

Tia to speak about his illiteracy. Indirectly it is confirmed by the fact that after Kapiton's arrest it was offered to supervisors "not to let to it wordly people", but ink and papers was not mentioned "not to give". At the same time prior to the conflict with the management of Russian Orthodox Church it was a prior of the monastery, ran land and boundary business, "took vypis" and its competence was not challenged by the power.

Monastic he tonsured could accept in "Korniliyev the monastery Co-melsky tamo... the monk you will be" 11. However authentic data in this respect did not remain.

After a post-threshing barn in the 1620th Kapiton based own deserts "in distant and dark Vetluga forests". According to B.C. Shulgin, the standard chronology of life of Kapiton is broken: he was born for 50 years earlier and based Vetluga deserts at the end of the 16th century 12 Church authors do not confirm data on construction of the Vetluga desert. "Seius Ubo chernets was tonsured there is no place near the house, a yak to a byasha Kolesnikovo is poor sy and a neimyasha chy in the world pitatisya, otshed far from the village of Danilovsky, to the place, naritsa-holy moly, and tamo began zhig on a sample of pustynnozhitel" 13.

In 1630 in the village of Knyaginino Kapiton based deserts "for the sake of Sacred Saviour" and was in it presumably till 1633. There are no data on differences "Kapitonov an ustavstvo" from canons of ROC at that time. Old Belief authors called it among the most famous devotees of the Russian church, news about which spiritual feats reached to tsarya14.

In 1634 Kapiton received from the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich the diploma with the permission to found Troitsk monastery in the Kostroma County. In the same 1634 he received in the Order of the Big Palace vypis from by-pass and boundary books on the right of possession of the earth and started arrangement of monastery. It opened two deserts - men's near Troitsk and women's near the village of Morozovoy. "Kapiton... took from the earth from your monarchic peasants arable from that village of Morozov from Ivan Trofimov the son from a sosedma and pashenny lands tithe, and on that tithe that aged man Kapiton constructed to aged men of a cell and here posazhat them, and Troitsk lands of Kolesnikov's desert for that tithe that aged man Kapiton gave to Morozovsky peasants Ivana Trofimova from a sosedma at that earth in four, and those your Monarchic peasants Ivan Trofimov from a sosedma yours own the earth of the Kolesnikovo Desert without yours to the monarchic decree" 15. Thus, Kapiton's conflict with patriarchal church could have the economic background.

In 1639 Kapiton was arrested on a denunciation of the archimandrite Ryazan Preobrazhensky of Gerasim's monastery "about neistovstvo of the builder of the Troitsk desert". Diploma of August 22, 1639. The Yaroslavl voivode P.I. Sekirin and clerk P.F. Filatov was recommended to take Kapiton and to bring into the Yaroslavl Spassky monastery. The text of a denunciation did not remain. The list of nakazny points gives the chance to restore partially

maintenance of a denunciation of Gerasim. "Began to give for strong to the aged man spiritual and an iskusna which to the diploma would be ready also intoxicated drink not of saws that it in belief and in inochesky rules porazsmotret and would bring round" 16. Accusatory points against Kapiton look so: to God's church does not go, happens to brotherhood a little, does not bow to Divine icons, lives not on a monastic rank, does not follow church rules.

Special point was forbidden "to let to it third-party people" and "not to allow to talk to wordly people". Thereby the authorities tried to complicate his communication with pupils whom as S.V. Lobachev considers, there were "about thirty people" 17.

In 1639 Kapiton was detained and sent for preliminary trial to the Yaroslavl Spassky monastery. Materials of its stay in the Spassky monastery did not remain, however the subsequent events allow to assume that Kapiton "in belief and in inochesky rules was porazsmotren" and is banished in Tobolsk18. A number of researchers believe that Kapiton was not arestovan19 at all. A.A. Titov considers that Kapiton was arrested, but ran from the Yaroslavl Spassky monastery in Kostroma lesa20. B.C. Rumyantseva, referring to the diploma of May 8, 1642, believes that Kapiton was vyslan21. By sight A.A. Nekrasova, "any of the listed Kapiton's defects does not give a reason for charge it in heresy" 22. F. Bychkov reports about negative attitude of Kapiton to "intoxicated drink" and the selective relation to ikonam23.

The general, positive for Kapiton, the picture is a little "spoiled" by the petition of the following abbot of the Troitsk desert asking permission to consecration of church thrones. B.C. Rumyantseva on this basis believes that Kapiton "served church services in not consecrated temple" 24. The ego can serve as indirect podtvsrzhdsnis \to of an eretichestvo of Kapiton: consecration of thrones after "services not on a rank" was a common practice. At the same time the official decision of ROC on whether to consider Kapiton the heretic, did not remain. In polemic compositions of authors of patriarchal church of Kapiton it was accepted to call "mad" 25.

That "not everything was as it should be" in Troitsk deserts, also the phrase from a royal order says to the new prior of monastery: "to watch that from now on there were no such pluten as at Kapiton" 26. The allowed formulation is a little strange. On the one hand, the authorities recognize existence of violations, and with another - cannot call them crime.

In the 1640th Kapiton was at the Hierarchal house in Tobolsk. From 1640 to 1650. The Tobolsk department was occupied by the archbishop Gerasim (Kremlev), however his successor Simeon arrived to department only in 1651. Possibly, using interregnum Kapiton managed to run from Tobolsk ssylki27.

At the beginning of the 1650th of a new cell of Kapitonova appeared in the Kostroma County. Diploma of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich of 1651. Kostroma

it was specified to the voivode Yu.M. Aksakov and the scribe Rodion Borzov: "To take on the Shach River of the Kostroma County... in cells of the aged man Kapiton, aged men and wordly people, robit which live in those cells and to be him to our decree at you in Ipatyevsky and Bogoyavlensky monasteries... not to pushchat and hold them anywhere it is strong that did not leave" 28.

From the crushed Shatsky cells Kapiton passed into the Shuysky County. Here he lived to the middle of the 1650th in deserts near the village of Kalbatsky. After defeat of cells in Kalbatskom Kapiton appeared near Vyazniki: "A hail ubo Yaropolch, having the posad or the dwelling Vyazniki in the Vladimir region... to an idezha and in it time of a nikonov of confusion... from grads and monasteries I run Russian cabbage soup inoyets and wordly in deserts kryyakhusya... tamo predivny father Kapiton zhivyashche... to that schoolgirl's mnoz to a byakh of strange life his imitators" 29.

Data on "the kapitonovy doctrine" are contradictory.

The monk Cornelius does not see in "a kapitonovy ustavstvo" anything, except spiritual self-sacrifice: "He slept a little and all the time saw off... in reading the psalter, in works... too it demanded and from other monks... Kapiton wearied himself a post and... ate in two days of a little dry bread and the potion is severe... earth kopayushche... we sow also a field pozna... by the hands melyushche, hardly with need it is got. And poorly very much we have clothes... already from bark wooden and other any potreba poor and not usual Yim we are also consumed" 30. The monk Efrosin writes that he "to pupils Saturday of times - judged in a Jewish way fast and then other allegedly from vyshny sanctity" 31.

Authors of patriarchal church the metropolitan Ignatius and the metropolitan Dimitry of Rostov so supplemented Kapiton's accusation: "At first ubo got stronger-tse ponuzhdyashchasya vozderzhanm: tributes on Christmas holiday... hotyashche cheese and oil and fish of a vkushata... unless a tochiya from Semyon and a yagodichiya and other growing from the earth" 32. Then Kapiton entered a post into Easter, "and at a hristosovaniye instead of red Easter eggs gave dark red bitter onions, that is bulbs instead of eggs, in change Christian love and luxury" 33. "Having come out of the woods, it presented to peasants simple in mind of as envoy Vyshnyago of God... then a devil flatter with his proud thought. The great devotee of got a false idea and began to poshrdevat a sacred rank: the egda will see the priest who reveled then to this priest... to blessing did not go if and he is sober it vidyashche. Ithaca little by little, tvoryashche his devil to recede from Sacred church" 34. "The icon painter wrote an image blessed queens at the right You the Lord in copes gilded... having seen Blessed Virgin Mary as in royal clothes began to abuse... poshto you wrote Blessed Virgin Mary as the queen? On Blessed a bagryanina royal not byst not when also did not worship that icon" 35.

Data on Kapiton's death are so contradictory. Simeon Denisov demonstrates his peaceful death. A number of Old Belief necrologies of HUP-HUSh of centuries directly mentioned Kapiton in number "Vyazniki

murdered hermits" 36. Some early necrologies of the end of the 17th century call Kapiton svyashchennoinoky and skhimniky, Old Belief necrologies of the beginning - the middle of the 18th century lower a mention of Kapiton's priesthood. Necrologies and funeral articles of the middle - the end of the 18th century do not call Kapiton skhimonakhy, and necrologies of the beginning of the 19th century remove a mention of the monk Kapiton, the Vyazniki martyr, on the last place in the general transfer of the dead. In the summary Old Belief necrology Kapiton is mentioned in "The Vyazniki list" too.

The version about Kapiton's death was supported by V.S. Rumyantseva. However she suggested that by the time of holding detective actions in Vyazniki Kapiton was already dead and, therefore, is brought in number of the Vyazniki sufferers intentionally later. Results of government investigations of 1665-1666 clear up Kapiton's fate a little. "And aged man de Kapiton... your lackey, imat in the past the 170th... from the wood of hermits and cells burned down beyond Klyazma, and Kapiton under those cells" 37. These data are confirmed by indications of cherneets of Barnabas seized at the end of December, 1665 with Sagittariuses on the lake Yukhra: "And about Kapiton the aged man, he heard that he lived in those deserts and is chained to a chain and died long ago. And Barnabas of his Kapiton did not see" 38.

The monk Kapiton lived bright, to a limit eventful life. The threat of arrest forced it to move constantly in search of the quiet place in which it could found ideal, from his point of view, the monastery. It, undoubtedly, had own, other than initial a view of a role and the place of church in life of society. However church hierarches did not manage to detain and interrogate the rebellious monk. Everything that was known of its doctrine, was fixed only "from words" the persons who declared itself his pupils. Therefore the doctrine of the aged man Kapiton was not condemned on church cathedrals, and he was only wanted the authorities. However the image which it left behind was so considerable that long time all opponents of new ceremonies temporal powers and ROC were called as "captains".

1 P.S. Smirnov. Internal questions in split of the seventeenth century. SPb., 1898. Page 3-5.
2 S.M. Istoriya's nightingales of Russia since the most ancient times. Book VI. T. 11-12. M, 1991. Page 185.
3 Shulgin B.C. Kapitonovshchina and its place in split//History the USSR. 1969. No. 4. Page 130-131.
4 Gumilev JI.H. From Russia to Russia. M, 1992. Page 269.
5 A.P. Bogdanov. Old Believers//Old Belief: history, culture, present. 1994. No. 1. Page 16.
6 M.V. Puljkin. Self-immolation of Old Believers at the end of the 17-18th century//the New historical bulletin. 2006. No. 1. Page 5-13.
7 Yukhimenko of E.M. Kargapolskiye of ashes of 1683-1684: To a problem of self-immolation in the Russian Old Belief//Old Belief in Russia. M, 1997. Page 64-85.
8 Lobachev S.V. Patriarkh Nikon. SPb., 2003. Page 37.
9 Ignatius, miters. Three messages against the Siberian dissenters//the Orthodox interlocutor. Kazan, 1855. Page 96-99; A. Zhuravlev. Full historical news of ancient strigolnik and new dissenters. M, 1890. Page 83.
10 Life of the monk Cornelius//Stories on Old Belief stories. SPb., 1861. Page 3; Russian State Library (RSL). T. 37 (T.F. Bolshakov's Meeting). 312.
11 Life of the monk Cornelius... Page 5.
12 V.S. Shulgin Kapitonovshchina and its place in split of the 17th century//History the USSR. 1969. No. 4. Page 139.
13 Ignatius, miters. Decree. soch. Page 96-99; A. Zhuravlev. Decree. soch. Page 83.
14 S. Denisov Vinograd Rossiysky or the description of victims in Russia for drevnetserkovny piety. M, 1906. Page 46.
15 V.S. Rumyantseva. The people's anti-church movements in Russia the 17th century of M., 1986. Page 73.
16 Yaroslavl provincial sheets. 1890. No. 12. Page 3-4.
17 S.V. Lobachev. Decree. soch. Page 37.
18 A.A. Preobrazhensky. Unknown autograph of the Siberian chronicler Savva Yesipov//Soviet archives. 1983. No. 2. Page 63-65.
19 Titov A. Kalyasnikovsky necrology. M, 1895. Page 41-43; Makari (Bulgakov). History of the Russian split, known as Old Belief. SPb., 1994. Page 243-244.
20 Yaroslavl provincial sheets. 1890. No. 14. Page 7.
21 V.S. Rumyantseva. Decree. soch. Page 72.
22 Nekrasov A.A. Starets Kapiton: To a question of the beginning of church split of the 17th century in the Yaroslavl region//the Last days binding thread. Yaroslavl, 1995. Page 80.
23 F. Bychkov. A note about a chronograph of the Yaroslavl priest F. Petrov. Yaroslavl, 1890. Page 8-9.
24 V.S. Rumyantseva. Decree. soch. Page 76.
25 State Archive of the Kostroma Region (SAKR). T. 558. Op. 2. No. 748. L. 193ob.
26 A.A. Titov. Decree. soch. Page 48-50.
27 Arch-flamens of the Tobolsk diocese: Tobolsk diocese. Omsk, 1892. Page 9.
28 I. Milovidov. Contents of the manuscripts which are stored in Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma. Kostroma, 1887. Page 58.
29 S. Denisov. Decree. soch. Page 46.
30 Life of the monk Cornelius... Page 5-7.
31 Efrosin. The Otrazitelny description about a newly invented way of self-destructive death. SPb., 1895. Page 10.
32 The third district message of Ignatius, metropolitan Siberian//Orthodox interlocutor. 1855. Prince 2. Page 98; Rostov. Search about raskolnichy Brynsky belief. M, 1762. Page 570-573.
33 The third district message of Ignatius... Page 98.
34 Tsit. on: F. Bychkov. Decree. soch. Page 8-9.
35 Yaroslavl gubersky sheets. 1890. No. 12. Page 4.
36 State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region (SAYR). Rare fund. Op. 2. 1406, 1434, 1435, 1442.
37 V.S. Rumyantseva. Decree. soch. Page 79.
38 GAYaO. Rare fund. Op. 2. 1434. L. 8.
Osborne Robert
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