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M. Gorky about deformation of the public relations in Russia the beginnings of the 20th century

m. V. Privalova



Work is presented by department of philosophy of the Transbaikal state humanitarian and pedagogical university of N.G. Chernyshevsky. The research supervisor - the candidate of fshosofsky sciences, professor V.V. Kulikov

In article an attempt of judgment of views of M. Gorky of deformation of the public relations in Russia the beginning of the 20th century is made

The author of the article makes an attempt to conceive the views of M. Gorky on the deformation of social relations in Russia at the beginning of the 20" century.

In October, 1917 in Russia the Great October socialist revolution came true. It not only changed a social order of the country, it turned all attitude of the Russian people. Habitual human relations were deformed or in general are broken off. It is about the political, economic, social and spiritual relations which in total form structure of society. Society is first of all people in their relations to each other. The purpose of the present article is the attempt to consider M. Gorky's views of deformation of the public relations in postrevolutionary Russia. We conduct this research on material of the work of Gorky "Untimely thoughts". It is the collection from 58 articles published in the Novaya Zhizn newspaper in 1917-1918 and which reflected in the pages of reflection of the writer about the fate of the Russian people.

Alexey Maksimovich Peshkov (M. Gorky) - one of the greatest Russian writers of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century Romain Rol-lan assimilated Gorky to the high arch connecting two eras. It became famous generally for the works of art, its journalism is a little known to readers. Exists developed

image of the writer as "singer of revolution". Really, many works by Gorky sing of a revolutionary rush of the Russian people, but revolution sharply changed subsequently the writer's views.

Gorky waited for revolution, he made a huge contribution to preparation of this event in Russia, but, observing its consequences, on pages of the articles asks readers such question: "Who is guilty of devil deception, of creation 2

bloody chaos?" And itself answers it - we. He does not shift responsibility for an event to others shoulders, just with bitterness notes that "all powerful forces of world history are nowadays set in motion, all cheloveko-animals broke from culture chains, broke off its thin copes and were pakostno bared, is the phenomenon equal to accident shakes foundations of the social relations to the basis. Also it is necessary to call for the valid life all best mind, all will to correct consequences of our tragic negligence in the relation to itself, negligence which created a terrible mistake".

Deformation took place in all spheres of the human relations. "One of the first problems of the moment would have to be a cart -

M. Gorky about deformation of the public relations in Russia the beginnings of the 20th century

a buzhdeniye in the people - near the emotions excited in it political - emotions ethical and esthetic", - Gorky as "the Russian people wrote... it is passive, but - is cruel when the power falls into his hands". The writer with a big regret says that for Russia the Zulu proverbs are right now: "Policy - business shameless" and "The best politician - the most unscrupulous person".

In the first years of the Soviet power there are a lot of people morally unprepared for this purpose achieved the top posts and "reincarnated" not to the best. Here is how N. Berdyaev writes about it in the book "Self-knowledge": "Transformation of people - one of the most painful impressions of my life... There was a metamorphosis of some persons, before known. Also there were absolutely new faces which earlier were not found in the Russian people. There was a new anthropological type in which there was no kindness any more".

In the articles Gorky writes that the policy and in time, quiet for the country, is that soil on which quickly develop a lie, hostility, disrespect for the personality, and at present especially. "There is no poison more mean, than the power over people, we have to remember it that the power did not poison us, having turned into fierce

6 X

poisons", - the writer warns. 1 joint stock company as policy is inevitable as bad weather, it is necessary to improve it cultural work, to bring kindness in the world of evil political emotions.

In the country, according to Gorky, robbery, robberies, murders prosper. The population from peace passed into the category of revenging. Here and there self-courts are arranged. Gorky writes that on the bank of Fontanka heated thieves, previously well having beaten, old men, women and children actively participated in these "entertainments". "Earlier, before revolution, - the writer continues, - our street liked to beat, indulging in this nasty "sport" with pleasure. Anywhere a forehead -

centuries do not beat so often, with such diligence and joy, as at us, in Russia". The Russian person was beaten always, parents, owners, police, and "now to these people beat... the right to freely torture each other is kind of granted. They have this right with obvious voluptuousness, with an improbable zhesto-


bone". According to Gorky, all thoughts and feelings of progressive mankind have to be directed to destruction of social hostility. He calls it "social idealism" which will allow people to move to freedom and beauty of life.

In the articles the writer paid to influence of literature on society much attention. Very much disturbed him that on sale there are practically no serious scientific publications, there are no classical works at all. But counters are filled up with cheap literature, generally erotic contents that, according to the writer, leads only to excitement in people of dark instincts. And "each newspaper, having the area of influence, daily enters into souls of readers the most shameful feelings - rage, a lie, hypocrisy, cynicism and


all other this order".

Entering polemic with representatives of periodicals, in connection with an exit of a number of articles about disorder of economy of Russia, Gorky writes: "You complain: the people destroy the industry! And who and when inspired in it that the industry is culture basis, the base of social and state wellbeing?" 9 in the opinion of the people, the writer continues, the industry is the cunning mechanism adapted to tear off seven skins from the consumer, it is a profit source for a certain class of people. Newspapers, wishing to expose before all shameless and fantastic growth in incomes of the Russian industry, "speaking about robbery, forgot about cultural, about

a creative role of the industry, about it


state value".

In other words, Gorky considered that the industry (economy) is a basis for the social, political and spiritual relations. Therefore in society and improvements of quality of life it is necessary for harmonization of the relations that the people understood that now it restores the industry for itself(himself). And qualitative literature will be the best body of promotion, "who would tell how the positive role of the industry in development of culture" & #34 is big;.

Arguing on the spiritual sphere of the public relations, the writer notes that most of all he "strikes and the fact that revolution does not bear in itself signs of spiritual revival of the person frightens, does not do people more honestly, more straightly, does not raise their self-assessment and moral otsen-12

ki their work". Gorky considered, "that only movement physical was made

forces, but this movement does not accelerate dews-13 with

that spiritual powers". Russian intelligentsia, of course, cannot but see spiritual decline, but it stepped aside and increases a gap between "an instinct and Intel-14

lekty", and this gap, according to the writer, is a source of many failures in this field. The writer urges to develop "human" in the person, and for this purpose it is necessary to raise spiritual culture. "History brings up people spiritually healthy and destroys patients. People, spiritually unhealthy, among us there is too much, - events threaten to increase still the number of those". - Gorky writes.

The concerns on decline of spiritual culture were shared by many thinkers of that time. Here is how N. Berdyaev writes about it, for example: "In elements of Bolshevist revolution and in its sozidaniye it is even more, than in its destructions, I felt soon danger to which the spiritual culture is exposed. Revolution did not spare creators of spiritual culture, belonged suspiciously and hostilely to spiritual valuable

16 g "

styam". 1 orkiya considered that workers forgot the idealistic beginning of socialism that for "the majority their socialism - only the economic doctrine", but, according to the author, "in fight for class does not follow

to sweep aside universal aspiration to 17

to the best".

Several articles from the collection "Untimely Thoughts" are devoted to polemic between Gorky and "the Special Meeting of the Red Fleet of the Republic" which promised to kill one hundred bourgeoises for each died sailor and is sure that the trial of them cannot be. The writer answered them so: "It is simpler and easier to kill, than to convince... From the fact that you divide among themselves material richness of Russia it will not become is richer, is happier, you will not be better, more human. New life forms demand new spiritual contents - whether you are capable to create this about 18

spiritual novelty?"

Gorky assigns a huge part in an exit of Russia from crisis to the woman. He specially publishes letters of women to him in which they urge to interrupt, hang, shoot. And, addressing readers, asks about how it became possible that "female mother, the activator

the best feelings of the man, his object voskhi-


the shcheniye, a source of life and poetry" can become such cruel.

According to Gorky's theory, the cruelty as it, constantly filling the decrease put with death is by nature not inherent in the woman has to revolt from everything that conducts by death more sharply. He agrees that it is idealism, but idealism, "without which revolution would lose the force to do the person more socially conscious, than it was before revolution, would lose moral and este-


tichesky justification". 1 orkiya it is sure that without idealism the revolution will turn into a dry arithmetic task "distributions of material benefits, a task,

M. Gorky about deformation of the public relations in Russia the beginnings of the 20th century

which decision demands blind cruelty, streams of blood and, exciting animal

instincts, kills to death social 21

spirit of the person".

On pages of the collection he urges women to remember that they are mothers therefore in them there lives the inexhaustible power of love which will help the country to have time, so hard for it, quicker. "And if, having looked narrowly more attentively, - Gorky writes, - you, after all, will not find anything light and kind in chaos and a storm of our days. - create light and kind! You - are free, you are strong charm of your love, you can force us, men, to be more people, bo-22

leu children".

Summing up the result, one may say, that Gorky saw true rescue of Russia in

increase in culture in all spheres of the public relations, i.e. economic, political, social and spiritual culture. According to the writer, he does not know anything else that could save our country from death. He assured that the exclamation is not so terrible "The fatherland is in danger!", as "Culture is in danger!". And, above all - "if revolution is not capable to develop immediately in the country intense cultural construction, - then, from my point of view, revolution is fruitless, it does not make sense, and we are the people: nespo-

I am 23

sobny to life".

There passed nearly hundred years, and the words of the writer everything are also relevant. There is a strong wish that from Gorky appeal: "Citizens! Culture is in danger!", we, at last, passed to its rescue.

1 Yu.I. Sokhryakov. Artistic discoveries of the Russian writers: About world value of Russian litas: Prince for the teacher. M.: Education, 1990. Page 184.

& #34; - M. Gorky. Untimely thoughts: Notes about revolution and culture. SPb.: Alphabet-classics, 2005. Page 94.


In the same place. Page 128.

4 In the same place. Page 132-133.

Berdyaev. A. Self-knowledge (Experience of the philosophical autobiography) / Vstup. article of S. Chumakov. M.:

World of the book, Literature, 2006. Page 267-268.

M. Gorky. Decree. soch. Page 109.

& In the same place. Page 109-110. 8

In the same place. Page 138. & In the same place. Page 134. & & #34; In the same place. Page 135.

In the same place. Page 132. 12 In the same place. Page 108.

14 In the same place. Page 108.
15 In the same place. Page 143.

In the same place. Page 127. 14

N.A. Berdyaev. Decree. soch. Page 275-276. & #34; M. Gorky. Decree. soch. Page 160-161.

In the same place. Page 172. & #34; In the same place. Page 186.

21 In the same place. Page 186. 21

In the same place. Page 186.

22 In the same place. Page 188.

In the same place. Page 102.

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