The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Sotsialnoffilosofsky the analysis of processes of modernization in People's Republic of China

UDK 316.422 (510)


O.B. Balchindorzhiyeva

Buryat state university, Ulan-Ude E-mail:

The main changes which happened in society in political system of China in connection with the beginning of reforms and modernizations after coming to power Deng of Xiaoping are analyzed. The analysis of basic provisions of the program of the modernization offered by the leadership of the People's Republic of China is given. Teoretiko-methodological prerequisites of modernization of the People's Republic of China are lit. The basic world outlook and methodological elements of the theory of socialism from the Chinese specifics are allocated.

Modernization, reforms, socialist democracy, China. Key words:

Modernization, reformation, socialistic democracy, China.

Decisions of the III plenum of the Central Committee of the CPC of the 11th convocation in December, 1978 laid the foundation for implementation of modernization of the country. The policy of "reforms and openness" which began in China in the 80th of the 20th century ripened as objective, historical need, and as an alternative to a Maoist way of development of the country which basis was formed by methods of noneconomic influence and mass ideological and political terror.

The modernization purpose - removal of China to the middle of the 21st century on the level of the moderately developed states on per capita production and achievement on this basis of general welfare of his citizens. A way of modernization - the accelerated economic growth, high-quality updating of economy and increase in its efficiency on the basis of development of scientific and technical potential. Proceeding from the fact that science - the main productive force, its development focused including, on loan of the advanced foreign nauchnotekhnichesky achievements, belongs to the most important tasks of economic construction in modern China.

The ideas proclaimed the III plenum of the Central Committee of the CPC at that time were not so systematic yet, and many reproached Deng Xiaoping for lack of the accurate program of reforms. The future was not clear, uncertain, but the fact that past experience was harmful, deadlock - was obvious. The change in consciousness of party workers became the main thing, need to inspire in them that the country remains economically backward and a priority is not conducting class fight, but development of productive forces of the country. The main thing is to get out of the bog, to feel underfoot the firm soil, and then to begin the movement.

Deng Xiaoping, addressing traditional values - work, urges to work, without feeling sorry for efforts, working at the same time not only hands, but also the head. It is remarkable that, developing a thought of modernization, he remained the realist for whom the theory is intended for the pragmatical purposes.

If Mao Tse Tung as the utopian, proclaimed: "three years of persistent work - ten years of happiness", Deng Xiaoping, being a realist, determined centenary term on overcoming backwardness and transition to society of welfare. Deng Xiaoping absolutely rejects Mao Tse Tung's thesis that poverty and backwardness are the benefit giving the chance of the fast entry into communistic paradise. Deng spent many efforts for disproving opinion on danger of wealth and inequality in income. Deng Xiaoping proclaimed overcoming backwardness, poverty elimination a main objective of policy of the party, and for achievement of this purpose he urged to use all possible ways and means, even those which on the settled representations were considered as contraindicated to the principles of socialism.

Agriculture was put on the first place in economy, agrarian reform carried out transition from national communes with collective-farm form of ownership on the earth to a family contract with the right of lifelong possession of the earth. As a result, harvests very quickly grew, the real market of food in the cities appeared. Progress of agrarian reform allowed Xiaoping to begin Deng transformation in key and allied industries of the industry. Intensively developing agriculture, increasing, at the expense of peasants, cheap labor market in the industries, refusal of ideological dogmas in economy, restoration of broad financial and business contacts with foreign Chinese "хуацяо" allowed Xiaoping to continue Deng reforming of the Chinese economy, to begin construction of "socialism with the Chinese specifics" [1. Page 90]. He recognized that even "when we carry out four modernizations, the release of agricultural and industrial output and also average national income per capita all the same will be low" [2. Page 119].

From the very beginning of transformations traditional Marxist and Maoist views of methods

constructions of socialism slowed down introduction and development of new forms of economic life. Disputes on that how new forms of development of economy are compatible to the principles of socialism, with basic provisions of Marxism-Leninism went continuously. The idea about assumption of an individual and private entrepreneurship in the industry and trade was hardly accepted. Feature of these discussions was the fact that each of the arguing parties applied for correctness of ideas of the nature of socialism and about methods of its construction. Supporters of reforms proved that their contents does not contradict the principles of the marksistko-Lenin theory and that the danger of capitalist regeneration does not threaten China.

In all the performances Deng Xiaoping emphasized that the transformations begun in China conduct to one purpose - a celebration of the ideas of socialism, the practical proof of its advantages which still were not revealed. The leading role in economy remains behind the state ownership, and in policy leading there is a Communist Party. Process of reforms is characterized Deng by Xiaoping as "the second revolution" after 1949, but the revolution which is not directed to demolition of an old superstructure and against any public class, and revolution in the sense of revolutionary updating of socialism on its own basis by self-improvement [3. Page 106].

Carrying out in course life Deng of Xiaoping indissolubly contacts transformation of China into the modern constitutional state operated on the basis of the law, when maintaining the leading status of the Communist Party and the system of meetings of national representatives and multi-party cooperation existing in the People's Republic of China under the direction of the CPC. For years of reforms the huge array of acts regulating all parties of economic, state and public life is developed.

In the performance on August 18, 1980 at a meeting of the Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China Deng Xiaoping put forward a problem of political reform, was decided to start reforming in the country of party and public administration. Deng Xiaoping directly said what without political reform cannot be carried out successfully economic [4. Page 65]. Reorganization of structure of party leadership and state and reorganization of governing bodies as it was noted in the Report to the XII National Congress of the Communist Party of China, had a main goal to eliminate excessive centralization of the power in hands of individuals, combining jobs of many positions, indistinct differentiation of party and government functions, etc. the CPC of the first took an important step in the specified direction, having connected the members by the authorized requirement that the party "has to work within the Constitution and laws" [5. Page 106]. In the Report behind Ki's Communist Party -

thawing there was a right to play a crucial role on questions at issue of government and economic work.

However at a preparatory stage of reform of political system still there were no clear ideas of methods of differentiation of functions of party and state. It should be noted that in party documents of the CPC clear definitions of functions of the party device were not given, there was no scientific justification of a political role of party in society and the state.

On the all-China symposium on the theory of reform of political system which was carried out in Beijing in November, 1986 its participants, asking about differentiation of functions and powers of party and public authorities, emphasized need of transformation of excessively centralized power of party structures. Participants of a symposium opened the mechanism of constant concentration of the power in hands of the party bodies functioning instead of bodies of the state. Many at the same time drew a conclusion that excessive concentration of the power in party apparatus threatens normal life of party and state, paying attention to need of implementation by party of the political management, but not management as differently only the confusion in society shaking its base is created [6. Page 15].

On the XIII National Congress of the Communist Party of China (October, 1987) differentiation of functions of party and economic organizations was called a cornerstone of reorganization of political structure of society. The congress set the task of deepening of this direction of political reform in the top echelons of power and at the volost level. The decision to legislatively issue the relations between party, authorities and public organizations, between the center and places, the personnel policy, democratic life in bottoms was made. The plan of political reform which is put forward by a congress actually generalized the main directions of transformations in the sphere of political structure which were developed earlier and are to some extent approved in practice, and included the following tasks: differentiation of functions of party and government; differentiation of functions of governmental bodies and enterprises; overcoming excessive centralization of the power of Communist Party committees, expansion of the rights of local party, administrative and economic organizations; increase in democratic elections; improvement of institute of socialist political democracy - institute of meetings of national representatives and the system of multi-party cooperation, political consultations and dialogues; development of inner-party democracy; strengthening of socialist law and order; improvement of style of party work; coordination of inner-party democracy with political liberalization.

At a congress also for the first time the idea about an initial stage of development of socialism distinctly sounded

with the Chinese specifics. The special value of this idea consists in attempts of overcoming a stereotype of the accelerated development of the society which deeply took roots in consciousness of political elite and society in general. The methods of phasing and gradualness approved by a congress in development of productive forces and political processes put in the forefront realistic approach to business. Thereby, in practice the class approach and ideological class schemes more and more weakened, giving way to practical problems of policy of development.

The XIII National Congress of the Communist Party of China was the only thing on which issues of political reform were a subject of special discussion. It was paid to issues of development of democracy much attention and also to the fact that in China the introduction of multi-party system and parliament on the western sample is inadmissible.

On the XIV National Congress of the Communist Party of China (1992) the questions of division of function of party and governmental bodies were withdrawn from the program of reform of political system. This results from the fact that short-term problems of political reform in China were formulated, proceeding from features of the current situation in the country. Instead, it was offered to carry out structurally functional reform of administrative management during which it was supposed to reconsider powers of departments, to reduce and to qualitatively improve the device, to increase efficiency of all administrative work.

So, in the theory of creation of socialism with the Chinese specifics three basic elements forming its world outlook and methodological basis were put forward: realistic approach to business ("tsyusha shish"), consciousness liberation ("tszefan sysyan") and movement up to date ("yuysh tszyutszin").

In May, 1941 Mao Tse Tung in article "Reconstruct Our Study" revealed sense of understanding of "realistic approach to business" by it. Having taken ancient saying - "to strive for reality, to seek for business", Mao Tse Tung interpreted it as follows: "that will achieve the truth who is engaged in real affairs" [7. Page 93]. Mao connected this requirement with the theory of knowledge of Marxism, and, exactly, with understanding that practice is criterion of the truth. In the maintenance of this concept the following aspects were marked out to them: 1) the theory is connected with practice and this basic principle of Marxism has to be used as approach, a method of a research of the Chinese society and the Chinese revolution; and 2) using the basic principles of Marxism as a prerequisite, it is necessary to connect safely them with new reality, to overcome dogmatic understanding of Marxism [7. Page 94].

Deng Xiaoping brought new sense in this concept. "Realistic approach to business" is "a basis of proletarian outlook, a basis the Marxist of a thought" [8]. "A victory which we gained

in revolution, thanks to a support on "realistic approach to business", now in implementation of four modernizations, it is also necessary to adhere to it" [8].

In the report "To liberate consciousness, to approach realistically business, to look forward together", made on the 3rd plenum of the Central Committee of the CPC of the 11th convocation, Deng Xiaoping for the first time connected "realistic approach to business" and "consciousness liberation". There was a so-called policy of "eight hieroglyphs" ("tsyusha shish, tszefan sysyan"). What means to liberate consciousness? It is disposal of old habits and fetters of subjectivity; studying a new situation, the solution of new problems under a Marxism banner [4. Page 279]. "Consciousness liberation" it also coincidence of consciousness and reality, subjective and objective, it is also "realistic approach to business" [4. Page 364]. In opinion, Li Teina, consciousness liberation, realistic approach, connection of the theory with practice - the important principle, a Marxism quintessence, a theory core Deng of Xiaoping [6].

"The movement up to date" is a theoretical contribution of Jiang Zemin. This concept means that "all party theory and all party work have to bear in themselves lines of an era, catch it regularities and differ in big creative character. From whether it is possible to do so all the time, the future and the fate of party and the country" depends [8]. The meaning of this principle is that at the turn of the century the international situation and an internal situation in the country promptly change. It is impossible to consider a situation within the country without assessment of a foreign policy situation, without awareness of the idea of multipolarity of the world, economic globalization, changes in a geopolitical situation after the end of "Cold War".

The extreme importance in the theory of modernization Deng of Xiaoping is allocated for a human factor. Education of "the new person" is carried out since the beginning of the 80th of the last century within a course towards creation of the socialist spiritual culture covering all spiritual sphere of life of the Chinese society - ideology, actually culture, morals, the right - and aimed at formation of the modern cultural and civilization environment without which modernization is inconceivable.

Thus, modernization of the People's Republic of China was caused by need of strengthening of the authority of the central power for implementation of the effective management of the country, maintaining public order. Experience of nearly thirty years of reforms showed that thanks to critical reconsideration of historical experience of creation of socialism in the People's Republic of China it was succeeded to provide the beginning of forward development. The country leaders adhere to a firm long-term purposeful course which basis are such concepts as "the Chinese nation", "patriotism", "sotsiali-

stichesky democracy", "board on the basis of the law", "the people - a basis", "justice", etc. At a present stage the modernization is dictated by requirements of an era - need of adaptation of the country to new economic conditions, vliya-

niy international factor. However the Chinese leaders deny a way of blind copying and seek to create own model taking into account specific conditions of development of the country, without forcing change.


1. I.A. Malevich. Attention, China. - Minsk: Harvest, 2001.-320 pages
2. Deng Xiaoping. Chosen compositions. T. 2.- Beijing, 1994. -
384 pages
3. Deliuxing L.P. Deng Xiaoping and reformation of the Chinese socialism. - M.: Ant, 2003. - 240 pages
4. Deng Xiaoping. To carry out modernization and never pre-

to tendovat on hegemony//Makers of history: Mao Tse Tung, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin. Articles and performances. - Minsk: Pa-leya-Mishin, 2001. - Page 62-378.

5. The XII National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents). - Beijing, 1982. - 185 pages
6. Li Teying. On Democracy//Beijing review. - 1986. - No. 46. - River 10-19.
7. Socialism with the Chinese specifics. (Zhongguo of a tesa shekhuy Zhui). - Beijing: Publishing house un-that Qinghua, 2004. - 530 pages
8. Jiang Zemin's report on the XIV National Congress of the Communist Party of China//Renmin zhibao online. 2010. URL: (date of the address: 09.11.2009).

Arrived 13.04.2010

UDC 81.11.271:378.662


K.S. Lelyushkina

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail:

Realization of a culturological component promotes denial of classical training in foreign-language communication and creates optimal conditions for achievement by pupils of the high level of development of speech productive abilities in the unprepared statements of the personal focused character.

The personal focused communication, speech productive actions, verbal partners, pedagogical empathy.

Personally-orientated communication, speech-productive actions, verbal partners, pedagogical empaty.

Democratic transformations in the country on the first place put identity, independence, education, culture, eccentricity and the expert's initiative with new type of thinking, sufficient level of theoretical preparation and practical skills capable to self-improvement, work with people.

Philosophers, culturologists, teachers, psychologists and other representatives of science the global need for reorientation of process of vocational training to other end result - new generation of subjects - carriers and sources of social and professional activity, high methodological culture, intelligent, with the developed individual abilities and many-sided potency comes to light [1].

Society the priority of a learning of foreign languages as when forming pragmatical cross-cultural competence there are new value purposes,

cognitive aspirations admits, there is an activization of rechemyslitelny activity, growth of creative potency, creation of conditions of development of the harmonious, moral and perfect and professional personality is carried out. Due to the change of the status of a foreign language as means of the international interactivity necessary is not only a mastering all types of speech activity, but also, first of all, realization of foreign-language oral and speech communication. We approve innovative approach in the solution of this problem in educational process.

At the beginning of article one of opportunities of traditional training in communication is presented. In the culturological direction are stated dialogue of cultures (O.F. Vasilyeva, O.L. Kuznetsova, Yu.Yu. Desheriyeva, E.I. Passov, V.V. Safonova, V.P. Furmanova, L.I. Harchenkova, L.A. Sheiman), lingvostranovedchesky (E.M. Vereshchagin, V.G Kostomarov, O.A. Bondarenko, S.M. Kulayeva, R.K. Minyar-Beloruchev, M.A. Nefedova, O.G. Obe-remko, T.I. Paltseva, etc.), kommunikativno-et-

James Jenkins
Other scientific works: