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The state educational establishment of the high vocational training "ne Kuban state university"

In article on the basis of a principle cultural the unusual sight at opportunities of the decision of educational problems health-maintenance pupils is given. Singularity of a sight consists that each of valuable layers from within develops a basis of understanding of a life on the basis of value of health the separate person owing to that it is included into system of close local cultural values.

archetypes and stereotypes, national-cultural mentality, Russian and euro-American science about values, personal values, self-realization, self-actualization, semantic-creativity, reflection.

UDC (093)930.1: 332.2.021 "1930"

T.A. Melnikova© SOURCES ON the HISTORY of AGRARIAN POLICY of the USSR the 30th

Autonomous non-profit educational organization of higher education "North Kuban humanitarian Institute of Technology"

In article an attempt of the review of sources on the history of agrarian policy of the 30th in the territory of the Central district of the European part of RSFSR is made. Comparative characteristic of the sources showing interaction of two direct participants of agrarian transformations - the central and regional power, on the one hand, and the peasantry - with another is given.

industrialization, collectivization, village, five-years period, collective farm, MTS, peasantry.

© Tatyana Aleksandrovna Melnikova is a candidate of historical sciences.

Agrarian policy in general is the most important element of development of domestic economy in the 20th century. Competent work on identification, processing and the subsequent scientific criticism of historical sources is necessary for adequate understanding of essence of a perspective.

The massif of sources on the history of agrarian policy of the 30th is rather various: it is made by the archive materials, documents of party and state origin, statistical data, memoirs, memoirs and the periodical press which reflected process of development and realization of agrarian policy of the Soviet state in the 30th

Materials, resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences, plenums, different meetings and meetings on agriculture and collectivization belong to documents of the public and party authorities. The most essential source which reflected the public agrarian policy of the 30th was the collection of laws and orders of the Soviet government published in days of the first five-years period [1]. These collections contained all changes in the legislation and the regulations existing in the country in the 30th including in the field of the agrarian relations (rent, land use, taxation, contracting, organization of labor in collective farms, social security of the peasantry, etc.). At the same time the most "draconian" resolutions of the power connected, first of all, with repressive policy were not published also in these annual editions. The documents and materials published in the 1930th generally reflected agrarian policy of the power and did not affect the direct participant of agrarian changes - the peasantry.

The edition in 1957 of the collection of party and government documents which included "major" (as it was declared officially) resolutions concerning agrarian policy in the years of collective-farm construction [2] became an important milestone in the publication of the documents devoted to preparation and holding collectivization. This collection in the scientific plan considerably surpassed editions of the 1930th. It was supplied with detailed introduction, the arkheografichesky description, solid explanatory notes. Considerably also the number of the documents placed in the collection increased. At the same time in the collection also essential shortcomings of a type of the known ideological orientation of documentary material and lack of resolutions of the regional level remained.

A considerable role for researchers of that era was played by the multivolume edition "Resheniya Partii I Pravitelstva Po Hozyaystvennym Voprosam" which is also published in 1967 [3, vol. 1-2]. If still by preparation of party and government collections it was focused on administrative, organizational and political affairs of collectivization, then the new edition was concentrated on economic and economic aspects of agrarian policy.

Since the second half of the 1960th documents of the regional level began to be published actively. At this time in connection with preparation for the celebration of the 50 anniversary of October events of 1917 was decided to begin the edition of a series of collections of the documents devoted to preparation and implementation of agrarian transformations in certain regions of the country. As a result for short term several collections of documents under the general name "History of Collectivization of Agriculture of the USSR" appeared. The materials which are contained in collections shed light on an era of the 30th in such areas of the state as Central Volga area, Northwest, Western regions and others [4].

The collection published in Ryazan devoted to collective-farm construction in the Central industrial region [5] is of special interest. Documents of this collection as a result of steel a basis for the Soviet historians studying agrarian history of the 30th. The documents devoted to agrarian changes in the Central region of RSFSR were published in the 1960th - the first half of the 1980th also in the general collections [6].

The new phenomenon in the 1960th - the beginning of the 1970th was the fact that the documents devoted to an era of the 30th began to reflect not only the political line of the power, but also showed

the place of country society in the processes proceeding during the first five-years periods. It was connected with increase in research interest in the peasantry and its place in "construction of socialism". The role of the peasantry in collectivization was shown by means of the publication of sources of personal origin (the letter of peasants, the transcript of collective-farm meetings and groups of the poor, etc.). At the same time within the celebrated anniversaries of collectivization and revolution, essays about participants of the collective-farm movement and also their recall began to be published in periodicals [7].

The true goal of these publications in essence was political - to show importance of creation of a collective-farm system, its efficiency. Though in essays also difficulties of transition to new type of managing, connected, first of all with "petty-bourgeois elements" of the peasantry and kulachestvo resistance were noted. In this key also the most considerable collection of memoirs of participants of the collective-farm movement which appeared in 1981 [8] was prepared.

Collections of statistics are of considerable interest. The edition of the statistical materials mentioning an era of collective-farm construction, as a rule, was carried out in connection with anniversary milestones [9]. It defined selection of data and digital swore. With their help the continuous growth of material and technical resources of the agrarian sector, increase in efficiency of collective agricultural production, improvement of welfare of the peasantry in the 30th and its growth of "class consciousness" was shown [10].

In 1984 there was the next most complete collection of resolutions of the central bodies of the Communist Party [11, t. 4-6]. It became the latest edition

the pre-perestroika period in which the important and positive role of party bodies in preparation and implementation of agrarian transformations of the 30th was traditionally shown. In it there were no documents casting a shadow on party, showing the repressive moments of its activity in relation to the peasantry. Besides, only the end results of activity of party bodies for adoption of political decisions were reflected in the collection, but process of development of these decisions in the form of transcripts, performances of figures of party, etc. is not designated. The similar narrow-mindedness by consideration of agrarian policy began to be overcome considerably since the end of the 1980th when owing to the known political changes which happened in the country it was authorized to discuss freely many negative aspects of the Soviet history including eras of collective-farm construction.

In the late eighties - the 1990th of the publication of documents appeared on pages of scientific magazines and also in a number of collections of documents. The first collection of this sort appeared in 1989 [12]. It included the materials opening mainly negative sides of the public agrarian policy during a collectivization era. The documents showing forms and methods of a dispossession of kulaks, in particular, concern them. The room along with party and government documents of a significant amount of sources of other groups, first of all personal origin (letters, memoirs, etc.) became the positive moment that gave the chance for researchers of more complete perception of a picture of collective-farm construction. In the late eighties began to be published speeches and articles of political figures - representatives of the so-called "biases", at a certain stage subjecting to sharp criticism an official agrarian political policy [13].

In the same time statistical data on quantity dispossessed in days of collectivization began to appear, data on the collectivization course, on demographic dynamics in the village in the 1930th [14] became more reliable. In the 1990th the publication of various groups of istochnikovy material to a degree touching on issues of collectivization [15] was continued. But the published documents, owing to the known list towards sharply negative perception in the society of an era of the 1930th, continued to have unilateral character that with all evidence was shown also in many researches in the first Post-Soviet years.

By the end of the 1990th the need for the publication of the generalizing collection of documents in which all parties of difficult and ambiguous process of modernization of the Russian village of the 30th would be reflected ripened. Such edition can be considered the global project which began to be published since 1999 "The tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. 1927-1939" [16, t. 1-3]. Originators, using the declassified funds of the central archives, published a significant amount of documents earlier absolutely unknown to researchers. It is necessary to carry materials of the commission of A.Ya. Yakovlev which was engaged in preparation of the draft resolution on rates and methods of holding collectivization, materials of the commission of V.M. Molotov developing the questions connected with a dispossession of kulaks, transcripts of party plenums, meetings, minutes of meetings of the Politburo, circulars and reports of workers of narcomats, and many others to such documents of extreme scientific importance.

The great value for researchers is represented also by the newest publication of transcripts of meetings of party plenums of the end of the 1920th which, among other, show also process of development by the power of new policy in relation to the peasantry [17]. Since the second half of the 1990th, the documents connected with activity of bodies of state security began to be published actively. Now most in detail OGPU role during the collectivization is shown in the documents published in the collection "Tragedy of the Soviet Village" and also in begun to be published since 1998 the documentary collection under the general name "The Soviet village eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. 19181939", finished today till 1929 [18, vol. 1-2].

In the 1990th in connection with obvious turn of historical science in the social plane the documents showing life, moods and the place of country society in the conditions of "big jump" were actively published. Country memoirs and letters [19] from which the originality of supply of material and its comprehensiveness select V.A. Sokolov's publications [20], first of all, belong to them.

Now, in our opinion, need for the publication of a complex of documents of personal origin ripened (including at the regional level) that would allow to consider comprehensively the place and a role of the peasantry during critical era of the first five-years periods. Thus, at the moment there is a significant amount of versatile sources which availability is provided with the publication their central and local publishing houses.

At the same time, a considerable part of documents remains unpublished, for example, the numerous archive materials revealed in funds of the Russian State Archive of Economy (RSAE) [21], the State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF)

[22], Russian State Archive of Socio-political History (RSASPH)

[23]; Central State Archive of the Moscow Region (CSAMR) [24];

Central Archive of Social Movements of Moscow (CASMM), number of regional archives [25].

In RGASPI (fund 17) minutes of meetings of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and also documents of a number of departments of the Central Committee and first of all Information and Confidential are of interest. In GARFE regulations and directives from VTsIK funds (fund 1235) and CHK (5446) of both the all-union, and Russian level and also a narcomat of RKI (fund 374) were checked.

Documents of authorities contain both in the published editions, and in local archives. Resolutions, resolutions and solutions of regional links of the device (regional, district and regional conferences, plenums, presidiums, bureau, etc.) shed light on common features and on features of implementation of agrarian policy in the Central region of RSFSR. The great value by preparation of article played studying unpublished correspondence of local governing bodies with Moscow and also intraregional correspondence between various instances (for example, district committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and departments with regional committee of party, departments of OGPU with party and Soviet bodies), in the course

to which the subordinate organizations wrote reports and reports higher, made requests, and those, in turn, "lowered" directions on political and economic affairs.

The specified reports and reports contain rich material about a condition of the agricultural industry, about results of tax campaigns, about the course of a campaign for collectivization and a dispossession of kulaks in the Central region, about organizatsionnokhozyaystvenny strengthening of collective farms, about the relation of country people to actions of the power, etc. In this regard the most complete information managed to be gathered from political reports regional, a number of district and regional departments of OGPU which are stored in funds of the State archive of the Yaroslavl region and UFSB Archive for the Ivanovo region.

The author several dozen cases, earlier never used in research researches were revealed, part of them are for the first time introduced for scientific use. The UFSB Archive on the Ivanovo region is of special interest (fund 11). In FSB archive there are orders of the plenipotentiary of OGPU of the Ivanovo industrial region on the department opening activity of bodies of state security in agrarian policy. Besides, also interdepartmental correspondence and also data on the course and results of a dispossession of kulaks, the organization of eviction from borders of the area of prosperous farms, about methods of fight against anti-Soviet performances in the village is of importance.

The situation which developed in the village during an era of the 30th is opened by the transcripts of meetings and meetings of chairmen of collective farms, chiefs of political departments, leaders collective farmers which are stored in fund of regional executive committee of GAIO (R-1510 fund) from time to time carried out at the regional level. In performances of direct participants of collectivization and employees of the first collective farms are shown though sometimes and the hidden by official style, real facts of life of the village, difficulty of collective-farm construction. Protocols and resolutions of the local organizations - village councils, meetings of the poor and collective farmers on various economic political affairs are of great importance (in particular, on the organization of collective farms, a dispossession of kulaks, a sowing campaign, a harvesting, etc.). These documents (GANIKO fund 688, GAYaO R-2996 fund, etc.), though in quite dry and compressed form, give an idea of how directly on places "the revolution in the village" was carried out.

Speeches and articles of representatives of political party leadership and the government are very close to group of standard and assembly documents. Inclusion of these documents which are traditionally carried by istochnikoveda to sources of personal origin in group of regulations is caused by the fact that during the considered era the speech of any given authority was perceived by heads of the lowest levels, and is frequent also ordinary citizens as a direct guide to action, as the unwritten directive. Sometimes the thought which is contained in a speech of the political leader had on the collectivization course considerably a greater influence, than legislatively issued resolution.

The greatest impact on rates and methods of social and economic transformations in the village, naturally, rendered performances and I.V. Stalin's articles [26, vol. 10-13]. Performances of most of other statesmen quite often directly made a start from the provisions read by Stalin, and in many respects repeated them [27]. In this regard it is necessary to allocate works of the political figures, at a certain stage opposing holding collectivization as official methods. Among such politicians it is necessary to mark out, first of all, N.I. Bukharin - the ideologist of "the right bias" whose concept of economic development of the USSR allows to investigate ways and possibilities of alternative development of the Soviet state during an era of the 1930th [28].

By consideration of an era of an agrarian change of the 30th theoretical works of classics of Marxism and, first of all, V.I. Lenin are of great importance [29]. These authors

developed basic provisions of the theory which in days of collectivization, at least, was officially taken as a scientific basis at implementation of "socialist reorganization of the village". At the regional level the great value is represented by performances (at conferences, plenums, meetings, etc.) and articles of local heads of a regional, district and regional link.

Summing up the results of our review, one may say, that the quantity of sources on the history of agrarian policy of the USSR the 30th which are in access, open for the modern researcher, is very various. What, in turn, allows to recommend this subject to the beginning researchers of the Soviet agrarian history.


1. Collection of Laws and Orders of the Workers' and Peasants' Government of the USSR. M, 1928-1934; Meeting of legalizations and orders of the Workers' and Peasants' government of RSFSR. M, 1928-1934
2. Agriculture collectivization. The most important resolutions of the Communist Party and Soviet government. 1927-1935 of M., 1957.
3. Solutions of party and government on economic questions. M, 1967.
4. History of collectivization of agriculture of the USSR. Documents and materials. Agriculture collectivization on average Volga region (1927-1937). Kuibyshev, 1970; History of collectivization of agriculture of the USSR. Documents and materials. Agriculture collectivization in the Northwest area (19271937). L., 1970.
5. Collectivization of agriculture of the Central industrial region (19271937) / under the editorship of P.P. Kiryanov. Ryazan, 1971.
6. Biography of my edge. Yaroslavl, 1967; Yaroslavl region in documents and materials (1917-1977). Yaroslavl, 1980; Socialist Yaroslavl. Yaroslavl, 1982.
7. E. Mukhina earth to peasants//Leninets. 1967. November 7; A. Filatov. I live the owner of the home ground//the Rodnikovsky worker. 1967. January 24; A. Dolgov. The first descent//Working edge. 1969. November 12; N. Kudryashov. The first collective-farm furrow//Leninets. 1976. On December 19, etc.
8. The first furrow. M, 1981.
9. Agriculture of Russia: statistical reference book. M, 1967; Ivanovo region in 50 years. Ivanovo, 1967; Yaroslavl region in 60 years. Yaroslavl, 1977.
10. Yaroslavl region: short statistical reference book. Yaroslavl, 1957;

Agriculture of the USSR. M, 1960, etc.

11. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee (1898-1986). M, 1984, 1985.
12. Documents demonstrate: From the history of the village the day before and in the course

collectivizations, 1927-1932 / under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, I.A. Ivnitsky. M, 1989.

13. See e.g.: N.I. Bukharin. Chosen works. M, 1988.
14. V.N. Zemskov. Kulaks' exile in the 30th years//Sotsis. 1991. No. 10; It. To a question of scales of repressions in the USSR//Sotsis. 1995. No. 9.
15. Exiled men. The truth about special immigrants//the Unknown Russia. The 20th century. M, 1992. Page 184-270; Stalin bureau in the 30th years: collection of documents. M, 1995; I.V. Stalin's Letters to V.M. Molotov 1925-1936: collection of documents. M, 1995; N.S. Khrushchev. Memoirs. M, 1997, etc.
16. Tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. 1927-1939.

Documents and materials. In 5 volumes / under the editorship of V. Danilov, R. Manning, L. Viola. M, 1999-2001.

17. As broke the New Economic Policy: Transcripts of Plenums of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). 1928-1929. In 5 volumes /

under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, O.V. Hlevnyuk, A.Yu. Vatlin. M, 2000. T. 1.; Integrated Plenum of the Central Committee and CKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), on April 6-11, 1928 495 pages; T. 2. Plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), on July 4-12, 1928 719 pages

18. Soviet village eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. 1918-1939: Documents and materials. In 4 t. / under the editorship of A. Berelovich, V. Danilov. M, 1998, 2000.
19. "Damnations of peasants will fall on your head...". Confidential reviews of country letters in the Pravda newspaper in 1928-1930//the New world. 1993. No. 4; Voices of peasants. Rural Russia the 20th century in country memoirs. M, 1996, etc.
20. Voice of the people. Letters and responses of ordinary Soviet citizens about events of 1918-1932 M., 1997; Society and power: the 1930th years. The narration in documents. M, 1998.
21. RGAE: Fund 7733 is the National commissariat of finance of the USSR; Fund 7446 - Kolkhozcentre of the USSR and RSFSR.
22. GARF: Fund 374 is the National commissariat of Workers' and Peasants' inspection of the USSR; Fund 478 is the National commissariat of agriculture of RSFSR; Fund 7820 is the Commission on fight against SNK USSR crop failure consequences.
23. RGASPI: Fund 17 - the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) - the CPSU; Fund 631 - All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Vsesoyuznogo Soyuza Fraction of agricultural collectives of the USSR - RSFSR (Kolkhozcentre) of 1927-1932
24. TsGAMO: Fund 66 is the Moscow provincial council of working, country and Red Army deputies; Fund 665 is the Kolomna district executive committee of Council of working and country deputies.
25. TsAODM: Fund 495 is the Moscow provincial court of 1923-1927; Fund 2867 is the Moscow provincial control commission of Workers' and Peasants' inspection of 1920-1929; Fund 1581 - Bronnitsy uky the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of 1918-1929.
26. I.V. Stalin. Compositions. M, 1949-1951.
27. See, e.g.: Ya.E. Rudzutak. In fight for socialism. M, 1930; M.M. Hagayevich. About elimination of a kulachestvo as class. Samara, 1930; Ya.A. Yakovlev. About collective-farm and state-farm construction. M, 1931; V.M. Molotov. In fight for socialism. M, 1935, etc.
28. N.I. Bukharin. Chosen works. M, 1988.
29. See, e.g.: V.I. Lenin. Development of capitalism in Russia. Process of formation of domestic market for large-scale industry. PSS. T. 3; V.I. Lenin. Agrarian question and Marx's critics. M, 1934; V.I. Lenin. About a food tax. PSS. T. 43; V.I. Lenin. About cooperation. PSS. T. 54.


The independent noncommercial educational organization of the high vocational training "The Northen-Kuban humanities and technology institute"

In article attempt of the review of sources on a history of an agrarian policy of 30th in territory of the Central area of the European part of RSFSR is undertaken. The comparative characteristic of the sources showing interaction of two direct participants of agrarian transformations - is given to the central both regional authority on the one hand and peasantry with another.

UDC 355.1:37.035.7


Public educational institution of higher professional training MO "Yeysk Highest Military Aviation College (Military Institute) of a Name Twice Hero of the USSR, Space Pilot V.M. Komarov"

In article the main pedagogical approaches and actions defining policy of the management of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation on preparation of new officer shots are considered. Characteristics of the purposes and priorities in the field of the set formation of the identity of the Russian personnel serviceman according to specifics of service are given in the Air Force. The system of military education in post-Perestroika Russia is subjected to the scientific analysis and criticism, and recommendations about its conclusion from crisis are made.

The basis for formation of officer corps in post-Perestroika Russia is the military doctrine defining the military policy of the state taking into account its national interests, national security, opportunities of the country and a strategic situation in the world. Military doctrine is a basic source of formation of the military Personnel order - sets of the normative legal acts and other documents defining: what number of officers, with what level

professional education and on what specialties to prepare.

the Russian President as to the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation directs the personnel order of Russian Armed Forces. At the level of the President work of the Security council, Federal Assembly and Government of the Russian Federation on creation of a regulatory framework concerning defense and military education is carried out.

The Government of the Russian Federation directs activity of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation and through the Ministry of Education and the State committee of the Russian Federation on the higher education regulates the questions connected with formation of the personnel order for preparation of officer shots.

The state committee of the Russian Federation on the higher education, realizing public policy on the higher education, defines requirements to its structure and contents.

© Grigory Borisovich Kiselyov is a graduate student Slavic - on - Kuban of the state Pedagogical Institute.

Betty Allen
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