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Professional public organizations of mutual aid in the second half the XIX beginning of the XX century in the Penza province



a taky image, the most typical activities of the societies promoting education distribution were an organization of public lectures and readings, the device of various courses for the purpose of increase in level of education of listeners, opening of educational institutions for children, assistance to out-of-school education.

The leading expert in the field of education at the end of the 19th century V.Ya. Abramov said that the reasons of inactive development of educational activity, the small growth of number of educational societies in the province, are connected with problems of external character which "at us arranged establishment of such societies and which more often make absolutely impossible creation of educational societies" [36]. Nevertheless, provincial cultural and educational organizations became reflection of the educational movement in Russia, begun in the 19th century.

list of references

1. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). T. 5. Op. 1. 6622. L. 26-27.
2. In the same place. L. 16-16.ob.
3. GAPO. T. 190. op. 1. 1. L. 1, 7.
4. GAPO. T. 190. op. 1. 1. L. 39 about.
5. GAPO. T. 190. op. 1. Of 1 L. 40 about.
6. GAPO. T. 190. Op. 1. 1. L. 41 about.
7. In the same place there is a L. 42.
8. GAPO. T. 190. Op. 1. 1. L. 44.
9. In the same place. L. 48 about.
10. In the same place there is a L. 49, 52 about., 53.
11. In the same place. L. 54, 55, 70, 73.
12. In the same place.
13. In the same place. L. 90.
14. In the same place. L. 97 about.
15. V.A. Vlasov. Pages of history of national education of the Penza region. Light in darkness//Education. Problems and prospects. 1996. No. 3. Page 90.
16. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. L. 1-1ob., 15.
17. In the same place. 7. L. 8, 14-14ob.
18. In the same place. 20. L. 2.
19. Penza provincial sheets. 1908. No. 157. L. 3.
20. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 28. L. 3.
21. In the same place. 29. L. 1, 14.
22. E.Ya. Dmitruk, S.G. Kuznetsov. In memory national//Local history notes. Penza, 1970. Issue 2. Page 168.
23. Penza provincial sheets. 1892. No. 210.
24. Penza provincial sheets. 1893. No. 213.
25. GAPO. T. 5. op. 1. 7178. L. 1.
26. Penza provincial sheets. 1907. No. 24.
27. The report of society of M.Yu. Lermontov in Penza from October 1, 1912 to October 1, 1913. Penza, 1914. Page 7.
28. V.P. Vakhterov. National readings//Russian school. 1896. No. No. 9-10. Page 127.
29. Russian school. 1896. No. 7-8. Page 231.
30. In the same place. No. 12. Page 147.
31. In the same place. No. 9-10. Page 143.
32. In the same place. Page 144.
33. National encyclopedia of scientific and applied knowledge. National education in Russia. M, 1910. T.H. of page 189.
34. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7494. L. 115.
35. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7494. L. 116.
36. V.Ya. Abramov. Educational societies in the province//the Russian school. 1896. No. 11. Page 76-77.

UDC 006.2 (471.327+09)

professional public organizations of mutual aid in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the XX century in the Penza province

O.V. DOBROVA

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history

In article the basic principles of work of professional public organizations of mutual aid in the Penza province the H1H-beginning of the 20th century are considered at the end and also features of their activity are noted.

Professional associations in Penza a leg of office work - salesmen, kontorshchik,

provinces of the second half of XIX - the beginnings of the XX century made not a body in the developed system of public organizations. In this case we carry the societies existing in the province in which association happened on the basis of professional interest to professional societies. Benefit societies long time remained absolutely unfairly the forgotten subject. Meanwhile they assisted in so various directions that their activity cannot remain unaddressed.

Among the organizations of mutual aid benefit societies of persons were most widespread it is frequent -

accountants, direct-sales representatives, traktirny servants, etc. Some organizations accepted persons of all listed professions, others only any one. Societies of trade employees by 1900 made

97 associations over the country [1].

The actions by the first there began society of trade employees in Riga in 1859. After that "the organizational movement passed across the capitals, across the large trade southern and western cities, was thrown in the eighties to the Volga region and in the nineties reached the Caucasus and Siberia" [2].

The only thing professional society, legal till 1905, in Penza was Penza

the auxiliary society of commerce and industry employees (generally merchants and salesmen) which arose in 1892. The first social gathering took place on July 12 in the hall of City Council where in the presence of 143 first members of society read the charter approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs and chose the temporary commission in the following structure: F.I. Kholmogorov (salesman), M.A. Ladygin (salesman), Ya.V. Kuzmin (accounting assistant), I.F. Mikhaylov (manager of Groshev's shop) and G.A. Shuvalov (salesman) [3].

A main goal of society - assistance in case of dismissal from service to the members and protection of their interests - were very relevant and got a wide response among the serving state institutions from which many (for example, employees of the railroads) tried to join this society. However, § 3 of the charter of society provided admission to membership in society only of employees of private enterprises therefore to all other persons interested it was refused.

In the first years of existence the society generally was engaged in fund raising for assistance to the members. For this purpose it used all opportunities: performances in the Connected Meeting were put, donations, etc. gathered. Originally the size of grants did not exceed 5 rubles, at the same time and to the needing members society was spent for financial support by the unemployed on 300-400 rubles a year. Annually society contributed 25 rubles in fund of library of M.Yu. Lermontov. All members of society were obliged to report to Board about the appeared free vacancies for jobless members of society. So, in the first year of the activity of the organization it was succeeded to employ two unemployed [4].

Successfully was also with donations, the largest of which were from the tradeswoman E.A. and the doctor A.V. Andreyev - 3000 rubles, from the tradeswoman M.A. Kuznetsova - 1000 rubles. In total for the first year of similar donations 4752 rubles - the sum sufficient for the country town allowing to develop both organizational and professional and cultural and educational work [5] were collected.

However not all members of society approved such activity, were also such which considered it passive. So, in 1905 "The Penza provincial sheets" place article accusing Society of divergence [6]. In article it was said that, having solid material resources, society slowed down in the development, and the main blame for it was laid on its Board. One of indicators of backwardness of society is called the absence at it of the doctor, library, school - "a word, what would indicate progressive development and the reasonable direction and manifestation of forces of society". The possible reasons of stagnation of society also were specified in article: "... The board, i.e. the persons who are at the head not one year of Society are people backward and so indifferent that our society weaned for a long time to see them at the head of an initiative... In many questions Board it became frequent in a section with desires of society and in

the majority of cases braked any initiative brought in society besides Board". The board of society, in turn, did not remain indifferent to similar statements and tried to justify itself somehow, saying that doctors and libraries do not serve at all as that incentive which can attract new faces in members of society.

Nevertheless, society continued the work: the sum of grants grew, the number of members of society increased: by September 1, 1907 they were 276 [7]. By the nature of classes the members of society shared thus: salesmen - 221, kontorshchik - 30, serving -

10, having the business - 8, without classes - 7.

Considering discontent with actions of society in the past, at the first general meeting in 1906/1907 reporting year the offer of Board on opening of Prikaznichy Club and library for which it was written out newspapers and magazines for 73 rubles was accepted unanimously, 666 rubles 99 kopeks were spent for books and their cover [8]. The club was created on purpose "to deliver an opportunity to rapprochement of members of society and to promote intellectual, professional and their moral development" [9]. It consisted of the full members of society who made a year contribution to cash desk of club, and member visitors. In clubmen did not accept women, minors and pupils. In library the person interested could take on the house the newspaper, the magazine or the book for a certain term: newspapers were issued for 3 days, and magazines and books - for 10 days. For each overdue three days the penalty for the book of 10 kopeks, and for the newspaper - 2 kopeks was raised

Gradually the Club was transformed to the Meeting of commerce and industry employees at the Penza auxiliary society of commerce and industry employees which was established with the same purpose, as club, but means of its work were much more various. If in club generally played various gamblings, then the Meeting offered completely different classes: performances, concerts, lectures, dancing and literary soirees, masquerades; from games (except card) chess, checkers, a lotto, billiards and so forth. Visit by women of the Meeting was not forbidden, moreover, each full member who brought an annual license fee any more had the right to bring into the Meeting all the family and also guests [10].

also the circle of the help rendered to full members of society Extended. Besides monthly small allowances, to certain members of society it was assisted in treatment: P.S. Smirnov on treatment in Moscow was given 25 rubles and for stay in clinic monthly on 6 rub 50 kopeks; P.I. Gudkov on treatment in Kazan - 50 rubles, and to a certain N.V. Okorokov on treatment was at a time given 75 rubles [11].

Mastering the new directions in the activity, society continued to develop traditional. At a general meeting rules for "Jobless bureaus" were approved on July 2, 1910 [12] to which duties the granting positions to jobless commerce and industry employees and also delivery of doles belonged. In itself

The bureau could not create work, destroy unemployment, but could improve matters of persons in need.

In the next years the Social gathering developed vigorous activity, and the number of persons interested to become his members increased. Society gave family parties, evenings with musical and literary offices and performances, educational lectures, charitable performances, children's fir-trees and performances.

As we see, society at the beginning of the activity was limited to traditional types of the help to the members. However eventually the nature of actions of society changed a little: there were new inquiries of members of the organization, and the Board was forced to respond to it. The club created at the beginning only for entertainment and, except gamblings, almost any other entertainments not practicing, was transformed to the serious Meeting bearing not only entertaining, but also educational character. Activity of society was necessary that the number of members of the organization confirms: by September 1, 1917 it totaled 548 people (in 1906-1907 increased by 97 people, in 1916-1917 - on 179) [13]. After the February revolution the society was reorganized into "The union of the Soviet employees".

The beginning of work of the second professional society operating till 1917 was followed by certain difficulties. Accepted on August 28

1906 years to consideration the charter of society was not approved by presence. The specified purpose of society - "liberation of trade work from oppression of the capital in Penza" was one of obstacles. Besides a number of remarks was specified, and the draft of the charter of "The Penza professional society of commerce and industry employees" was sent back for revision [14]. The new charter of society was approved on November 18, 1906. Association of all employees of the commerce and industry enterprises in the professional organization, for protection of their legal and economic interests, improvement of their financial position, assistance to their intellectual and professional education was the purpose of society.

Affairs of society went not really successfully, and in

1907 year an attempt of merging with the Penza Auxiliary society of commerce and industry employees was made. This subject was vividly discussed not only among members of the organizations, but also among residents about what we can read in newspapers of that time. The Golos Chernozemnogo Kraya newspaper very in detail on the pages describes all difficulties which the idea of association met. In number 66 of 1907 we read: "Now salesmen are concerned by a question of connection of two societies: Professional and Auxiliary. Some for, others, especially old men (members of Auxiliary society which worked since 1892 are meant), against. They consider that Professional society therefore wants to unite that thinks to use the capitals of old society". For

solutions of this question the commission of 12 people (on 6 from each society) which meetings took place in heated arguments was elected.

The mixed commission already finished the work on development of the charter of new society, but its work was interrupted with the decision of a general meeting of the Penza Auxiliary society, 67 of his members expressed the unwillingness to unite with Professional society. After all, resolved an issue of association to put to the vote on which absolute majority of voices refused merging with Professional society.

After that society gradually tried to adjust the activity. For the purpose of studying position of commerce and industry employees in Penza by society the questionnaire containing 10 points reflecting very in detail life of salesmen was made in 1908: marital status, room conditions, education, a monthly expense, work constant or seasonal, duration of the working day, etc. [15] By the situation existing at that time similar materials were printed with the permission of the chief of police. In spite of the fact that the document was safe, the chief of police hesitated to undertake such responsibility and sent the text of the questionnaire to the governor. The governor, according to attestations of eyewitnesses, told: "Though the document and harmless, but, perhaps, will be better if it is not printed" [16].

Society did not show further activity and did not even send annual reports to the governor so it had to send requests and to the organization with a warning of possible closing of society as the law evading from performance, and "immediately to inform the Penza chief of police with the instruction whether society functions... To declare at the same time that if Council of society on the future from exact performance of a statute (annual providing reports, lists of board members of society and all its participants), then I take the most drastic measures to closing of society" [17]. It should be noted that requests by the governor were sent in April, 1910, and society is entered in the register on November 18, 1906. So Koshko's indignation was quite justified.

Despite the absence of reports and some failures in work, society managed to make something. General education courses for all comers were open for them, the payment for which for not being members of society made 25 kopeks a month. Lessons were conducted 4 times a week (Sunday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday) in the following objects: Russian, arithmetics, algebra, geometry, geography, explanatory reading. During everything 1909/1910 academic years were 74 school days [18].

According to the report of the Course commission of all on courses was men - 138, women - 8. By the end of the year left men 114, and women - 6, i.e. only 120 people 146. Attendance of lessons did not please too: the minimum number of listeners in the 1st half-year was 40-45 people, maximum - 60-65. In the 2nd polugo-

became their diya even less: minimum - 15-12, maximum - 25-30. In total courses finished 24 listeners (men 22, women 2) [19].

The number of members of society decreased every year too. In 1908-1909 reporting year at the beginning of a year there were 74 members of society, at the end - 46. In 1909-1910 reporting year at the beginning of a year - 46, by the end-31 [20].

Expenses of society exceeded its income: in 1908/1909 the income was 235 rub the 54th cop, expenses made 346 rub 47 kopeks. In 1909-1910 reporting year income was estimated in the sum of 66 rub the 78th cop, and expenses of-182 rub 97 kopeks Society was in deep crisis which could not leave. According to the resolution of a liquidating general meeting of June 3, 1910 the capitals of society were distributed as follows: the library came to the property of Auxiliary society of commerce and industry employees, property and cash desk - to the Penza society of assistance to out-of-school education. In the magazine of Presence on cases of societies and the unions of August 17 of the same year the record was made: "... Provincial on cases of the societies Presence, having listened to the statement of liquidation commission of Professional society, decided: to close this society about what in the book of the register about professional societies on the Penza province to make an appropriate mark" [21]. Most likely, members of society lacked that experience and common sense which was made at members of Auxiliary society.

It is interesting that the Soviet power already in the twenties had interest in this professional society, and at the beginning of the 30th of the last century even an attempt of its revival was made. The being chairman of Professional society of commerce and industry employees I. Krasichkov distributed on March 23, 1933 invitations "to take part in the organization of a cell of the former members of the Penza Labor union of commerce and industry employees of 1906-1909... The purposes of the organization and the plan of work will be planned at the first meeting". This meeting took place on April 24 the same year. Attendees decided: "In view of insufficient information about activity of the Penza Professional society of commerce and industry employees for years of its existence to collect materials by memoirs of old members of the organization" [22].

Similar societies existed not only in Penza, but also in other cities of the province. On October 25, 1904 there began the actions the Moksha society of mutual assistance to commerce and industry office work [23]. In members of this society were accepted serving in commerce and industry firms of Mr. Mokshan and his county under the resolution of Board of society. Members of this society were also divided into honourable, valid and sorevnovatel. Honorary members and sorevnovatel had no right to use grants, loans and assistance of society. And members-sorevnovateli could not be also elected to positions on the administration of society, but they together with honourable were exempted from membership fees.

Full members of the organization paid at the introduction at a time 3 rubles and 6 rubles annually. In exchange they acquired the right on: a) receiving allowances, percentage and interest-free loans; b) assistance to a priiskaniye of classes and to definition on places; c) rendering free or at low prices of medical care and receiving drugs; d) acquisition of various consumer goods and house use at the reduced the price prices; e) rendering legal aid. Also society cared for contempt, education and education of children of members of society and promoted their definition in educational institutions.

Activity of Benefit society of N. - the Leningrad Region-movsky zemstvo which opened on February 5, 1907 [24] was slightly broader. It not only gave grants and loans, rendered medical and legal aid, but also was engaged in the device of cheap apartments, hostels, libraries, readings and friendly conversations, family evenings and so forth. Everything, being in service H. - Lomovsky zemstvo could be his members. In this society there were no members - sorevnova-teley but only honourable and valid. Lump sums to full members of society were given according to the decision of Board, and their extreme size was established by a general meeting. Return of received allowances was not obligatory as they were given extremely needing. But in case of improvement of financial position, it became a moral duty of those who are able to return them.

The peasant A.D. Paplevin, the nobleman V.A. Yuryev, hereditary honourable citizen V.P. Mashintsev, the peasant V.F. Kitayev, the petty bourgeois G.T. Musatov, petty bourgeois F.G. Ivanov, the peasant P.V. Chunchenkov who became the chairman of society were founders of society.

In the first year of existence the revenues of society were 1120 rub the 78th cop, of them: membership fees of-448 rub the 83rd cop; entrance fees - 121 rub; donations - 435 rub 51 cops; percent on the capital of society - 17 rub the 09th cop; income from performances -

98 rub 35 kopeks. Expenses of society were 108 rub the 13th cop from which: on the administration of society - 56 rub the 63rd cop; on delivery of grants to jobless - 2 rub the 50th cop, on the occasion of death - 25 rub, on training of children of-25 rub [25].

The number of members in society in the first year of its activity was 118 people of whom the prevailing majority was made by teachers - 79 people, then paramedics - 14; the number of agronomists, midwifes, members of a territorial district justice hesitated from 1 to 3 [26]. It is interesting that in this society there was rather high percent - more than 38.1% - the women who entered it whereas in other similar societies it seldom reached 1%.

Since June 5, 1907 there began the work Professional society of workers of paper stationery factory of Association of Sergeyev [27]. Founders of society were: the petty bourgeois A.O. Golyshevsky, shop S.T. Selifonov (who became the chairman), krestya-

Ning I.F. Markin. For the first year of actions of the organization it was joined by 110 people from it by the nature of whom classes was: on paper stationery production of 90 people, workmen - 25 people. Activity of this society had broader character. Besides the traditional directions, in the charter the right for congresses both on the general, and on the special questions concerning this profession and its separate industries was stipulated; on carrying out researches of working conditions, life and needs of workers of the paper stationery industry; on the agreement with owners on rationing of the salary, the working day and working conditions; on settlement of the misunderstanding which arose between businessmen and workers and also on the decision of all disputes between members of society because of professional interests [28]. Could expel from society for evasion from the duties assigned to the full member of the organization by the general a meeting, or for violations of interests of society which are defined besides by a general meeting.

Not at once Professional society of workers of printing in Penza got to work. Originally (on May 5, 1907) to it it was refused registration because of "seditious" point on delivery of grants to members of society during the strikes. This point was removed from the charter, and society was entered in the register already on June 5, 1907 [29]. The charter of workers of printing almost differed in nothing from the charter of society of employees of paper stationery factory, except the note to § 5 in which it was said that owners of institutions, working in the workshops, can be full members of society. But if they are noticed in exploitation of the workers, then will be excluded. The number of members of the organization for the first year of its existence was 60 people, by the nature of classes typesetters, printers, bookbinders, lithographers and proofreaders were a part of society.

Members of society at once organized library for which more than 30% of all expenses of society making 87 rub 31 kopeks were spent. Whereas revenues of society for 1907-1908 equaled 219 rub 32 kopeks. However, despite such optimistic beginning, the resolution of presence of March 2, 1911 this society as not showing any activity, it was closed [30].

the Penza professional society of tailors and dressmakers entered in the register of societies on July 7, 1908 [31] Absolutely not for long existed. The country maiden V.M. Korneeva and the private of a stock I.M. Afanasyev were founders (by the way, the application was submitted by them on February 12, 1908). Society was joined by 40 people; revenues of the organization were only 57 rubles, and expenses - 88 rub 57 kopeks, besides societies were terminated on August 26, 1909. In this regard at a general meeting on December 13, 1909 it was decided to close society with a formulation "for the lack of means" [32]. And it was closed by the resolution of Presence of January 12, 1910, "according to the statement of board of society for the termination of activity" [33].

Some organizations were closed by presence. So, the Professional society of workers of the baking shop registered on November 18, 1906, for violation of the charter and as menacing to public tranquility under the resolution of Presence of March 20, 1907 it was closed. This resolution was appealed by board of society in the Ruling Senate which recognized that as correct [34]. Subsequently the attempt to open Professional society of bakers in Penza was also not crowned with success as their founders as we noted earlier, were noticed in unreliability.

Thus, the circle of professional societies in the Penza province in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the XX century was rather wide. Many of them conducted versatile activity which allowed to carry even to charities. Not always societies could develop safely after their opening the activity and were forced to self-destruct.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. A. Gudvan. Essays of history serving in Russia. M, 1925. Part 1. 115. Page 70-71.
2. M. Nepryakhin of benefit society of trade employees. Development essay. Saratov, 1913. 46 pages
3. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). T. 188. Op. 1. 1. L. 1.
4. GAPO. T. 188. Op. 1. 1. L. 3.
5. In the same place.
6. Penza provincial sheets. 1905. No. 263.
7. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 40. L. 5.
8. In the same place. L. 6, 15 about.
9. GAPO. T. 188. op. 1. 2. L. 28.
10. In the same place. L. 4 about.
11. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 40. L. 29.
12. In the same place. L. 69.
13. GAPO. T. 189. Op. 1. 1. L. 49 about.
14. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 5. L. 3-4.
15. GAPO. T. 189. Op. 1. 1. L. 39-40.
16. In the same place. L. 44 about.
17. GAPO. T. 16. Op.1. 1. L. 30-31.
18. GAPO. T. 189. Op. 1. 1. L. 61 about.
19. In the same place. L. 64 about.
20. GAPO. T. 16. op. 1. 5. L. 33-34.
21. In the same place. L. 34 about., 36-37.
22. GAPO. T. 16. op. 1. 5. L 50, 51-51ob.
23. GAPO. T. 5. op. 1. 7500. L. 1.
24. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 12. L. 12.
25. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 40. L. 43 about.
26. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 40. L. 43.
27. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 21. L. 8.
28. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 21. L. 3.
29. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 19. L. 4.
30. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 911. L. 2.
31. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 32. L. 26 about.
32. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 32. L. 34, 35 about.
33. GAPO. 911. L. 2 about.
34. GAPO. 911. L. 1 about.
Aubrie Laureen
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