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E.A. Sheugen. Historiography. Questions of the theory and methodology: Course of lectures. Maykop, 2005

sheugen E.A. Istoriografiya. Questions of the theory and methodology: Course of lectures. Maykop, 2005

A new course of lectures of the famous expert in the field of a historiography and methodology of history E.A. Sheugen fully answers logic of development of a domestic historical thought at a turn of two centuries. The explosion of public interest in the past observed approximately from the second half of the 80th of the 20th century corresponded to features of a cultural and historical situation of any critical era when the historical feeling becomes aggravated. It brought to life the return process connected with strengthening of mistrust to historical science as one of introduction forms in public consciousness through interpretation of the past of official ideology. Such conditions predetermined the imperative need not only updates of a traditional teoretiko-metodolichesky arsenal, but also judgment of a way of development of the most historical thought and historical science for professional historians. The appeal to a difficult historiographic perspective with inevitability puts a number of theoretical and methodological problems. This course of lectures will help to understand them taking into account their features in a historiographic research.

According to the accepted methodology of historical disciplines it is devoted to problems of the place of a historiography in the system of historical knowledge and to the main stages in development of historical knowledge, to methodological problems of authorship of historical works, features of informative process in a historiographic research with author's characteristic of such major methodological categories as an object and an object of research, its principles and methods, a historiographic source and the historiographic fact and also to features of representation by the historian of the past in the research works. Special attention is paid to results of the historiographic process connected with emergence of schools of sciences and the directions and with current trends of development of historical science.

The elected structure is represented very successful. It allowed not only to make general idea about features of methodology of a source study research, but also to include a number of concrete recommendations for research practice in a course of lectures.

First of all Sheugen absolutely reasonably raised a question of that, "that the historiography represents" (page 11). The answer to it is important for formation of knowledge of an object of a historiographic research and about differentiation between a historiography, on the one hand, and history of cultural and a socio-historical thought - with another. From the point of view of Sheugen, the historiography has "several values: the history of historical knowledge, history of a historical thought, history of historical science (in general, in the certain country or in concrete temporary borders)" (page 11). Such position is represented quite weighed. In most

business if to limit an object of a historiographic research to exclusively scientific historiography, then out of the field of research attention there will be a big period of development of a historical thought till that time when historical works as did not take a form of spiritual culture fully a form of a scientific reflection over the past of mankind yet.

Quite fairly in this regard Sheugen to issues of interaction of a historiography and the socio-historical consciousness which developed in a certain cultural and historical situation is aware the special lecture is devoted. Its value is represented very essential. It provides understanding that in a historiographic research a lot of things depend on a welfare context in which the identity of the historian was formed and which caused his scientific interests and also level of its preparation for achievement of those purposes which he set in a research. Also it promotes understanding that depth of idea of the identity of the historian or historians of a certain direction or a certain era as the history of the ideas is inseparable from history of the people bearing them is of great importance for the solution of historiographic problems. It has to direct research attention to so essential part of a historiographic perspective as a course of life of historians, their activity and their possible contribution to culture in the spheres which are not relating directly to historical science.

Depth and clearness of an author's thought are reflected by existence it is aware of lectures of clear definitions for difficult methodological categories. In particular, it concerns the periods of development of a historiography which are defined as "long intervals of time during which the new phenomena which were cardinally changing a historiographic situation, providing transition to qualitatively new level of development arose and developed". Three periods in development of a historiography are allocated: "The first (The ancient East, antiquity, the Middle Ages) - origin of historical knowledge; the second (Modern times) - an intensification of historiographic process; the third - registration of a historiography in the special industry of historical knowledge and development as significant scientific direction" (page 30). In general such allocation of the periods is quite proved. The first corresponds to existence of history at its prescientific stage, the second - at a stage of formation of a scientific historiography during Modern times, of the age of Enlightenment till 20th century, the third - a scientific historiography of the 20th century. The designated Sheugen the first period connects in uniform cultural and historical whole the scientific historiography developed from the age of Enlightenment with the historiography preceding it to which historical works of antiquity and the Middle Ages when elements of scientific knowledge were formed belonged. Such elements were highly appreciated and apprehended by methodology of scientific historical knowledge. It is represented that a possibility of correlation lektsion-

the course Sheugen leg with theoretical developments of problems of historical knowledge of the last time gives to a course of lectures not only the educational and methodical, but also big scientific importance.

Deepening of idea of features of historiographic researches is promoted by the given Sheugen their classification in which such groups as teoretiko-methodological works in the field of a historiography, researches about the directions and schools, about separate stages of historical knowledge, on local problems of a historiography and the historical and biographic researches devoted to certain historians (page 230) were allocated. Such classification gives the chance not only to be guided more accurately in character and features of historiographic researches, to estimate their importance for further development of historiographic knowledge, but also promotes more clear understanding of problems of studying a historiography in regions of Russia as developments of a historical thought and historical science on places are revealed in general much more weakly, than the development of the Russian historiography happening in the most important university centers of the country. In particular, it fully belongs to a historiography in different regions and the republics of the North Caucasus, including to Dona and in Adygea. On real

to a stvo achievement of so large-scale purpose assumes as the initial stage studying features of a social and political and cultural and historical situation on places, historical consciousness of a general population and activity of certain historians. It will help to draw on the basis of the received results conclusions of the generalizing character about features of development of historical knowledge and historical science in certain territories of the country. Researches such allow not only to reveal more stoutly richness of a historical thought in Russia, but give the chance more deeply to understand development of a historiography in the country in general and in general features of spiritual culture of the Russian society, one of the most essential lines of which was a historical thought and historical science representing expression of a self-reflection of society and promoting maintaining historical memory as a deep basis of any culture.

Unfortunately, the scanty circulation of the book (320 copies) will hardly allow to make it property of all researchers who are interested in historiography problems. Meanwhile this course of lectures would bring undoubted benefit not only to students of the Adygei university and could gain deserved recognition outside the republic.

ON. Mininkov

Pierce Brian
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