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The main activities of the Soviet militia on fight against crime in 1953-1964 (on materials of the Penza region)



IZVESTIYA

PENZA STATE PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY of V.G. Belinsky HUMANITIES No. 15(19)2010

IZVESTIA

PENZENSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO PEDAGOGICHESKOGO UNIVERSITETA imeni V. G. BELINSKOGO HUMANITIES No. 15 (19) 2010

UDC 947.088

The MAIN ACTIVITIES of the SOVIET MILITIA ON FIGHT AGAINST CRIME In 1953 1964

(ON MATERIALS of the PENZA REGION)

© E.V. KURITSYNA

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky,

department of history and right of e-mail: lesik.0884@rambler.ru

E.V. Kuritsyna - the Main activities of the Soviet militia on fight against crime in 1953-1964 (on materials of the Penza region)//PGPU News of V.G. Belinsky. 2010. No. 15 (19). Page 85-91. - In this article on the basis of archival sources the activities of the Penza militia for fight against plunders of socialist property in the field of trade, the industries, agriculture and construction, with speculation and a falshivomonetchestvo are analyzed. Special attention is paid to problems of fight of bodies of militia of the Penza region with crime of minors. Along with it also some aspects of activities of the Penza militia for prevention and prevention of offenses in the years of Khruschev's transformations (1953 - 1964) are considered.

Kuritsyna E.V. - The basic directions of activity of the Soviet militia on struggle against criminality in 1953-1964 (on materials of the Penza region)//Izv. Penz. gos. pedagog. univ. im.i V. G. Belinskogo. 2010. No. 15 (19).

River 85-91. - In this article on the basis of archival sources we analyze the activity of the Penza militia on struggle against thefts of socialist property in the area of trade, industry, agriculture and building, speculation and counterfeiting. The special attention is given to problems of struggle of the militia of the Penza region with juvenile delinquency. Along with it we consider some aspects of the activity of the Penza militia under the prevention and preventive maintenance of offenses in the years of Khrushchev's transformations (1953 - 1964).

Intensive rise in crime in our country is one of the main problems of the present. Overcoming negative trends of daily occurrence and development of the most operational and effective methods of fight against them is impossible now without the appeal to examples of the historical past. In this context the studying activity of bodies of militia for fight against crime in the years of Khruschev's transformations acquires special relevance, as in scientific, and on the practical level.

Features of social and political and social and economic development of the Soviet society in the period of Khruschev's "thaw" caused promotion before bodies of militia of the Penza region of the following tasks: strengthening of fight against infringement of socialist property in the field of trade, the industries, agriculture and construction and also with speculation and false monetchestvom. Special attention law-enforcement

structures were given to improvement of work on fight against criminal manifestations among minors. From the specified positions we will also try to characterize activities of the Penza militia for fight against crime.

In the conditions of domination of socialist form of ownership, in the years of Khruschev's transformations particular importance was attached to fight against plunders of the state and public property. All system of law enforcement agencies including militia was guided by it.

the greatest distribution in the territory of the Penza region was got by plunders of socialist property in trade. Wastes, shortages and thefts in the field were the habitual phenomenon. For example, in 1953 in the sphere of consumer cooperation by the staff of department of fight against plunders of socialist property (OBHSS) 275 cases of plunders for the sum of 1890700 rub - were revealed

leu [3], and in the organizations of state trade - 28 cases for the sum of 158000 rubles [5]. However it is possible to assume that the volume of wastes was much more. The fact is that employees of trade organizations often hid them under the guise of so-called "small shortages" and "nachet". For example, on area in 1953 the staff of the Penza militia it was revealed "small shortages" for the sum of 2206000 rubles and "nachet" - for 1272700 rubles [1].

The serious problem for bodies of militia was represented by plunders at the industrial enterprises of Penza and area. The staff of the Penza militia repeatedly established the facts of commission of thefts of finished goods and raw materials. So, it was during the investigation established that from Penza Watch Factory systematically in a large number ready hours and accessories with which criminals supplied "the Penza watchmakers and businessmen coming from other cities of the country" [23] were abducted. In 1956 the workers of OBHSS revealed theft of products on the Penza meat-processing plant for the sum more than 300000 rubles [23]. In 1962 the bodies of militia and prosecutor's office revealed groups of plunderers of socialist property at the sausage, confectionery and meat and dairy enterprises of Penza [11].

In the years of Khruschev's transformations in the territory of the Penza region of the considerable sizes reached plunder in the sphere of agricultural cooperation. For example, in 1953 the staff of the Penza militia established 409 facts of commission of thefts and wastes in collective farms of area for the sum of 252119 rubles [6]. It should be noted that the greatest number of plunders was the share of the period of agricultural works [2, 23].

The serious concern in the Penza militia was caused by numerous thefts of building materials from the construction organizations of area. The brick, timber, a roof, pipes and various sanitary equipment [42] were subjects to encroachments mainly.

Due to the increase in thefts and robberies of the industrial enterprises, institutions of trade, the construction organizations, collective farms and state farms as a part of office of militia service of the Penza regional Management of militia, according to the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR of August 22, 1952 No. 3851-1339, Management of private sentry security [43] which legal basis of activity became accepted on January 7, 1953 was created. Council of ministers of the USSR "Provision on private external sentry security" [58, page 152]. In this Situation the main objectives of new structural units - protection of small shopping and other economic facilities, the organizations, institutions and enterprises in the cities and industrial settlements, ensuring safety of socialist property were formulated.

A big role played the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RSFSR No. 85 of April 1, 1957 in activity of private sentry security. "About work improvement measures

private external sentry security" and order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RSFSR No. 170 of August 3, 1957. "About strengthening of protection of inventory items on the objects protected by UVNSO" [24]. According to these regulations for increase in efficiency of activity of private security in Penza and on area 28 stationary posts were integrated, on 48 objects in the regional center the electric-sound alarm system was installed [25]. Besides, on 50 posts protection began to be carried out by means of sentry dogs [26].

In April, 1960 according to the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR No. 30 of January 16, 1960 which approved "The provision on private sentry security at bodies of militia" at the Department of Internal Affairs of the Penza regional executive committee the department of protection was created [33]. According to this situation the obligation for the equipment of the protected objects by technical means was assigned to managements (departments) of protection.

A significant role in respect of expansion of scales of introduction of technical means on the protected objects played the Resolution of Council of ministers of RSFSR No. 670 of May 18, 1962. "About measures for introduction of technical means of protection on the objects protected departmental the militarized, sentry protection and private sentry security" and the Resolution of the Penza regional executive committee of June 8, 1962 No. 320 [36]. According to these regulations the main attention had to be directed to the organization of work on installation of the alarm system. This duty was assigned by the decision of the Penza regional executive committee No. 320 to radiofikation SMU. However it should be noted that by the end of 1963 in the Penza region from among the protected objects only 18.5% were equipped with the alarm system [35].

Some reduction of number of crimes against socialist property to the middle of the 1960th became result of hard work of the Penza militia. So, in 1963 in comparison with 1962 the number of thefts of the state and public property decreased from 703 to 641, robberies - from 23 to 10, etc. [60].

Fight against the speculation which was widespread in the territory of the area was one of the main activities of the Penza militia in days of Khruschev's "thaw": "in the markets, on streets and at home it is possible to buy from speculators at the speculative prices anything and as much as necessary" [19]. So, in 1954 68 proceedings on 65 people, and in 1955 - 154 on 172 persons were initiated [43]. In 1957 380 people were made responsible, including 210 - on Penza [27].

One of main types of speculation was small speculation in the market. So, in the Za Revolyutsionny Poryadok newspaper of January 19, 1957 it was said that with approach of winter in the ware market of the regional center appeared many handicraftsmen illegal immigrants who were engaged in tailoring and sale at the speculative prices of caps with ear-flaps. The senior operative of OBHSS militia captain Fedoseyev established "kus-

tarey-shapochnik". Somebody Lashko, Nosov and Nosova was them. These persons did not work anywhere. A large number of caps with ear-flaps, skin and money for the sum more than 6 thousand rubles was withdrawn from them [59].

In the ware market of Penza speculation in wool, wool yarn, valenny footwear and kozhtovara became especially popular [52]. For example, in 1956, case of Vanyaev from which the staff of the Penza militia withdrew 56 pieces of the varnished skin, 7 - suede and 56 - chromic was solved [22]. Handicraftsmen of the villages of Chemodanovki, Seliksa and Leonidovki Bessonovs-ky of the area were engaged in speculation in valenny footwear [52].

In the territory of the Penza region the big distribution was received by such types of speculation as buying up of food and manufactured goods with the subsequent their realization at inflated prices, buying up and resale of the cattle [41]. For example, in 1954 the staff of the Kamensk regional police station arrested and brought to trial two brothers who were systematically engaged in speculation in meat and horses. They bought up the cattle in villages of the Kamensk and Pachelmsky districts and also in the settlement of Titovo of Golovinshchensky district. Meat was brought to Penza and sold it at the speculative prices. As a result of verification of documents by the myasocontrolny station of the central market of Penza it was established that during 1952-1953 the criminals sold 25 carcasses of cattle and sheep and handed over 40 pieces of skin in the Kamensk office Zagotzhivsyrye. Since 1954 they began to speculate with horses [8]. In 1955 the quick workers of OBHSS in Sur-ske exposed the criminal group in number of 5 people which was engaged in speculation in food products. Having used interruptions in sale of vodka, bakery and pasta, they began to buy up these goods in shops of the regional center for the purpose of their further realization in Sursk at inflated prices. It was during the investigation established that vodka, for example, was resold on 60 - 90 rubles for liter, pasta - on 10 rubles for 1 kg., long loafs - on 4 rubles apiece, vegetable oil - on 28 rubles for 1 kg. and wheat flour - on 8 rubles for 1 kg. [20] Same year the group of speculators specializing in sale of manufactured goods at inflated prices was revealed. On November 9, 1955 shop No. 1 of Oblpromsovet received from Moscow 2 containers of galvanized ware (tanks, troughs, buckets and cans). Having hidden existence of accounts, the manager of shop gave the order to start sale of ware, having personally specified the prices of it. As a result ware of the 2nd grade began to be sold at the prices of ware of the 1st grade: tanks worth 26 rubles 80 kopeks sold at 29 rubles 80 kopeks, troughs worth 35 rubles of 80 kopeks - at 42 rubles, etc. [21]

It should be noted that the stolen or illegally acquired for bribes goods became speculation objects quite often. For example, a part of wool and a woolen lock with which speculated in the markets of the regional center criminals bought up at persons,

the Gorodishchensky and Ternovsky districts working at cloth factories. Or, having used that many collective farms of area bought spare parts to cars, combustible fuel, roofing iron and other materials and made out it private receipts and acts, certain businessmen sold them stolen goods [17].

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR repeatedly demanded from bodies of militia to strengthen operational search activities for prevention and disclosure of crimes about speculation. So, the directive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR No. 125 of September 17, 1953 contained the requirement of holding broad operational actions for timely identification and suppression of large plunders and classes speculation [18]. The directive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR No. 192 ordered to combat strength of all services of militia given by types of crime, and not just workers of OBHSS [17].

In March, 1956 the department of BHSS on the basis of the directive of GUM of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR No. 5 of January 16, 1956 developed the plan for fight against speculation in Penza and districts of the area [51] according to which holding the next events was supposed: first, because goods and products were often bought by speculators through workers of the sphere of trade and public catering, bakery, bakeries and artels it was recommended to strengthen explanatory work among workers and the organizations serving these; secondly, in places of the highest concentration of "a speculative element" (Kuznetsk, Serdobsk, Lunino and others) it was planned to direct periodically groups of quick employees of department of BHSS of management of militia for the organization and holding operational actions for disclosure of the persons who were engaged in speculation and a route agency for identification of criminal groups, their communications and places of storage of goods; thirdly, for suppression of open speculation in scarce commodities in shops and also on streets and the markets (central, factory, southern, ware and at stations Penza III and Penza) it was supposed to send IV in days of selling of these products to shops dresses of militiamen and district police officers with attraction of brigadmilets and also to market days on the markets and in shops - quick employees of department of BHSS together with an agency for holding actions for identification and exposure of criminals; fourthly, because some persons were engaged in buying up and sale of manufactured and food products at stations I of Penza, III and IV at long distance trains, it was recommended to come into continuous contact with linear department of militia and to exchange operational information on particular cases.

For fight against speculation, fraud and pocket thefts still in the late forties in all large markets and markets of area were created branches of police stations [56, page 45]. The task of identification of speculators and their suppression deyatelnos-was set for the staff of the Penza militia

ti. So, in 1954 in the markets of Penza 312 people who violated the resolution of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies No. 176 forbidding sale from hands of new things, manufactured goods and some other products from them on 103 people were detained administrative reports according to which 37 underwent penalties were issued, concerning certain violators taking into account their material property status, old age and disability warnings were issued [7].

Along with operational work by staff of bodies of militia of the Penza region also preventive activity was carried out. They were obliged to establish the reasons promoting occupation speculation to perform with specific proposals on their elimination to party and Soviet bodies, heads of the enterprises and institutions [28].

Fight against a falshivomonetchestvo was one of aspects of activity of the Penza militia. In the late fifties by the staff of department of fight against plunders of socialist property solved several cases on production and sale of counterfeit money. So, in 1958 the workers of OBHSS exposed the group of counterfeiters which was engaged in production of notes advantage in hundred rubles and one ruble printed with a cliche. It should be noted that criminals at production of counterfeit money used a difficult technique and quality typographical paints. So-called production was placed in the rural hen house in the village of Olshanka of Poimsky district. During the search it was withdrawn the forgeries prepared for sale and not finished yet for the sum more than 60000 rubles. Another matter about counterfeiting was complete also in the late fifties. In this case the inhabitant Bessonovki was engaged in production of counterfeit notes of 10 rubles, with sale of money it was helped by the wife. During the trips to the Far East where it carried onions for sale, on the way of its following along the railroad at junction stations in the Chita and Kemerovo regions by the police officers established cases of emergence of false notes. In general, it and his wife managed to sell forgeries for the sum more than five hundred rubles [56, page 47].

Staff of bodies of militia of the Penza region during the studied period attached particular importance to fight against criminal manifestations among children and teenagers which not without the bases was considered as a significant component in the system of measures for crime prevention in general. The fact is that as practice shows, the faces which made penal acts at early age give in to re-education more difficultly and make thereby the main reserve for adult and recurrent crime.

Due to the organizational and structural changes in law enforcement agencies the main volume of work on this direction in 1953 - 1959 was carried out by employees of children's rooms of militia [29]. They were obliged to be engaged in identification and withdrawal of street children and teenagers from streets with an afterbirth -

the yushchy direction them in receivers distributors. So, for 1960 and 5 months 1961 in the Penza children's receiver of Management of protection of public order 365 children, from them by police officers - 275 people were brought [30]. Along with it prosecution of the persons which were not performing the functions assigned to them on education of younger generation belonged to duties of law enforcement agencies. For example, in 9 months 1962 in the Penza region 374 parents from whom 286 people received warnings were brought to administrative responsibility and 88 underwent penalties [31].

For prevention and prevention of crimes among minors the staff of the Penza militia acted as initiators of various public actions more than once. So, for reduction in Penza of hooligan manifestations with knifing and other penal acts among youth in the letter of the deputy chief by a political part of Management of militia of Regional Office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Penza region the secretary of city committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League of Penza of March 19, 1956 was offered to conduct a large-scale campaign for voluntary surrender of fire and cold weapon and prevention of the facts of its production [53]. The foundation of this campaign was laid by employees of the Kamensk regional police station. Release of all voluntarily handed over weapon from responsibility became the stimulating factor. As a result during only the first half of February, 1956 in regional department of militia 4 guns, 4 daggers and 18 Finnish knives were handed over [54].

Along with it at the initiative of the Penza law enforcement agencies at house managements No. 2 and No. 4 parental committees to which duties belonged control of behavior of children and visit of educational institutions by them, employment of teenagers, carrying out inspections of living conditions of life of the child, etc. were created. These committees for the first half of the year 1963 revealed 35 teenagers with bad behavior, 16 of them are employed [34].

During the studied period in the system of measures against crime of minors much attention was paid to a problem of strengthening of interaction of law enforcement agencies with the public which participation was regarded as a certain panacea against growth of penal acts among youth. In this regard a number of the documents obliging militia wider to involve the population in fight against crime was accepted. May 10, 1954. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR published the directive "About Work among the Population". For performance of this act in Penza, Kuznetsk, Serdobsk, Kamenka, Ancient settlement, the Lower Lomov and other regional centers through joint efforts of employees of bodies of militia and members of regional committees of Komsomol repeatedly organized youth and Komsomol evenings on which they made reports on problems of non-compliance with law and order by youth and

rules of the socialist hostel, carried out with children, teenagers and their parents of a conversation, devoted to explanation of the legislation, etc. [47]. So, in 9 months 1962 in vocational schools, schools and at PTA meetings the staff of bodies of internal affairs gave in the preventive purposes 8 lectures. Besides, in department of criminal investigation department more than 50 people with whom individual discussions were led [32] were called.

Due to the rise in crime of minors on July 5, 1961 the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RSFSR was published by the order according to which fight against penal acts of teenagers and children's neglect was assigned to offices of criminal investigation department with submission of children's rooms of militia by it again [62, page 166]. Creation in 1961 of the commissions on affairs of minors at executive committees of local councils of deputies of workers [58, page 208], and in 1962 - children's rooms of militia on a voluntary basis [57, page 34] became the following step. As of April, 1964 in the Penza region there were 200 children's rooms on a voluntary basis [38]. However, it should be noted that most of them stayed idle and existed formally. For example, in Leninsk regional police station 11 children's rooms on a voluntary basis were created, and worked only 1, in October RUM from created 10 was carried out by activity also only 1 room [39], and the others 9, according to militia reports, had no rooms and work, in fact, did not carry out [40]. At children's rooms of militia during this period public sections which were engaged in identification of the teenagers who were not working or not studying in educational institutions, their employment or the direction for study, in assistance to parents in education of children, the organization of personal patronage of difficult teenagers began to be created [57, page 34].

According to the order of the head of department of protection of public order No. 26 of January 15, 1964 for difficult teenagers personal patronage of employees of militia and an asset from the public was established [37]. In 1963-1964 in offices of criminal investigation department, road departments and city departments of militia special offices (groups) on fight against offenses of minors were formed, and in local bodies of militia special quick workers for minors are allocated [58, page 208].

In general activities of the Penza militia for fight against criminal manifestations among minors in the 1950th were successful. Some stabilization of level of children's crime in the second half of the 1950th demonstrates to it. However hasty and often rash reorganization in the law-enforcement sphere, obvious underestimating of value of fight against crime of minors, active implementation of the idea about involvement of the public to protection of law and order as alternatives to law enforcement agencies brought to

to decrease in efficiency of activities of militia for fight against criminal manifestations among children and teenagers that caused rapid growth of offenses among youth in the first half of the 1960th

In the system of measures of fight against crime the great value was given to prevention of penal acts and prevention of offenses what all law-enforcement system was guided by. In this regard in 1950 - the 1960th large-scale campaigns against alcoholism and moonshining, parasitism and a parasitic way of life began to be conducted.

In the period of "thaw" a wide scale was assumed by fight of the Penza militia against alcoholism which was the real reason of considerable number of offenses. Judicial practice demonstrated that over 90% of manifestations of hooliganism, 70% of murders, grievous bodily harm, rapes and more than 30% of thefts was committed by persons in alcohol intoxication [9, 13, 44].

Alcoholism became widespread among residents of the area. Promptly growing rates of sale of alcoholic drinks to the population, for example, demonstrated to it. So, according to the Penza regional Administration of commerce, only on city fund (26 cities of area) in 1950 146188 decalitres of vodka and alcoholic beverage products, in 1951 - 177392, in 1952 - 195335, in 1953 - 260102, in 1954 - 334239 [45] were realized.

Current situation demanded operational permission. Repeatedly the management of bodies of militia of the Penza region developed the actions directed to fight against alcoholism. For example, on August 21, 1955 in the report of the head of department of militia of Regional Office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Penza region to the chief of Head Department of militia of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR on the basis of instructions of GUM of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR No. 10/U-666 of June 25, 1955 it was offered to forbid, first, sale of alcoholic products in dining rooms and buffets, in public places during the mass festivities; secondly, to limit production of vodka for the purpose of its further realization to the population due to increase in production of red wines; thirdly to impose a ban on drinking of alcoholic drinks in public places (on streets, near shops, in squares, etc.) with granting the right of application of penalties to bodies of the Penza militia; fourthly, to establish administrative responsibility of employees of trade enterprises and organizations of public catering for sale of alcoholic drinks to minor teenagers and also drunk persons [46].

However consumption of alcohol did not decrease. So, in general on area in 1958 it was realized alcoholic drinks for 459 million rubles, and in 1959 - for 491 million rubles [13]. Increase in rates of sale of alcohol to the population of the area can be explained with interest of local authorities which saw in it a reliable source of replenishment of the budget.

Alcoholism was strongly included into everyday life of many residents of Penza and residents of the area. So, on December 17, 1959 at a meeting of the Plenum of the Penza regional committee of the CPSU it was noted that "in the evening shops turn into gas stations where citizens gather big groups, orderly break into the three, drink half-liters, then creep away on the city Penza) and create an outrage" [12], "in separate days, so-called patronal feast days, people the whole villages and crews till some days do not come to work, drink, allow many disorderly conduct" [9], "alcoholism so strongly became usual that some communists for worship of god Bakhus ask special time for these purposes" [10].

Detention of citizens, attraction them to administrative responsibility and the placement to the sobering-up station were the main methods of activities of the Penza militia for fight against alcoholism. For example, gorrayorgana of militia of area (without the city of Penza) in the first half of the year 1955 detained 1357 people, drunk for disorderly conduct, 827 of them were brought to administrative responsibility, 180 - are sent to police stations. For the same period in Penza 5974 persons were detained for violation of law and order, including 3318 were brought to administrative responsibility, 1500 - are placed in the sobering-up station, 756 - are sent to police stations [48, 49].

the important place in the system of measures of antialcoholic prevention was allocated by

During the studied period to fight against moonshining which in the territory of the Penza region, especially in rural areas, became widespread. So, on August 21, 1955 in the report of the head of department of militia of Regional Office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Penza region to the chief of Head Department of militia of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, it was said that "moonshining continues to take place in Pa-chelsky, Zemetchinsky and some other districts of the area" [48]. March 7, 1956 at a meeting of an asset of the party of bodies of the Penza militia was celebrated that in Pachelmsky district, for example, "the whole villages turned into the enterprises for development of moonshine. In the village of Deserts, moonshine is sold dairy flasks, exported to other areas" [50]. As a result the task to intensify fight against production and illegal sale of moonshine which criminals for obtaining bigger material benefit realized "in the apartments in pouring, with snack" [55] was set for staff of bodies of militia of the Penza region.

Moonshining was nutrient medium for commission of various offenses. The staff of the Penza militia during this period had to conduct active fight against the numerous facts of thefts necessary for production of moonshine of grain, bakery products, sugar beet and potatoes [55].

For activization of fight against moonshining by Presidium of the Supreme Council of RSFSR decrees "About measures of fight against moonshining were adopted

and production of other alcoholic drinks of house development" of January 29, 1960 [63] and "About strengthening of responsibility for moonshining and production of other alcoholic drinks of house development" of May 8, 1961 [65] V to the report of the chief of the Department of Internal Affairs of the Penza regional executive committee to the secretary of the Penza regional committee of the CPSU of June 19, 1961 were specified that these acts were studied and adopted by law enforcement agencies to steady execution [14]. As a result for July 1, 1961 the bodies of the Penza militia revealed 214 people who were engaged in moonshining, 2095.5 liters of moonshine are withdrawn, 990 liters of moonshine ferment, 83 moonshine stills, 48 people are brought to trial [15].

During the studied period, especially in the 1960th, in the system of measures for elimination of the reasons of crime the important place was allocated to a campaign for fight against parasitism and a parasitic way of life. May 4, 1961. The presidium of the Supreme Council of RSFSR adopted the decree "About Strengthening of Fight against the Persons Evading from Socially Useful Work and Leading an Antisocial Parasitic Life" [64]. In it it was noted that the Soviet able-bodied citizens evading from socially useful work and leading a parasitic life had to be exposed in the place of their residence to community sanctions from national teams, burlaw courts and the administrative commissions at executive committees of Councils of deputies of workers. The burlaw court or a meeting of citizens could be limited to prevention with establishment of term during which these persons had to be engaged in work. If they continued to lead a former life, the general meeting had the right to make the decision on their expulsion for a period of two up to five years with obligatory employment in the place of the reference. Obligations for identification of unemployed persons were assigned to the staff of the Penza militia. For example, in 1961 the bodies of militia of the Penza region revealed 692 parasites, including in rural areas 379. After prevention 482 persons found a job, 28 according to solutions of national vessels underwent eviction [61]. The considerable number of moved went for work in the Chaissky stone pit of Nicolo-Pestrovsky district [16].

All aforesaid allows to draw a conclusion that in the conditions of a difficult operational situation in the area in 1953-1964 characterized by growth of criminal crime, increase in number of especially dangerous crimes the task of activization of fight against criminal manifestations and improvement of work on their prevention was set for the Penza militia.

The main activities of bodies of militia of the Penza region, taking into account specifics of social and political and social and economic development of the Soviet society during Khruschev's transformations, were: fight against plunders of the state and public property in the field of trade, the industries, rural

farms and constructions, fight against speculation and falshivomonetchestvo. Law-enforcement structures paid special attention to improvement of work on fight against criminal manifestations among children and teenagers.

In the system of measures of fight against crime the great value was given to prevention of penal acts and prevention of offenses what all law-enforcement system including bodies of militia was guided by. In this regard in the late fifties - the 1960th large-scale campaigns for fight against alcoholism and moonshining, parasitism and a parasitic way of life began to be conducted.

In conclusion we will note that, despite existence of certain shortcomings of activity, the Penza militia it was succeeded to achieve high efficiency in suppression of criminal activity in the area in the years of Khruschev's transformations.

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29. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 368. L. 61.
30. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 394. L. 16.
31. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 438. L. 75 about
32. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 438. L. 76.
33. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 445. L. 7.
34. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 451. L. 33.
35. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 452. L. 97.
36. GAPO. T. Item 1152. Op. 1. 487. L. 16.
7. 3 GAPO. T. P. 1152. item. About 1. D. 6. 2. 9 4
8. 3 GAPO. T. P. 1152. Op. 1. D. 496. L. 17 about.
9. 3 GAPO. T. P. 1152. Op. 1. D. 9. 9 0. 3 5
0. 4 GAPO. T. P. 1152. Op. 1. D. b. about 4 0 0. 3 5
41 GAPO. T. P. 6. 0 3 2 Op. 1. D. 7. 3 2.
2. 4 GAPO. T. P. 2306. Op. 1. D. 9. L. 194.
3. 4 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 44. L. 1.
44. GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 64. L. 46 about.
5. 4 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 6 L. 5 About the lake
6. 4 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 64. NN. 51-51 about.
7. 4 GAPO. T. P. 7. 2 5 5 Op. 1. D. 3. 5 4. 6
8. 4 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. b. about 7 4 4. 6
9. 4 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 68. L. 137.
0. 5 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 76. L. 39.
51. GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 8. 2 - 4 2 l. 7. 7
2. 5 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 8. 2 7. 7
3. 5 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 88. L. 14.
4. 5 GAPO. T. P. 5527. Op. 1. D. 88. L. 22.
55. State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). F.R. 9401. Op. 2. 499. L. 83.
56. A.D. Gulyakov, N.B. Baranova, A.N. Kulichenko, Kola-masov V.N., I.Ya. Shakhnazarov. Guard the law and an order. Pages of history of the Penza militia. Penza: CCGT information and publishing center, 2003. 112 pages

57. Z.Ya. Indrikov, L.F. Litvinov. Activities of law enforcement agencies for eradication of homelessness and neglect, prevention and p?

Jose Campbell
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