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Category: History

Catherine II and I.I. Betskoy (1764-1767)



k to the 280 anniversary from Catherine II's dnyarozhdeniye

T.G. Frumenkova,

associate professor of the Russian history

I Catherine II of I.I. BETsKAYa (1764-1767) *

In I.I. Betsky and Catherine II's cooperation by the most fruitful there was a decade opening adoption of "Master plan" of the educational house of 1763. Within this period it is possible to distinguish two stages. The first of them proceeded till 1767, came to the end with acceptance of the second and third parts of the plan and differed in the active lawmaking connected with implementation of plans of I.I. Betsky. A number of private decrees of the empress of 1763-1766 was directed to increase in income educational doma1 and demonstrated support of his first child. Names of Catherine and her associate are not mentioned in some acts, in others I.I. Betskoy is only an addressee of orders, but participation both in their emergence was considerable.

In January, 1764 there was a decree of the Synod "About Admonition through Preachers the Prosty People to Mercy and Preservation of a Stomach of Not Guilty Babies". It was followed by mailing of the manifesto of Catherine and "Master plan". With reference to the Scripture the Synod confirmed the charitable nature of the educational house and declared to clergy that it suggests all sons of church to accept with gratitude "high-monarchical about neschastlivorozhdenny babies serdoboly" and to preach about it "not for ease to a sin, but for avoidance especial". The people to mercy were recommended to bishops "... to cover" and "strong to look" that their subordinates "under the guise of severity of performance of the God's law a skvernopribytchestva did not concern". Priests needed to christen, give the children thrown to temples "for a vskormleniye to honest. to people" and then to send to the educational house: "And still it was also more charitable if vsyak in the diocese it potshchatsya... for those to arrange a siropitatelnitsa how. late metropolitan Job. in Great Novegoroda arranged" 2. The decree was of great importance: contemporaries and historians considered clergy one of the main responsible for death of the children born out of marriage. Meanwhile the relation of many ecclesiastics to the organization of houses remained negative.

On March 6, 1766 the Senate issued the decree "About Keeping of Illegitimate Babies in the Kazan Province" establishing continuity of contempt of foundlings. It is curious that children in the decree are called "illegitimate" though "Master plan" entered into official use an epithet "neschastnorozhdenny". At the expense of provincial office continued to support "shameful babies" in almshouses of the Kazan province at this time. "Come to age" boys were sent to school, and girls were distributed "to civil people (obviously, in service — T. T) with a patch in treasury of money". In 1765 "cash. babies it is shown. 11 people". The same year under the decree of the Senate on their contents decided to release the sums from Board of economy. Having studied materials, the Senate ordered to release money for "cash" children, and then "remembered nowadays in Kazan. and from now on future babies of century educational house. to deliver" 3. Then here and there in Russia the contempt of orphans under Petrovsky resolutions continued, but, probably, in the few places, if concerning Kazan it was required to adopt the special decree.

The empress took active part and in practical work on the organization of the house. I.I. Betsky's report approved by Catherine was attached to the text of the plan sent to Moscow in September, 1763. According to it, professor of the Moscow university Yu became the first chief supervisor of the house. Growth. In the report it was also told about grant to the house of "stone materials" and "about return" under construction of its new building of the Vasilyevsky garden and "trade

Continuation. The beginning see: Frumenkova T.G. Catherine II and I.I. Betskoy (1762-1763)//Bulletin of the Gertsenovsky university. 2009. No. 4. Page 70.

ban". Approximately in the same days I.I. Betskoy informed the Moscow colleagues: the empress told him that the commander-in-chief of Moscow count P.S. Saltykov "about polza educational at home to try will not leave" 4. The assignees well-known to both the main trustee, and Catherine on whom probably he consulted were the first trustees in 1763. They were sent from St. Petersburg in Moskvu5. With mediation I.I. Catherine Betskogo appropriated to trustees the following ranks. At the beginning of 1765 she signed the decree on dismissal Yu. Growth and appointment of historian academician G.F. Miller as the chief supervisor of the house. In March, 1766 voluntarily and under the decree of the empress the historiographer was sent "to the Moscow archive of foreign affairs" 6. Prior to the beginning of the 1770th of the candidate of the chief supervisor and trustees were approved as Catherine or were agreed with her.

The empress until the end of days annually did the most considerable donations in favor of educational houses. According to the final sheet, Catherine welcomed 2,000,050 rub on educational houses 7 It induced to active charity of persons from the immediate environment. Under its influence many of them transferred to the house large sums, became his first trustees, and in 1763 even volunteered to accept the thrown children in capital usadbakh8.

Catherine and I.I. Betsky's joint legislative and legislative activity in 1764-1766 was devoted to common problems of education, creation of new teaching and educational institutions and reforming of already operating. On March 22, 1764 the empress approved I.I. Betsky's report "About education of youth of both sexes" which considerable part the author presented in the form of the oral orders and the Catherine's reflections which are written down by it.

The report claimed that Petrovsky reforms did not make success in education, and "Russia and could not make till this moment" people who "in other places the third rank or an average are called". In it it was said that "only one... the reason educated by sciences does not do still the kind and direct citizen; but more to the detriment happens if who from the most gentle youth is brought up years not in virtues". In such conditions the state cannot expect achievements in sciences and arts and emergence of "the third rank of people". "The root to all good and evil education" — after the empress declared to I.I. Betskaya. In pursuance of it "the indisputable rule" it was supposed "to make at first in the way of education, so to speak, new breed, or new fathers and mothers who to the children the same. education of the rule in heart could install what received", and so would occur from generation to generation. Difficulties of a task were realized by Catherine and I.I. Betsky: "To overcome superstition of centuries, to give to the people new education and, so to speak, new generation, there is a business sovokuplenny with improbable works, and the direct advantage of it remains all to posterity" 9.

"The general institution" assumed creation in Russia of educational schools for the work "in the way of education. new breed" people and emergence in the state of "the third rank" or estates. Catherine paid to its formation in the 1760th special attention. In April, 1766 she reported Mr. Zhoffren in the letter in which it was much told about cooperation with I.I. Betsky: "The average estate will exist if even it had to bear your name as you are convinced by experience that this estate — the happiest. It will be necessary to create it; this reason me will induce to work soon as I consider implementation it an indispensable debt of my dignity" 10.

Children had to be in the schools closed, isolated from the external environment from 5-6 to 18-20 years. To the educational house accepted newborns, and isolation from the outside world of orphans was much simpler to be carried out. Education of "new breed" and formation of people of "the third rank" became one of main goals of the house just also. "The interest of the empress in such way of expansion of social structure of society is only a part of wider plan — the French historian E. Karrer Д&Анкосс writes. — In 1764 when she unsuccessfully tries to unclench a slavery vice, in education distribution she sees a decisive factor of change of the social order which was in a full contradiction with spirit of the age of Enlightenment" 11.

"General establishment" opens a series of bills of the middle of the 1760th during which discussion the nature of the relations of I.I. Betsky with Catherine changes. In 1763-1764 I.I. Betskoy first of all the empress's reader. In the letter Mr. Zhoffren of November 6, 1764 she describes the daily routine. On weekdays after a lunch, Catherine reports, le vilain General (the disgusting general, so the empress, according to Mr. Zhoffren, called "the favourite general Betsky") is "to lecture me; it takes the book, and I the work. Our reading if it is not interrupted by packages of letters or other hindrances, lasts till five o'clock with a half". In the same letter she addresses the addressee with the following words: "You do not become angry so about the general whom you scold; he is really awfully busy, not only due

Stew, but also set of new institutions and projects. We call him children's shop. He manages the educational house, akademiyeyu arts and education of maidens" 12.

On October 16, 1765 Catherine coquettishly thanked Mr. Zhoffren for the presented table: "I will try that this beautiful table did not undergo a fate of other, put in my room and collapsing almost under weight of the things which are heated up on them... I will try to contain yours not filled up, but it is lost labor what I am convinced of (italics of the author of the letter. — T.F.): in several days and it will be filled up because the whole world tries about it, and before all the general. It will begin with what will put the book and magnifying glass; then the plan, some parcel of paper, envelopes, letters, at last, the stones processed or raw what will find underfoot on the street, and will terminate what will tell me: & #34; Ah, at you it is impossible to find also a corner, where to put что-нибудь"" 13.

On May 5, 1764 Catherine signed the decree "About Education of Noble Maidens in St. Petersburg" and the charter of educational society. Education and training of noblewomen had to have the class nature, but contents of this charter, as well as the charters of other educational institutions adopted later, had something in common with acts for the educational house. All of them were composed by I.I. Betsky, considered by board from confidants of the empress and agreed with it. All schools were closed, received joint management. Children were divided into several age, it was necessary to train them on abilities. The author of charters said that "the idleness is honored a source of all defects", assumed to excite in pupils, including noble girls, "hunting to diligence". Everywhere were not recommended to "severity" and corporal punishments of pupils and attendants were forbidden, "that the youth did not see a small example of severity".

The decree "About Education of Noble Maidens" expressed the need to bring up and train not only boys, but also girls. This situation with bigger definiteness will be opened in the third part of "Master plan". At last, the charter promised special protection sirotam14. So "General establishment" was for the first time used as a source of the pedagogical ideas. Creation of the Russia's first and Europe's second women's educational institution became result of their realization.

On November 4 same 1764 Catherine II signed "The charter of Imperial academy. arts. with school, educational at this academy". Also a lot of things united it with acts for creation of the educational house. Catherine's manifesto declared continuity of the traditions inherited from Elizabeth Petrovna and underlined the anti-serf nature of establishment. Graduates of school the empress favored with "descendants in eternal childbirth" freedom. Natives of all estates, except the serfs who do not have "from the misters of dismissal" could come to it. The charter of Academy for the first time included the reference to "especially composed physical notes" according to which in school it was necessary to found for children "any innocent entertainments, games and festivities" 15.

The same principles laid down also in the laws of 1765-1766 devoted cadet korpusu16. The new charter of the case approved by the empress on September 11, 1766 also was based on them. Its anti-serf character was shown that "not under any circumstances nobody in the case", as well as in all other educational institutions, was allowed to have serf servants. The charter was supplemented with "The reasonings serving as the management to new establishment of Shlyakhetsky military school". The author of reasonings is not called, but I.I. Betskoy was him obviously. The text is written from the first person, filled with references to foreign travel and also the data received from works of antique authors and compositions of educators.

The author in details argues on physical training of future officers which purpose has to be an appearance of the beautiful and strong disciplined people. He devotes a part of reflections to the system of punishments for cadets. I.I. Betskoy excludes a possibility of corporal punishments again and objects to pedantic observance of "unimportant rules", punishments "for any errors, jokes and imprudence", not considering age features of children which can install in them "hatred to obedience". "The Osoblivy note" to "Reasonings" returns the reader to the main idea Catherine II and I.I. Betsky of those of years: to aspiration "to get the third or average rank of the people". New methods of education of noblemen had to help it. Preparation not only competent officers, but also notable citizens, "skillful in political economy and in laws of the fatherland" 1 became a problem of the Shlyakhetsky case. Was considered that emergence of new breed of noblemen will promote formation of the third estate.

On November 16, 1766 Catherine signed the decree on distribution on "offices" of the country of "The short manual chosen from the best authors with some physical notes on education of children from the birth to youth". In the note to "Manual", vkpyu-

ceremonious in Complete collection of laws, it was reported that it was approved according to I.I. Betsky's official report owing to already adopted charters of Educational society of noble maidens, Academy of Arts and Overland shlyakhetsky korpusa18.

The first mention of "physical notes" as it was already noted, was included in the charter of Academy published in 1764. Their emergence, probably, was connected with the highest mortality of children in the Moscow educational house in the summer and fall of 1764, in the first months of their reception. On October 11, 1764 trustees made 16 questions, "the children concerning to a pitomstvo and about rescue of their life" to discuss them with "misters doctors". Doctors presented a written response. A half of the vital questions did not receive the answer, consultants left them to the discretion of "the doctor who watches the house" 19. Similar recommendations did not satisfy trustees and the main trustee. Then. I. Betskoy asked doctor R. Sankhes to make rules of physical training of children. When R. Sankhes's composition was sent to Russia, it is precisely unknown, but business under the heading "Offers how It Is Necessary to Raise and Bring Up the Found Children in Russia", is dated 1764. At the beginning of February, 1765 "it was transferred through the bill to France to... to doctor Sanshes for it for the educational house works three hundred Rublyov" 20.

In December, 1765 I.I. Betskoy wrote trustees: "My physical notes on a vskormleniye of children in tutorial council are already reported, I offer the translation from received from Paris from. Sanshe-sa of a reasoning on the same" 21. The original and the copy of the translation of documents enclosed to the letter. They open the composition which title almost completely coincides with the act of 1766: "Short manual. about physical training of children from their birth till the adolescence". "Offers" on feeding of "the found children" were the second part of the translation. "Physical notes" of I.I. Betskiy if they in general existed, are not found yet. Comparison of the printing text of "Short manual" which under Catherine's decree came to public institutions with the hand-written translation of work of R. Sankhes confirms that in a basis of the rules which became the law the composition of the famous doctor was necessary.

I.I. Betskoy changed composition of sections of "Short manual" and rearranged some articles. Separate formulations are processed, several articles are added. So, Article 90 ordered not to punish children for the bruises and grazes got during the games that had to save them "from many troubles and diseases". According to her author, examples showed that children, being afraid of punishment, could hide the injuries "sometimes to incurability" 22. At last, R. Sankhes stated rules of physical training of children "till the adolescence", and the published "Short manual" — "to youth". Additional articles about features of physical training of teenagers from 12 to 15-16 years were prepared, apparently, by I.I. Betskoy. However, in them he refers to R. Sankhes recommending to use the Russian baths in the improving purposes "for children of the educational house" again. So, "Short manual" the emergence is obliged to problems of the educational house. Among institutions which had to apply new rules the house did not appear. In 1767 a number of their provisions will enter the third part of "Master plan" of the house.

In the second half of the 1760th — in 1766 or in 1767 — I.I. Betskoy, most likely, visited a holiday for granitsey23. In "The draft of the decree to the Senate with autographic additions of Catherine II about Betskogo's dismissal abroad", dated 1766, the empress reported that "Betskoy is released for treatment to foreign lands to waters" and gave orders about a temporary order of management of institutions subordinated to it. It was said about the educational house: "Though in the Moscow educational house the successor to it according to the plan will enter a position, however to tutorial council of correspondence with it to repair and councils it is polzovatsyamonut" 4. Documents demonstrate that from March to December, 1767 I.I. Betskoy with tutorial council not perepisyvalsya25. That stay abroad fell on time of a statement of the second and third parts of "Master plan", tells also one of notes to its text. During the travel I.I. Betskoy promised to use all forces that "to snabdevat this house people worthy" for the organization at it "manufactories, factories, to arts and craft concerning" 26. However, the question of I.I. Betskogo's holiday in 1766-1767 needs a further research.

The second and third parts of the plan were still called "The master plan Moscow vospitatelnogodlya prinosny a mladentsevdoma" and were signed by Catherine II on August 11, 1767. The law opened I.I. Betsky's letter to members of tutorial council. According to him which was divided also by the empress, trustees needed special stimulation. The author of the letter paid attention that new establishment already became "the eternal sign. gosudarstvovaniye" Catherine. "It is necessary only — he wrote — 1 that charters and legalizations in everything were most precisely executed; 2, the nobility as in the subsequent time to make the privileges given to this house in action". The author indirectly recognized insufficiency of a legislative framework of activity of the house and on command of the empress added the plan. Its second part, according to I.I. Betsko-'s explanations

go, states that, "to what chiefs of this house and in which way of legalization are precisely executed are obliged can be". In the third part positions reveal "(here: duties. — T. T) subordinates and a way of the education similar to intention with which this establishment followed". Addressing trustees, I.I. Betskoy referred to Catherine's authority more than once and urged subordinates to start with "jealousy" of knowledge of the new law in which its true intentions were stated. Emergence of the concretized sections of the plan was gained for years of formation of the educational house.

by convention is followed Further by the report of the "notable persons" who approved the bill. The text is preceded by I.I. Betsky's report turned to Catherine. The author calls "indulgence "to babies, from people brutally outcast" the highest virtue of the monarch. Experiments of similar blessing were also shown by the empress, having signed the laws put in foundation of the house. "But this is not enough — I.I. Betskoy continued. — You hoshcht your imperial majesty that the most beautiful still connected to graceful mind heart: because the quality of reason does not occupy the first degree in advantages human, decorates it, but is not". The subject of the manuals received from the empress and been the basis for additions to the plan was it, in his statement. According to I.I. Betsky, Catherine not only studied the text, but also with own hand corrected it. Old court finished the report with a refined compliment in its address: "Peter the Great created people in Russia: Your Majesty you vlagat in them soul".

Chapter 1 of the second part got the name "About a Position of Tutorial Council" and reminded it to members that "over all educational house the board is entrusted to them". Trustees needed to act "by right natural and to philanthrophy", to recognize itself as "fathers of many thousands of children" and to take care of their kind education. Chapter 2 regulated meetings of tutorial council. The third was devoted to administrators of the house in whom legislators wanted to see perfect people of an era of the European Education.

The third part of "Master plan" is a quintessence of the pedagogical views of I.I. Betsky divided by Catherine. It was addressed to teachers and "pristavnik" when before employees of the house to the utmost there were problems of training and education.

In the section "About Keeping of Children" the recommendations of "physical notes" on food, clothes, beds and a dream, rules of hygiene and major activities of juvenile children briefly repeated and developed. I.I. Betskoy polemized with traditional sneering attitude to a game and again representation according to which it was required that kids "were silent, constant and judicious".

The grown-up pets under the law needed to give the primary education expanded with several objects. I.I. Betskoy burst in the whole tirade against scholastic methods of training of children. Education had to have practical character. For example, pupils needed to be able to consider how many "it is necessary for a menovshchik" and especially to have skills of maintaining prikhodo-expenses books "on an italiansky ceremony".

In polemic style the legislator also answered whether it is necessary to teach in the educational house girls to the same, as boys a question. In sublime and touching expressions he reminded all readers of the plan that "for the first leadership rendered to us as he on light sends, for first aid and saving, for the first livelihood, for the first manuals and for the first friendship which in the life we use" all are obliged "to one female. But we, the person, tshcheslavitsya so by superiority in the fortress of the forces, are so proud, and are thus so stubborn and illegal, as in acquisition of manuals, to education of reason of required, we interfere with such floor to which we... for everything are lent".

Served as the main educational tool as repeatedly emphasized with I.I. Betska, kind examples. The mentors having "virtue, sobriety, fortress, indulgence and love" had to become a role model. All teachers, supervisors and "pristavnik" needed to have own family. Was recognized as useful that both spouses served in the house. The legislator considered that married women or widows show "more art of tenderness and a condolence" at education of children, and married men work "ispravny more diligently".

Manual of pets had to have also evident character. Over doors of all rooms of the house the main trustee suggested to write in capital letters "the general rules of a moral:

1. Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself.
2. Arrive sdrugy as you want that treated you.

And in halls on a wall which is more visible other, also capital letters:

1. Do not do the evil and do not annoy anybody.
2. Do not harm any animal and do not embitter it.
3. Do not lie.
4. Never be prazden".

Teachers needed to explain to pets these rules.

Included in structure of the third part of the plan of I.I. Betskaya "Experience about a way of the composition... the short moralizing book for pets". The author admitted that he "ventures much", intending to show to "the skillful author" under whom Catherine, the modest work stating those moral concepts by which the pet of the house from 8-9 to 14-15 years has to be guided it seems meant. Children, first of all, needed to have an idea of God, the sovereign and "vysokomaterny contempt" of the ruling empress. They were recommended to inspire that the state, society and each citizen are obliged to help "to the friends, fellow citizens and overseas" in case of natural disasters. It was offered to participate also in "wellbeing" of neighbors and foreigners, under laws of the country to render them blessings. Told earlier the author stated in the form of questions and answers. A question of how it is possible to render blessing, he answered: "1. Strannopriimstvom, 2. Peacefulness, 3. Patience, 4. Continuous works and the experience gained from it". Further it was necessary to answer questions of children of in what each of blessings consists. Pets needed to inspire also rules of justice, respect for property, to remind that at ancient "civil laws consisted in these three: not to lie, not to be to a prazdn, not to be due".

Returning to manuals for heads of teachers, I.I. Betskoy addressed also a problem of punishments. He warned that to introduce the new principles of punishment will be difficult. In the house the people who are brought up in patriarchal tradition "under strict punishment and blows painful" worked and it is especially difficult for them to treat children tenderly and "without severity". Heads need to watch carefully that wet nurses, nurses, "pristavnik" and teachers did not manage with pets as they were treated by their tutors. If since childhood to manage with children by the offered principles, then punishments will be rare, the author considered. It was recommended "to enter once forever into this house the motionless law and strictly never to approve, and never to beat children because not blows horrify, but the fear is multiplied in them from a rarity of punishments that there is the most valid means to their correction".

Instead, as I.I. Betskaya's punishment suggested, first, to force children to stand on one place, without leaning on anything, hour or two; secondly, not to let them go together with others; thirdly to do a reprimand alone, inducing guilty to repentance; fourthly, to transfer to bread and water for 12 or 24 hours that it seemed to it feasible for children of 5-10 years; fifthly, to force them to fast, that is to deprive of a breakfast, sometimes — a lunch, but never to take away a dinner.

Finished the third part of the plan of a reasoning on that rank for which trained pets. The law included reflections about social composition of the Russian society. Simply representing its structure, I.I. Betskoy claimed that in the state only two "ranks" were approved by then: noblemen and serfs. On the privilege given by the empress, pupils and their descendants kept "liberty", so, made "the third rank in the state". It was represented to it that the pets who received vocational training easily could find to themselves livelihood in community of merchants, artists, dealers and manufacturers. From orphans were going to train people of "the third rank", but the overall objective of education consisted in "the work by new people" therefore it was necessary to reveal the children endowed with "acute mind and excellent concepts" capable to arts, "other than that rank at all" to which they were appointed. Teachers should have developed their abilities that "to make also excellent people on superiority of reason them and quality" 27.

So, in the educational house Catherine and I.I. Betskoy assumed to raise pets "healthy, strong, vigorous, capable to serve the fatherland as arts and craft". It was necessary to achieve the objective first of all the correct physical and moral training on the basis of "the constant law which not under any circumstances not to violate".

1. PSZ. T. 16. No. 11922, No. 11963, No. 12120.
2. In the same place. No. 12033.
3. In the same place. T. 17. No. 12591.
4. CIAM. T. 127. Op. 1. 1. L. 2-2ob.; RGIA. T. 759. Op. 10. 332. L. 36.
5. RGIA. T. 759. Op. 10. 355. L. 5.
6. RGIA. T. 759. Op. 10. 334. L. 14; 335. L. 187.
7. In the same place. T. 758. Op. 26. 370. L. 1-2ob.
8. See in more detail: T.G. Frumenkova. Educational houses and the beginning of secular charity and public contempt in Russia in Catherine II's reign//Charity in Russia. Historical and social and economic researches. SPb., 2003. Page 273-274.
9. PSZ. T. 16. No. 12103.
10. Letters of the empress Catherine II to Mrs. Zhoffren. Soobshch. A.F. Gamburger//Sb. RIO. T. 1. M, 1867. Page 285.
11. КаррерД&АнкоссЭ. Catherine II. Gold vekv history of Russia. M, 2006. Page 231.
12. Sb. RIO. T. 1. M, 1867. Page 261-263.
13. In the same place. Page 278-279.
14. PSZ. T. 16. No. 12154.
15. In the same place. No. 12275.
16. In the same place. T. 17. No. 12481, No. 12670.
17. In the same place. No. 12741.
18. In the same place. No. 12785.
19. RGIA. T. 759. Op. 10. 356. L. 38ob. - 39ob., 50ob. - 51ob.
20. In the same place. 334. L. 70ob.
21. In the same place. 335. L. 1.
22. PSZ. T. 17. No. 12785.
23. I.I. Betsky's petition//Russian archive. 1866. No. 11-12. Stlbts. 1568-1569; Sb. RIO. T. 10. SPb., 1872. Page 158.
24. Sb. RIO. T. 10. SPb., 1872. Page 159. By italics in the project the words written by Catherine are selected.
25. RGIA. T. 759. Op. 10. 359. L. 12; 336. L. 10, 126; 360. L. 1.
26. PSZ. T. 18. No. 12957.
27. In the same place. Italics of publishers of PSZ.
David King
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