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Top trends of addition of the independent states near the Pyrenees in the 10-12th centuries and feature of formation of a sculptural decor of Romance temples. Regional aspect



s. V. Sorokina

TOP TRENDS of ADDITION of the INDEPENDENT STATES near the PYRENEES In X-X11 CENTURIES AND FEATURE of FORMATION of the SCULPTURAL DECOR of ROMANCE TEMPLES.

REGIONAL ASPECT

Work is presented by department of foreign art of the St. Petersburg state academic institute of painting, a sculpture and architecture of I.E. Repin.

The research supervisor - the candidate of art criticism, professor A.V. Stepanov

In article the historical and political situation which developed in the territory of the Pyrenees in X1-X11 of centuries which resulted in church unity in the region, formation of the uniform principles of a dekorirovka of temples and extraordinary blossoming of a Romance sculpture is analyzed.

S. Sorokina

MAIN TENDENCIES OF INDEPENDENT STATES’ ESTABLISHMENT IN THE PYRENEES IN THE 10-12TH CENTURIES AND FORMING OF SCULPTURAL DÉCOR OF ROMAN CHURCHES: REGIONAL ASPECT

The author of the paper analyses the historical and political situation in the Pyrenees in the 10-12th centuries, which resulted in the ecclesiastical unity in the region, forming of unified principles of church décor and extraordinary prosperity of Roman sculpture.

The Pyrenean ridge today is a natural border between modern France and Spain. Now by consideration of monuments of the region of the Pyrenees by tradition adhere to the existing modern borders, including provinces of these countries. However it is difficult to systematize a sculptural decor of Romance temples of this region on local schools, leaning on modern borders because here various styles and influences merged, having created unique space. If to analyze formation of borders of these provinces in H-HP of centuries and political events happening on this territory, then it is possible to see on what basis the monuments of the region of the Pyrenees should be considered entirely, out of the existing borders of the modern states or national schools.

In X1-X11 of centuries, time of distribution of Romance style for territories which is on both sides of the Pyrenean ridge there was an exclusive political and social situation which served as an impulse for extraordinary blossoming of church art, and in particular a monumental sculpture.

The small sovereign states Navarre and Aragon and also the numerous Catalan counties, the Provinces of Bearn and Ariège which are on this earth and traditionally being a part of the Franksky kingdom had the specific features and cultural traditions which to some extent were expressed in art. Steady political alliances strengthened them vzaimo-

the relations, and the mutual aspiration of these countries to restore Christian values on all Iberian peninsula, including Reconquista, helped to pave the way to church reforms. Control over mountain passes gave the special importance, economic stability and the international recognition to the northwest Spanish states. Here the pilgrim ways from the whole Europe conducting in Santiago de Compostela in this connection in this region multinational art traditions became widespread met. It was also promoted by revival of archiepiscopal department in Tarragona and creation of the uniform state "Crown of Aragon" thanks to dynastic association of Aragon and Catalan counties in 1137. By the end of the 12th century it is the kingdom became the most powerful Christian state in the territory of the Iberian peninsula. If its structure nominally also did not include the lands which were traditionally belonging to the French kings, such as Bearn, Ariège or Provence, the governor of "the Crown of Aragon" was officially recognized their sovereign [2, river 12-57].

It looks especially surprising, in view of the fact that more than a century ago position of the countries which created the new kingdom was very vulnerable. Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia only at the end of the X century began to find the status of the independent states, process went slowly in view of various circumstances.

Since 711 g practically all Iberian peninsula was won by Arabs,

from the vestgotsky states practically nothing remained. Only at the beginning of the 9th century Charles the Great won east slopes of the Pyrenees and an insignificant part of the coast of the Mediterranean Sea where the Spanish Brand was formed. Though Muslims periodically also made attacks deep into of the continent, nevertheless the northern part of the massif managed to be kept in structure of the kingdom of francs. In the west of the Pyrenees which are under the power of Arabs thanks to efforts Spanish-vestgotskikh leaders at the beginning of the 9th century there was a small County of Aragon which was recognized by Charles the Great and got his support therefore at the beginning politically it was focused on contacts with the franksky kingdom [1, river 23-26].

The newly proclaimed Christian state at once attracted a huge number of Christians both from the franksky party, and from the territories occupied by Arabs. New monasteries of Aragon accepted with enthusiasm of reform, passing on that side of mountains, on the French earth. In many respects thanks to new monastic rules the revival of spiritual traditions which, appear, were lost so far began the territory remained in the power of Muslims. It is known that Moors did not interfere with Christians to profess the belief thanks to what there were communities of Arabic-speaking Christians, so-called Moscow Arabs who had the temples and the type of a church service [2, river 9-16].

The idea of reconquest of the former Christian lands - Reconquista by 11th century was finally issued and began to be realized. It was promoted by the dynastic alliance of counts of Aragon and kings of Navarre concluded in 1076 when Sancho Ramirez (1062-1094) proclaimed himself "the king By the grace of God Pamplona and Aragonese", united both states, and gave them under protection of the Pope, having signed with it in 1089 the vassal agreement.

By this time across all territory of Aragon and Navarre there was already a continuous flow of merchants and pilgrims. Aragon became the intersection trade and pilgrim pu-

Tay. The special status was received Ha by the new city which in 1077 was granted "the charter of freedoms" and where stamping of silver coins was founded. Naturally, the first city of Christian Aragon became the church center, the episcopal department from Ueski who is still occupied by Arabs was translated here and the synod in 1063 is carried out. Across all territory of Aragon in monasteries the Roman liturgy which replaced the Moscow Arab, carrying-on vestgotsky traditions was accepted. Abbeys of San Juan de la Peña and San Salvador de Leyra which were under special protection of kings of Aragon and Navarre some of the first adopted the Saint Benedict's rules widespread on the European monasteries from 6th century and it promoted the adoption of the Benedictine monastic charter throughout the territory. Economic prosperity and church revival was, in turn, an incitement for growth of church art.

However Reconquista during Sancho Ramirez's government did not enter the main phase yet and only Alfonso I (1104-1134) will be possible to fix positions of Aragon, to crush the Zaragoza caliphate and to establish borders with Valencia, Castile and Catalonia. Alphonso Zavoyevatel will expand borders of the kingdom by 6 times, but as Muslims were expelled from the prospering lands, people were necessary for the king for settling and protection of the won territories. For this purpose he invited inhabitants not only Old Aragon, east counties, Gascony and Castile, but also Christians from Granada. Gospitalyerov and Tampliyerov received military monastic orders in possession of the earth and locks on very favorable conditions [7, river 225-264].

Unlike Aragon, borders of Old Catalonia were defined in the 9th century, they were rather stable and only occasionally were exposed to attacks of Muslims. However Catalans did not perceive themselves the uniform people, being under strong influence of France, and only language was the general for most of residents of these lands. Aragontsa, in turn, thanks to continuous wars with Muslims, early found most

identification, having acting through the king of the defender of the nation.

The territory of the Spanish Brand which in the 9-10th centuries occupied east part of the Pyrenees and the coast of the Mediterranean adjoining them within the 11th century broke up to a set of counties. Their governors nominally had to submit to the franksky king, but in fact the situation was complicated by continuous threat from Moors that granted to columns the right to make decisions independently. Catalan columns called a truce with the Cordoba caliphate which actually cancelled historical dependence of the Spanish brand on the franksky kingdom. By the end of the 10th century the increasing influence on policy and culture began to render newly created monasteries, such as Saint-Michel de Couxa, Ripoll and Vick [6, river 727-732]. Bishops and abbots who most often were relatives of counts initiated contacts with Rome. The reforms of a Benedictine award which were taking place in the territory of France and Italy concerned most abbeys of Konflent, Vallespir and Bezalu, and the privileges given to monasteries by dad ensured their safety and served as an incentive for blossoming of church culture. Kuksa, Vick and Ripoll became the main centers of dissemination of knowledge in the region, in their libraries not only Christian texts were stored and rewritten, but thanks to close ties with Cordoba of storage were replenished also with the Arab manuscripts [4, river 189-191]. The peace was for the first time committed breach of in 895 g by Al-Mansour's invasion, the French did not send the help therefore Barcelona had to defend independently. The new attacks not only were beaten off, but also turned back approach from the Barcelonian counts, having come to the end with a campaign to Cordoba in 1010

In the second half of the 11th century the count of Barcelona Ramón Berengar I (1035-1076) could subordinate himself counts of adjacent lands, having made them swear fidelity, than laid the foundation for independence of Catalonia, having forced to render tribute of governors of Lérida, Tortosa and Zaragoza. However only at Ramón Berengar III

(1096-1131) dynastic positions of the Barcelonian counts became stronger finally. The Pyrenees were not for it a barrier because he inherited a syuzerenstvo over Carcassonne, and having married Dols Provanskaya, received a title of count Provencal. Thus, its possession stretched from Nice to Ariège, and through the ports of Barcelona and Tarragona the communication with Italy and the Holy Land was carried out.

The policy of both states on the eve of association, being fed with Reconkista's ideas, it was directed to expansion of borders to the South. The international participation in Reconkista extraordinary increased to the middle of the 12th century after the Pope granted it the status of a crusade with all that it implies from here privileges for its participants. Many Europeans received lands in the won territories on very favorable conditions. The betrothal in 1137 of the successor of Aragon Petronilla and the count Barcelonian Ramón Berengar IV united the earth of two most influential Christian states. Though marriage also came into force only in 1150, Ramón Berengar, having secured with this union, established the world on borders with Castile and began new aggressive campaigns as a result of which to the new state were attached Tortosa (1148) and Lérida (1149). Final merge came to the end in 1162 with the ascension on Alfonso II (1162-1196) throne which united not only three earlier independent countries occupying the territory of all massif, but also border French provinces, such as Provence and Ariège. The historical dependence of the last on France weakened, and the Catalan and Aragonese governors got a greater influence [2, river 31-47].

During Ramón Berengar IV's government dad Anastasius IV in 1154 restored archiepiscopal department in Tarragona therefore diotseza of Girona, Urzhelya, Barcelona, Lérida, Tortosa, Ueski recognized supremacy of Tarragona, reviving the early Christian church province Ta-raskonensis destroyed by Muslims. The bishop of Pamplona, despite more than an hour -

ty contacts with the French clergymen, nevertheless submitted to the archbishop of Tarragona as Navarre by the time of association was divided between Aragon and Castile. After accession in 1172. Alphonse II Russilyona to Catalan dioceses added Eln. On cathedrals 1154 and 1173 of in Lérida the churches of Aragon and Catalonia were considered as a unit [2, river 46]. The ideas of return to spirituality of early church and updating of all church way proclaimed dad Grigory VII (1073-1085) could not only extend freely across all this territory now, but also really led to revival of religious life [3, river 37-67]. Before reform was accepted, bishops were usually elected from descendants of notable families and were actively involved in a political and social life. Grigory's appeals VII to updating churches by eradication of purchase and sale of church positions (simony) led church to clarification from a set of the local traditions preventing the centralized management from Rome. The Gregorian reform was accepted by monasteries gradually, and only to the middle of the 12th century, thanks to activity of cluniac congregation and creation of the new kingdom, was recognized everywhere. Church revival was expressed as well in transition to the "Roman-French-German" liturgy [8, river 94] which replaced Moscow Arab, still used in churches on recently won territories. The happening processes affected also the sphere of monastic art. New more strict rituals introduced radical changes in the iconographic program of portals, klyuatr and internally -

go furniture of temples which was closely connected with a pilgrimage to a tomb of the Saint Jacob Kompostelsky declared the patron of all Western Europe and Reconkista's boss now. The number of pilgrims increased every year. For their needs new temples and shelters because the roads passing across the territory of one state and protected by uniform laws became safer began to be under construction. Donations flowed the river, and, as a result, an opportunity to invite for construction and decoration of churches of the best masters from the whole Europe increased. For example, "master Kabestani", the outstanding sculptor of the end of the 12th century whose works meet not only throughout "the Crown of Aragon" from Catalonia to Navarre, but also on the French lands at that time submitting to governors of the new kingdom.

Generalizing the historic facts given here, it is possible to draw a conclusion that blossoming of art in the 11th and 12th centuries in the spiritual centers in the north of the Iberian peninsula is directly connected with changes of a political situation. Earlier the set of monasteries and parish churches were cut off from other Europe because of the continuing military operations and differences in liturgical practice. Thanks to support of governors of the region the centralized Christian space in the north of the Iberian peninsula was restored. Expansion of territories, economic prosperity, establishment of the all-European church rules and also the increased communication between the Spanish and French provinces became those factors which helped to pave the way to new ideals and artistic discoveries.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Angel Canellas Lopez, Angel San Vicente. Rutas romanicas en Aragon. Madrid, 1996. 273 p.
2. Bisson Tomas N. The Medieval Crown of Aragon. A short history. Clarendon Press. Oxford, 1986. 220 p.
3. Constable Giles. Renewal and Reform in Religious Life: Concept and Realities//Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Ed. Benson and Constable, Harward University Press. Cambridge Massachusetts, 1982.781 p.
4. Klein Peter. The Romanesque in Catalonia//The Art of Medieval Spain A. D. 500-1200. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, 1993. 358 p.
5. Lojendio Luis M. Rutas romanicas en Navarra. Madrid, 1995. 231 p.
6. Riu Manuel. Des compes francs pyreneens a la Pre-Catalogne//Le paysage monumental de la France autour de l’an Mil. Sous la direction de Xavier Barral i Altet. Picard, Paris, 1987. 797 p.
7. Stalls Clay. Possessing the Land: Aragon’s Expansion into Islam’s Ebro Frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995. 337 p.
8. Waddell Chrysogonus. The Reform of the Liturgy from a Renaissance Perspective//Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Ed. Benson and Constable, Harward University Press. Cambridge Massachusetts, 1982.781 p.

REFERENCES

1. Angel Canellas Lopez, Angel San Vicente. Rutas romanicas en Aragon. Madrid, 1996. 273 p.
2. Bisson Tomas N. The Medieval Crown of Aragon. A short history. Clarendon Press. Oxford, 1986. 220 p.
3. Constable Giles. Renewal and Reform in Religious Life: Concept and Realities//Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Ed. Benson and Constable, Harward University Press. Cambridge Massachusetts, 1982.781 p.
4. Klein Peter. The Romanesque in Catalonia//The Art of Medieval Spain A. D. 500-1200. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, 1993. 358 p.
5. Lojendio Luis M. Rutas romanicas en Navarra. Madrid, 1995. 231 p.
6. Riu Manuel. Des compes francs pyreneens a la Pre-Catalogne//Le paysage monumental de la France autour de l’an Mil. Sous la direction de Xavier Barral i Altet. Picard, Paris, 1987. 797 p.
7. Stalls Clay. Possessing the Land: Aragon’s Expansion into Islam’s Ebro Frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995. 337 p.
8. Waddell Chrysogonus. The Reform of the Liturgy from a Renaissance Perspective//Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Ed. Benson and Constable, Harward University Press. Cambridge Massachusetts, 1982.781 p.
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