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Category: History

Historians Pushkin and Sukhorukov



ISTORIYA of the PEOPLE of DON AND NORTH CAUCASUS

© 2003 of JI.H. Dod

HISTORIANS PUSHKIN And SUHORUKOV

Pushkin was sent us From above for creation of "the solar center of our history" (I. Ilyin). However in the art chronicle of Russia with the ironical name "History of the Village of Goryukhina" the author together with the goryukhinsky chronicler was perplexed: "But what story I could write where multierudite conscientious men would not warn me? What sort of history is not exhausted already by them?. "Philosophic tables" which allowed the poet-historian "to be sudiyeyu, the observer and the prophet of centuries and the people became" A peculiar embodiment of a plan of writing "of such history"":

Over time (on a raschislenye of Philosophic tables,

In about five hundred Letgod Roads, truly,

At us will change immensely...

(Eugene Onegin, 7 chapter, XXXIII)

We will notice, in the draft well-known oneginsky stanza there were different versions of tables: Comparative Dupen, polystatic, geosgatichesky. But Pushkin chose as "philosophic", apparently, not without influence of the book of Voltaire "Tableau philosophique.", which was available in its library (No. 1495 according to B.L. Modza-levsky's catalog). Let's highlight a thought of prophetical calling of the poet. "I believe in prophecies of poets", - his hero recht a thought of the author of "Boris Godunov". And again the saving and invocatory voice of Pushkin is heard to us: That day of destiny inevitable,

Long ago foreseen rose,

Russia! Rise and tower.

Thus, it is possible to assume carefully that the historian Pushkin approached philosophical judgment of history [1]. It was preceded and accompanied by a peculiar art cognition and judgment of historical process and its driving forces first of all in such works as "Boris Godunov" (1825), "Pyotr's History" (1827), Poltava (1828), "The history of the village of Goryukhina" (1830), Yezerskiy (1832), "History of the Pugachev's rebellion" (1833) ("my first historical experience", by Pushkin's recognition). Such judgment was shown also in some of its poems, for example, "To the grandee" ("and you see a turn in everything circular"), "Movement" ("there is no movement, told the wise man bradaty"), in "philosophic and prophetical disputes" with Chaadayev, N. Polev on "other formula for Russia", Gogol about "indissoluble history of mankind, similar to rings in a chain". Right there voznika-

Light memory of N.S. Korshikov, the Don historian and the local historian, I devote

et the associative picture with "a cat the scientist going on a chain a circle". Interesting fact: in draft version of a prolog "the Curved seashore" had "a cat scientific, not similar with one cat". Here to you and the philosophical fairy tale told by a strange cat. At Chaadayev in the sixth "The philosophic letter" Pushkin could not but not - to turn on a remark: "... the reason of a century demands absolutely new philosophy of history and understanding of the general law managing the movement of centuries". Pushkin tried to publish this letter in 1831 (the fact remarkable in the context of further discussion).

The historical mission of the Don historian V.D. Su-horukov was difficult. The problem of the choice of "the sort of history which is not exhausted by men of science", did not face it. Though in 1814 - 1816 the director of schools A.G. Popov published "A story about the Don army" which, according to a fair remark of Sukhorukov, "does not give us the slightest idea neither about these people, nor about its area". This book was available in Pushkin's library (No. 305 according to B.L. Modzalevsky's description). In the review [2] on "History..." Fairly marked out Sukhorukoye Bronevsky: "... History of Cossacks has absolutely other color". We find brilliant reflection of this "color" at our Don historian in his essay [3] in which the portrait, dazzling on beauty and a subtlety of observations, Cossack female is drawn: Whether "You want to learn exterior of our women? Present beauties of magnificent Asia, the lines of Circassians, Turkish women, Tatars, Russians mixed together, and then receive the general concept about beauty of inhabitants of Don; the ardent black eyes, cheeks full of fresh life, the greatest neatness and purity in clothes make the property of our girls" [3]. Let's remind, this work of Sukhorukov printed in "The Russian old times" for 1825, Pushkin asked to send the brother to a mikhaylovsky imprisonment.

In November, 1822 the two-hour conversation with N.M. Karamzin at which historians discussed issues of the Cossacks and further plans took place. The main disagreements were shown in questions of origin of Cossacks, their participation in people's movements. And nevertheless this meeting was sign. Sukhorukoye with assistants A. Kushnarev, M. Kucherov, V. Postnov adequately coped with an objective: made "The historical and statistical description of the earth of Army of Donskoy" [4]. "Important work — on from -

to Pushkin's zyv, - not only for Russia, but also for everything ученого&света". So Jvysokaya assessment. Pushkin of work of the Don historians it is not accidental. In the Cossacks, in "villages republics", he expected many lines of the future changes in Russia, having embodied them in a metaphorical formula "to a vfitma there Russia repeated". Truly you poverut in "prophecies of poets", observing modern Russia and Don. And Pushkin's interest in the Cossacks is known [5] and was shown on the first trip to the Caucasus with Rayevskimi. "I will sometime read to you my remarks on the Black Sea and Don Cossacks - now I will not tell about them words", - Pushkin wrote the brother in 1820 after return from the Caucasus. It is possible that materials on) to the Cossacks. with Pushkin's "remarks" will be found in one of private storages on Dona. Gleams of such hope already appeared. It is no wonder that "the similarity of classes" of the poet Pushkin and the Don historian Sukho-rukov so brought together them in June, 1829 in the Caucasus, as was imprinted by Pushkin on "A travel • in Arzrum", printed in the April issue of "Contemporary" for 1836. The ticket for obtaining the magazine and also the letter of March 14, 1836 Pushkin transmitted through F. Shumkov, "the lovely young man from whom quite often receives news" about Sukhorukov [6]. This letter found the disgraced Don historian in the Caucasus where he was seconded to the Don regiment in August, 1834

Any new document shedding light on history of the relations of Pushkin and Sukhorukov has to attract certain interest of historians, Pushkin scholars, biographers. We found curious data from Sukhorukov's life in his notebook. Its original for researches was kindly provided by the historian and the local historian from Novocherkassk L.A. Novak. Submits the document having sewed from five remained leaves (the sixth is pulled out) with Sukhorukov's records by nut ink and partially a pencil. It is dated us October - November, 1831 - the last months of stay of Sukhorukov on service in Finland, in Abo (nowadays Turku). The analysis of handwriting, an atributirovaniye, personification were carried out together with the Don historian N.S. Korshikov. His fluent and attentive view of the leaflets which turned yellow from time and the instant conclusion, undisguised for nervousness, is remembered: "Handwriting, characteristic writing of letters, a manner of statement of Sukhorukov", it is possible to date 1831, service in Finland and a returnable way on Don. For confidence it is comparable with one its manuscript [7]. You will finish the rest itself". Here style of the true professional historian and teacher. In February, 2001 we discussed materials of this article, and on the third of April Nikolay Semyonovich did not become. He was the connoisseur of the Don old times, the true patriot of Don, the sensitive teacher and the mentor who brought up not one generation of historians at the Rostov state university [8]. Completion of this work, the interest of experts, will be a thanksgiving tribute of his light memory.

From marks in the notebook we learn about plans of trips of Sukhorukov to Cherkassk since December 11, 1831, - St. Petersburg on November 19-20, Moscow - not later than November 26. The sequence of the cities sokhranena1 on a sshiva, dates of their visit are determined also to lt; us. On обороте&3-го a leaf the mark is made ink: "In і Sailor's Almshouses", connected with visit of Kronstadt; immediately pencil marks of expenses on coachmen and vodka it on the road from Moscow to Novocherkassk. For example, to Tula - 26 rub, on vodka - 2.20, to Yelets - 26 rub, on vodka - 1.60, to Voronezh - 17 rub, on vodka - 1 rub, for roadside - 20 rub 94 kopeks, the vehicle - 40 rub , і

About St. Petersburg, Sukhorukov's plans; which, judging by the crossed-out lines, were executed, told us the 4th leaf with the following records:

V. St. Petersburg to Buy dukhov-Posmotret wall-paper.

English grammar and lexicon. & lt;

To ask the Northern bee and the Son Otech.

To ask Gr. Ku of medicines from cholera.

To ask whether it is impossible to sell Photius's notes,

At Glazunov to give Pavel Petrovich's tickets and to write out the road guide for Avgu. Vasilyevich of Eykhle-r. 10 rubles from it poluchil.

To take for... (Further the corner of a leaf is torn off)

Turn of the sheet "V St. Petersburg"

[] to ask that at Ilyinsky pulled out an extract from business if is

doubt about his life.

To Buy Peterhof

to

the best table paper.

To buy a sponge for washing.

To talk to Sedov about transfer on Don light carriages (it is written by a pencil)

To bow to Damysh.

Balykov to Ern (pencil).

Reflecting over marks of the St. Petersburg plans of Sukhorukov, we managed to reconstruct and restore some events and episodes of his life in 1829 - 1831 and also to suggest about a possible meeting with Pushkin in 20 dates of November, 1831 in St. Petersburg.

So, on January 13, 1830 after arrest in Tiflis (not without A. Chernyshev's "help"), withdrawals of articles for "Tiflissky sheets", manuscripts of "The historical description of war of 1828 and 1829" and other papers of Sukhorukov "sent with the courier Damysh to Novocherkassk on the same day... for the use on Dona on service" [9]. The surname of Dampp to whom the disgraced historian has to "bow and treat with balyks", is mentioned in the St. Petersburg leaf. Probably, was what to thank him for. About the arrest reasons, interesting certificates of F. Shumkov and other facts it is more exhaustively stated in N.S. Korshikov's article [10]. On Don Sukhorukova expected the instruction of the duty general of General staff A. Potapov of December 24, 1829 in which to the ataman D. Ku-teynikovu it was ordered to enlist the centurion V. Sukhorukov "to service in the Cossack regiment, in Finland which is immediately to send it to it with the same feld-

the huntsman, having charged to the commander of a regiment to have it under vigilant confidential supervision and to inform immediately if something is noticed in his behavior or views" [9]. It is possible to assume that the last instructions were strictly followed. And from F. Shumkov's letter to AA. To Karasyov of November 20, 1873 we learn such touching episode told Shumkov by Sukhorukov: "From Tiflis the courier brought his [Sukhorukov] to Novocherkassk and directly presented to the ataman Kuteynikov who received it with open arms and kisses which at it ordinary become between friends, and the following: "Ah, the dearest Vasily Dmitrich as I am glad that you arrived, and that your old woman mother everything worries about you. Go now home to see you her and live to yourself, and I will send you later paper". And with that together, having addressed the courier that he received the receipt and special papers from atamansky office, one went to St. Petersburg. In about two weeks Sukhorukov received the order on Army where it is transferred to Fomin's regiment, in Finland where has to go immediately. Here to you and the state criminal transferred from one regiment to another" [11].

Since the end of January, 1830 Sukhorukov serves in Fomin's regiment in Finland. "And there it got excellent respect of all who distinguished mind and knowledge from ignorance and ingratiating", - A.A. Karasyov wrote in the notes [12] about the Don historian. On August 29, 1831 Sukhorukov submitted the application on resignation which not without the assistance of the general I.F. Paskevich was satisfied. He could leave Finland on Don only on November 16, 1831 because of cholera epidemic in St. Petersburg as quarantines were removed only in October. Probably, in October - November, 1831 notes instructions in the book were also made. Vasily Dmitrievich arrived in the capital on November 19 what reported "The St. Petersburg sheets" about. Let's in passing notice, Pushkin was in the capital at this time. He went to Moscow on December 3 and returned on December 27. Sukhorukov on the Cossack farmstead for 2 - 3 days stopped. Here also the meeting with Pushkin at which he reported to the disgraced Don historian about a sad fate of the withdrawn documents [13] could take place. Of the same Sukhoruko-va was told by M.P. Pogodin at a meeting with it in Moscow what his diary entry of November 26, 1831 confirms: "... told Pushkin's actions for him" [14]. Pogodin met Pushkin in St. Petersburg on September 28 and on October 28, 1831. Probably, not casually at meetings the conversation came about Sukhorukov.

But we will return to the St. Petersburg leaf from Sukhorukov's book. Undoubted interest is attracted by a mark about "A northern bee" and "the Son Otechestva", published

N.I. Grechem and F. Bulgarin. Sukhorukov got acquainted with the last in March, 1824 through P.M. Stroyev. In edition, of course, will not refuse a request to present several numbers interesting him. And those could bgt No. 153, 154 of "A northern bee" of December 23 and 24, 1829 with I. Radozhitsky's article "The reply to amendments of Mr. Sukhorukov of my letters from the Caucasian case". That article which A. Chernyshev attached to the instruction with the order to seal up Sukhorukov's papers, to send it to Don and further in

Finland. As Chernyshev considered, article is the proof of inadmissible activity of Sukhorukov in articles about military operations of the Caucasian case printed by it, "where he steps on the stage the person". In the same place in edition he could learn about the latest literary news and book novelties. And having visited bookstore of I.I. Glazunov that is in Gostiny Dvor, will satisfy Pavel Petrovich and A.V. Eykhper's requests (probably, friends across Finland, their persons are not established). The surname of Glazunov is mentioned in a leaf. In a bench, perhaps, will subscribe to the almanac "Severnye Tsvety" for 1832 published after Delwig's death by Pushkin will pay attention to his new book "Stories by the Late I.P. Belkin", the collection "To capture of Warsaw. Three poems

V. Zhukovsky and A. Pushkin". In the collection the well-known poem by Pushkin to "Slanderers of Russia" is published. It is not excluded, will read its poem "Don" in the additions which recently came out (on October 17, 1831) to "The Russian disabled person". Memories of the native land will involuntarily gush.

With "Photius's Notes" which Sukhorukov was going to get everything is clear. It is about the archimandrite (since 1822) Photius whom Pushkin in the epigrams for ability ""defamed" a body to turn into soul", adequately estimated gr. Orlova-Chesmenskoy. About Photius and his compositions there is information in Brockhaus and Efron's dictionary (Photius, page 397 - 398). Interestingly, than Photius's notes could interest Sukhorukov?

The mark about "medicines from cholera" is explainable and caused by fears for the health and relatives on Dona. In 1830 - 1831 in Russia cholera epidemic raged. "The first cholera on Dona exterminated 1830 in the field of his 15250 souls of both sexes", - it was reported in newspapers of that time.

On arrival to Novocherkassk on December 11, 1831 Sukhorukov met the former ataman A.V. Ilovaysky, fellow colleagues Shumkov, Kushnarev, Kucherov, Kolesnikov (the last is mentioned in the Cherkassk leaf). On it it was reported to Chernyshev. On the first leaf entitled "In Cherkassk" there is a record: "To give to Platova the root aqua ponta. To consult about Peykhler in office. To send him horsehide". It is necessary to trust, these clauses were implemented. Medicine intended to Natalya Alekseevna Platova (Ur. Mashlyki-noy) or her mother-in-law Maria Stepanovna Platova (Ur. Kuteynikova, ataman's niece). This fact can indicate Sukhorukov's acquaintance to descendants of nice atamans. Sukhorukov could implement the Cherkassk plans in 1832 - 1834, being "on a privilege". In August, 1834 he is again seconded to the Don regiment to the Caucasian line. In 1836 in Pyatigorsk Vasily Dmitrievich married O.V. Shevtsova, the daughter of the councilor of state from whom having three daughters. In the same place it was found by the letter of Pushkin [6] in which he congratulates on a marriage and asks "to send something from your efficient, conscientious, curious works". To the disgraced Don historian was about what to tell and please the fellow writer. For example, "Don's Answer" gr. E.P. Rostopchina who so unflatteringly wrote about Don.

There were in sukhorukovsky "Answer" also such words about Don burning, close to each collum:

It is not sickly, is not decrepit, and dreven I,

In time I do not have legends And eternity - the chronicle moya-Ya the contemporary мирозданья&

But to Sukhorukov it was forbidden to be engaged in historical researches and to publish the works. Though it is possible that nevertheless some materials "Historical description..." could be transmitted to Pushkin not for the press through the same F. Shumkov. In August, 1839 in a Cossack captain rank Sukhorukov came back to Novocherkassk. On April 14, 1841 "owing to the application it is fired from service behind a vysluzheniye of years without awards". But it had one award - St Ann's award of the 3rd degree. Vasily Dmitrievich on the 48th year of life died on August 13, 1841.

The main work of the Don historian was issued only in 1867 (the 1st part "The historical description...") and 1872 (the 2nd part "Statistical description..."), and the Statistical committee of Army of Donskoy published both parts in 1903. Hand-written copies of "the Don chronicle" in different years were in use among the Don and capital nobility.

Thanks to efforts and laborious research of the Don historians N.S. Korshikov and V.N. Korolev the composition In D. Sukhorukov through the Don magazine in the 90th gt. came to the modern reader [15]. Summing up the result, we will note that simple sukhorukovsky records as if in the hologram, showed to us the whole historical cut: a Pushkin era, having raised thereby a set of questions. Further researches of historians, Pushkin scholars, Sukhorukov's biographers will be devoted to their permission.

>} • "• "At

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Literature

1. Dod LN. Captive Vechnosti. Philosophic experiments And S. Pushkina//Science and religion of 2000. No. 9. Page 16-21.
2. Sukhorukov VD. Review of the book by Bronevsky "History of the Don army": In 4 h SPb, 1834//the Don bulletin. 1867. No. 27-29.
3. Sukhorukov VD the Hostel of the Don Cossacks in XVII and XIX centuries/Prod. of the Donskaya Rech newspaper. Novocherkassk, 1892.
4. Korshikov of NANOSECOND, Queens of VN Historian Dona V D Sukhorukov and his "Historical description of Earth of Army of Donskoy"//Don. 1988. No. 4. Page 143-149.
5. Linin And M. Pushkin on Dona. Historico-literary essay. Rostov N / D, 1949, N Korshikov of Page. "Flying in dust to post." (about Pushkin's stay on Dona)//Bibliotechca DARA To the 200 anniversary since birth And S. Pushkin Rostov N / D, 1997.

C. 27-128; Zababurova HB C of coast of aggressive Don (The Cossacks in poetic and historical consciousness of Pushkin)//In the same place Page 157-197, Dod LN. Don secret of Pushkin.//Life of nationalities. 1999. No. 2-3. Page 11-16; It. Historical experiments of Pushkin//Historical newspaper. 2000. No. 1 (48). Page 3.10.

6. Pushkin And S. IIPSS. T. 16. Page 90.
7. GARO, f 55, op. 1, 2, l. 1.
8. A.I. Agafonov is a historian and the local historian N.S. Korshikov (1935 - 2001). Strokes to the scientist's portrait//Izv. higher education institutions. Sowing. - Kavk. region. Societies, science. 2001. No. 3. Page 36-40.
9. RGVIA, f.36, op. 12, 15, l. 556; f.330, op. 2, 21, l. 6.
10. N.S. Korshikov. Once again about "Note" A.S. Pushkina//Don. 1987. No. 6. Page 165-170.
11. NMIDK, t. V. Sukhorukova, item VI, No. 5, l. 2 about.
12. Karasyov A.A. Sukhorukov is the Don Cossack//Russian old times. 1871. T. 3. Page 236-240.

Krasnoznamensk _________________________________________

© 2003 A. Matveev

13. RGB SHOUTING, f.19/111, to. 21, 18/1, l. 3; IRLI (PD), t. 244, op. 1, 1642, l. 5; A.S. Pushkin.//PSS. T. 16. No. 665.
14. A.S. Pushkin in memoirs of contemporaries: In 2 t. T.2. M, 1985. Page 33.
15. V.D. Sukhorukov. Historical description of Earth of Army of Donskoy (Publication and N.S. Korshikov and V.N. Korolev's notes)//Don. 1988. No. 4-12; 1989. No. 1-8.10-12; 1990. No. 1-12.

On September 5, 2001

CONCEPTUAL PARADIGMS in the context of the HISTORIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS of the PROBLEM of GEOPOLITICAL UNITY of RUSSIA AND the NORTH CAUCASUS

Long ago it is noticed - the ideas both form, and destroy the states. At the same time, as a rule, creative come to light from the course of historical development, destructive - are taken out of its context. Such development gradually brought Russia and the Caucasus to need of unity. This tough geopolitical decision was developed by the whole eras. Nevertheless and at a boundary of the XX-XXI centuries of Russia it was necessary to face the drama of the Chechen events and in wider context with change of geopolitical and civilization balance on the Eurasian space to the detriment of the strategic interests. Retrospective studying features of establishment of unity of Russia and the Caucasus is dictated including the fact that in recent years in this region there were such conflicts between the people which by the number of the victims and destructions are quite comparable to large-scale wars.

The necessity of carrying out a versatile complex research on this direction is caused also by the fact that at the present stage the reorganization of some types of self-consciousnesses including Russian was outlined. Destruction assumes them change of codes of civilization and even ethnonational development that it will lead to disappearance of the whole communities which at some stage will finally lose ability to resist to the spread civilization values of the West and East. Object of influence of destructive ideological technologies in this regard is also the Russian history [1] on which the destiny Otechestva still in no small measure depends. Objective scientific knowledge about the past as it was already noted in [2], are capable to play an important role in achievement of state and political stability.

Also display of circumstances of inclusion of the Caucasus in structure of Russia from this point of view of aggressive policy and fight for independence of the mountain people remains. Such monistichesky interpreta-

the tion, as we know, was spread according to the theoretical stereotypes which developed in historical science earlier, but after discredit of the former ideological designs providing integrity of the country purposefully interested forces for blasting positions of Russia in the Caucasus more often began to use it. With the same purpose various aspects of fight of mountaineers for independence, apparently, rather actively continue to develop also the leading scientific centers of the West and the Middle East.

For example, the International Shamilevsky symposium called in 1991 in England at the initiative of College of the Saint in this regard is indicative. Antonija of the University of Oxford and Center of Asian researches of the University of London. On it the schools specializing on a problem not only England, but also the USA, France, Israel, Russia adhering to the corresponding conceptual orientation were widely presented. Further, as one of participants G.G. Gamzatov noticed, "decisions and the recommendations of the Oxford conference served... basis for continuation... developments on shamilevsky subject and national liberation fight of the Caucasian mountaineers" [3].

And in 1992 in Ankara with direct assistance of the Turkish official circles very representative congress of turcologists for participation in which experts from the Russian autonomies and the former republics of the USSR received invitations was organized. At this meeting the judgment and that the extensive Turkic community Turan in the Caucasus and in Central Asia has to unite under the leadership of Turkey expressed among other. For persuasiveness also historical justification moved forward: Turkey - the traditional "defender of mountaineers" [4, page 200, 216]. The management expressed it confidence that this country will receive in the 21st century "fine the lane -

Danny Spencer
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