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The main stages of hunting-trade development of the Baikal Siberia in the XX century



29 V. Leontyev. Economic essays... Page 38-39.

30 L.I. Lopatnikov. Economic-mathematical dictionary: Dictionary of modern economic science. 4 prod., reslave. and additional M., 1996. Page 554.
31 K. Lancaster. Mathematical economy. Page 221.
32 J.M. Keynes. General theory of employment, percent and money//Anthology of economic classics: In 2 TM, 1993. T. 2. Page 330.
33 Mathematics and cybernetics in economy: Slov. - sprav. / Under the editorship of N.P. of Fedoren-co, L.V. Kantorovich, etc. the 2nd prod., the reslave. and additional M., 1975. Page 601.

Yu.A. ZULYaR

doctoral candidate to the YOKE

The MAIN STAGES OHOTNICHE-PROMYSLOVOGO of DEVELOPMENT of the BAIKAL SIBERIA IN the XX CENTURY

Production of wild animals in the region has deep historical roots. The long period it formed the basis of material culture of residents of the Baikal Siberia — Evenks and drill, Tofalars and Soyots. In the course of the subsequent development of the region by the Russian State this type of economic activity of the population underwent significant changes.

Buryats, mastering the Baikal Siberia, borrowed a part of traditions, especially hunting, the native people of the region. Generally Buryats hunted a sable, a beaver, a goat, a Manchurian deer, a fox. With development of cattle breeding the hunting from a livelihood turned into subsidiary trade. When they passed into a stage of the making civilization, hunting began to play auxiliary rol1.

The Russian population, having got into Siberia, along with agriculture began to be engaged hunting and fish in crafts. Immigrants in some subtaiga areas absolutely threw agriculture, took the best hunting grounds and began to be engaged in hunting intensively.

Rich annual production and sale of "soft stuff", and first of all sables, to the Chinese and Russian dealers allowed them to get stronger financially and to put the farms on a high step economic razvitiya2.

The policy of the tsarist government in relation to fur richness of Siberia

had purely fiscal character. From the first third of the 17th century the jails which were the state points on furs purchase were under construction. In process of gain and development of new lands the local community was assessed yasaky which was raised by skins of valuable fur animals. The treasury annually received 200 thousand skins of sables, 10 thousand skins of black foxes and 500 thousand skins of the best squirrels. In the 17th century, furs made nearly a third state byudzheta3.

Furs were an important subject of the Russian sale to China. Through Kyakhta in 1768-1785 it was annually exchanged proteins from 2 to 4 mln pcs., an ermine from 140 to 400 thousand pieces, sables from 6 do16 by one thousand shkurok4.

Since the end of the 19th century foreign firms which almost completely took trade in furs in the hands strongly began to get into Siberia. Injurious operation fur dichnykh riches led to sharp reduction of number of valuable species of hunting animals.

During this period the tsarist government issues the decrees and laws protecting the rights of natives for the patrimonial hunting grounds forbidding a spontaneous okhotopolzovaniye and burning of the woods. However they had no significant impact on practice of injurious operation of animal richness of the region. Acceptance in 1892 became a basic event. Law on hunting.

The first act for hunting was, according to V.V. Dezhkin, nesover-

to tire. The terms of production of mass species of a game allowed them had no scientific justification, there were no strict restrictions of norms of production, the ways of hunting causing extensive damage hunting resursam5 were allowed.

At a boundary of H1H — XX of centuries the country leaders relation to operation of animal richness of Siberia begins to change. Their crisis state caused enhanced action of zoologists, hunters, a number of officials and merchants. Some acts on rationalization of an okhotopolzovaniye were adopted. During the pre-revolutionary period a ban of catching of wild hoofed animals by lovchy holes and also spring and summer hunting for them is imposed. By the law adopted in 1912 in the region it was forbidden sable promysel6. Meanwhile the lack of supervision of observance of acts made almost impossible their execution.

Thus, during the pre-revolutionary period in the region there was no effective state control behind hunting and fishery. The adopted acts did not lead to creation of a system of rational exploitation of trade animals. Trade in many respects bordered on injurious destruction of biological resources of the Baikal Siberia.

The Soviet trade policy began since adoption of the Decree about the earth (on October 26, 1917) which cancelled a private property on the earth. All hunting grounds became the state property.

In Siberia in 1917 due to increase in number of the hunters who came back from war, trade slightly quickened. But in 1918 the situation changed. Civil war and ruin concerned the most remote corners of the region. Due to the withdrawal at local community of all firearms and ammunition the extraction of furs in 1918-1919 practically came down to zero.

After the end of Civil war the blossoming of kolonkovy and ermine crafts began. Developing hunting economy, local community, was engaged also in other forest crafts: collecting

pine nuts, maralovodstvo, beekeeping and rybolovstvom7. The trade economy of the region provided to itself was based on complex use of products of collateral use. At that time fixing of hunting and cedar territories to their regular users practiced.

Nationalization of the earth and other natural wealth, the Decree about the woods, introduction of the state monopoly for collecting fur raw materials, nationalization of foreign trade created the first and main economic prerequisites of reorganization of hunting economy on the Soviet model of development. In 1919 the decree of SNK RSFSR "About terms of hunting and the right for a hunting gun" was issued. Trade in a svezheubity game till August 1 was not allowed. This decree everywhere forbade any hunting in spring and summer time, except scientific.

For management of the fur industry of the enterprises at VSNKh in 1919 the Head department of the fur industry was organized (Glavmekh), and on places as a part of gubsovnarkhoz specialized sections and gubmekh are created. Management was granted the right to involve on collecting furs the cooperative organizations (Centrosoyuz) 8.

In 1920 the Decree about hunting was adopted. It assigned management of hunting economy, its regulation and maintaining and also works on reproduction and animal protection to People's Commissariat for Agriculture. At it the Central office for affairs of hunting (Centrohot) with the system of local departments (gubohot) was organized. Supervision of observance of rules of hunting was assigned to all citizens and the hunting organizations and also to militia and local organy9.

In the Baikal region after arrival of the Red Army the creation of the Soviet control system of hunting began. The forest section Irkutsk lips-zo developed and in the summer of 1920 distributed on places the draft of the Charter of artel of trade hunting in the Irkutsk province. The form of hunting tickets, trade certificates, their cost and terms of hunting are approved.

In November, 1920 in section the office of hunting is created.

The authorities in the region at the highest level formed the action program on recovery of crafts. The Irkutsk provincial congress of Councils (January, 1921) on rural and to forestry provided measures for development of hunting economy in the resolution adopted by it regiona10.

the hunting Renaissance in the region began

with implementation of the New Economic Policy. Furs became an important source of recovery of the national economy. In September, 1921 its preparation was assigned on Narkomprod, VSNKh and Narkomvnesh-torg. Thanks to the events held by them the furs purchase by the state sharply increased and during a season of 1922/23 reached pre-war urovnya11.

The legal framework of hunting was improved. The presidium of VTsIK of RSFSR adopted on August 24, 1922 "Rules of hunting". VTsIK and Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR issued on March 1, 1923 the resolution "About the Right of Hunting" which added the Decree about hunting of 1920. In hunting-trade regions of the country the age restriction of hunters was cancelled. But hunting began to be assessed state sborom12.

The Soviet government decided on the form of the organization of field men accepted for itself. On July 7, 1921 the decree of VTsIK and SNK of "About Producers' Cooperation" allowing to form trade associations or artels was published. Retail trade in resources, materials provided their lawful acquisition. The market allowed to organize lawful sale of products of trade. And by the end of 1923 the mechanism of a promkooperation was sozdan13.

The big role in settlement and the structure of trade, in improvement of quality of the made furs was played by introduction in 1925 of uniform standards on fur and fur raw materials. Increase in demand for fur products within the country, a favorable environment of foreign market raised purchase prices and growth of state revenues. The correct procuring prices created in the late twenties an optimum ratio commodity-money rasche-

t between the hunter-field man, the supplier and the state.

In the Baikal Siberia in the mid-twenties a considerable part of male population of mountain and forest and taiga areas participated in the okhotopromysl. In the Irkutsk province in 1924 9597 peasants hunters consisted in the system of Vsekokhotsoyuz and 16,445 people were Sib-gostorga agents.

The organization of hunting economy in Transbaikalia happened to lateness in comparison with Predbaykalyem because of later establishment the authorities of Moscow here. Only in 1925 in BMASSR approved the first "Rules of hunting". In 1926 introduced duty on the right of hunting and an okhotbileta of a uniform sample. Control systems hunting hozyaystvom14 started the organization of society of hunters.

Growth of number of hunters-field men continued prior to the collectivization. In the Irkutsk trade and cooperative union (Irokhotsoyuz) for October 1, 1927 10,328 people, and for October 1, 1928 — 14,483 persons consisted. In Buryat Mongolia in 1928 was 12,500 okhotnikov15.

Such number of hunters led to sharp reduction of individual production, preparation of a squirrel decreased by 1 person in 10 raz16. Trade sites were crowded with the people gathering in especially rich grounds and destroying all living creatures to be ahead of competitors.

Nevertheless, in Baikal region the extraction of furs was constantly increased. In the Irkutsk province in terms of squirrel units in the winter of 1923/24 it made 2.7 million skins. In Buryat Mongolia in the winter of 1924/25 1022 skins of a sable, 208,096 pieces of a squirrel, 11,592 skins of other animals were prepared. In the winter of 1925/26 — 632, 293,010 and 72,026 sootvetstvenno17.

Growth of preparations of furs allowed the USSR to restore fur export. From the Baikal Siberia for export a significant amount of furs arrived. The Irkutsk district exported 25 types of animal raw materials, taking on furs the fifth place in Siberia. About 90% of furs were sent for export. According to the estimates of N.K. Des-

nitsky (1929), in the district in terms of a squirrel 420 thousand pieces (100%), in 1927/28 — 530 thousand pieces (127%), in 1928/29 — 640 thousand pieces (152%) 18 were made in 1926/27.

Increasing furs export, the government constantly increased tasks on its purchase in the region. Plans ceased to correspond to opportunities of field men and natural resources. But the Siberian authorities prolonged hunting seasons, increasing load of populations of fur animals and birds.

The period of free trade and prosperity of trade cooperatives was short. At a boundary of the 1920-1930th in the village the collectivization began. Radical transformation of the Soviet system affected also hunting. VTsIK and SNK RSFSR repealed on February 10, 1930 the Decree about hunting and approved the Provision on hunting economy of RSFSR19.

According to change of policy in the Baikal Siberia the collectivization of the trade population of the North and mountainous areas began. In the summer of 1931 krayispolky came to a conclusion that the best form of the organization of hunting farms in native areas is the collective-farm farm. Krayokhotsoyuz was obliged to organize in trade areas collective farms complex tipa20.

1933 became critical for a promkooperation. For its transformation the authorities used the methods fulfilled on agriculture. The law "About Prices for Products of a Promkooperation" (on April 26, 1933) forbade to exceed the level of purchase prices of the middle of 1932. At the same time state enterprises sharply inflated raw material prices, sold to cooperatives. Rise in price reached 500% (and even 1000%), often marriage and production wastes were on sale to cooperatives more expensively, than full-fledged products.

Ruin of a promkooperation became inevitable. From the developed economy link it turned into something minor, into a source of gratuitous investments into the industry. According to the country leaders, hunting cooperations by 1933 carried out the main objective on fight against private buying up

furs. For acceleration of collectivization of hunting economy due to destruction of a promkooperation the CEC and Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted the resolution "About Elimination of Hunting Cooperation and Reorganization of Integrated Cooperation" (on August 17, 1933). In the first paragraph of this resolution it is told that in all regions of USSR, except for the region of the Far North, the organization of hunting economy and hunting is made through kolkhozy21.

Integrated cooperation after liquidation of Vsekokhotsoyuz (1933) was transferred by Nar-komsnabu of RSFSR. In this regard the management of the region carried out reorganization of a control system of hunting economy. OK bureau of party and SNK BMASSR on September 7

1933 liquidated Okhotintegralsoyuz. VS KIK disbanded on July 23, 1933 the system of Okhotsoyuz in general, and since April 5
1934 — and in the main areas, having transferred Vostsibpushnin it to function on hunting and fur and fur preparations in remote and northern rayonakh22.

Elimination of integrated cooperation in the region dragged on. And only on August 17, 1936 the Central Election Commission and SNK of the USSR adopted resolution "About Elimination of Integrated Cooperation and Development of the Soviet Trade on Far North" 23.

Collectivization made the hunter-collective farmer by the central figure in hunting. In northern trade areas of the Baikal region of a form of production cooperation of the population were based on hunting, fishery, reindeer breeding. Here hunting artels were created. In them hunters received a certain percent from the cost of the handed-over furs. In agricultural areas where hunting was the subsidiary industry, in collective farms created trade crews or allocated hunters.

Destruction of effectively working okhotopromyslovy cooperation forced the country leaders to look for it an alternative. In the early thirties were organized the production and hunting stations (PHS) — the state manufacturing enterprises. They were engaged povyshe-

niy marketability of trade and assistance to collective-farm hunting economy and fur farming in a zone of the activity. The region's first POS was organized in January, 1933 in Okinskom to the hoshena of the aimag Tunkins-kogo of BMASSR. POS held collectivization of local community, the organization of hunting economy, development of deep hunting grounds and acclimatization of a muskrat and American mink. In military years of POS in the Baikal region were likvidirovany24.

Increase in preparation of skins of a muskrat happened thanks to the state muskrat farms (SMF) which began to be created in 1944. Their tasks included the organization of production and preparations of a muskrat, reproduction and resettlement of a small animal, conducting hunting and fishery in the fixed territory. In 1944-1947 in the territory of BMASSR seven state muskrat farms which delivered 70% of furs were organized. To the middle of the 1950th they were integrated in four economy giving over 90% of skins of a muskrat. At the same time it was conducted trade and other fur animals (sable, a squirrel) 25. Potentially focused on complex development of the fixed hunting grounds, GOH and remained highly specialized farms.

Except POS and GOH the trade and hunting farms (THF) worked in the region. Their main task consisted in reproduction of stocks of fur animals and planned conducting hunting. Farms were divided into sable, mink, muskrat, etc. POH worked at wider basis, than the SETTLEMENT. They were engaged in hunting, preparations of the accompanying types of products, had fur farms, etc. Several POH worked in the region. Narrow specialization of POH on trade of separate types of fur animals caused weakness of their economy and the subsequent their transformation in complex farms. They delayed outflow of hunters, without them in the 1960-1980th there would be no system of gospromkhoz and koopzveropromkhoz.

But the bulk of hunters appeared in collective farms to which not always was benefits -

but to use them in this quality. From farms first of all demanded performance of supply of agricultural products therefore it was unprofitable to release workers on trade by it. Besides, low purchase prices did not create interest at farms and field men therefore the number of the field men who were really engaged in trade was sharply laid off.

Saving the situation, SNK BMASSR established on February 5, 1933 that major activity of promkhoz is trade, and agriculture — subsidiary occupation. The east Siberian KIK at the end of 1933 demanded to stop practice of involvement of field men to other works. In August, 1934 he according to the resolution SNK USSR disposed to exempt field men from all other types of works. These requirements did not give desirable effect though were accepted not raz26 yet.

in August, 1934 disposed to attract all suppliers To restoration of number of hunters-field men of VS KIK. All persons brought in a census of hunters were considered as them. However the administrative resource was insufficient. For the end

1934 according to the plan of a zagotpushnina for trade there were 30 thousand hunters instead of 36 thousand, on a kraypotrebsoyuza — 6100 instead of 6540. In the first quarter 1935 in the Baikal Siberia for trade there were 6887 hunters at the plan of 25,124 of 27 thousand registered. It was explained by delays and violation of arrangements by settlings with field men from the procuring organizations. Therefore a krayispolok systematically demanded from the main suppliers (Vostsibpushnina, krayokhotsoyuz, the consumer union) it is urgent to pay off with collectives on all debts and obligations.

Economic incentives of trade were more effective. VS KIK in September, 1935 defined that the main method of procuring work is signing of the contracts of suppliers with boards of collective farms, okhotbrigada-m and amateur hunters. In November

1935 krayispolky entered a commission (from 2 to 10%) to hunters and hunting grounds under economic contracts for doby-

chu and delivery of fur and fur raw materials of winter hunting. And in 1935 the campaign of signing of the contracts on extraction of fur and fur raw materials with collective farms and hunters took place successfully, on the fourth quarter 1935 and the first quarter 1936 it was executed for 95%. By contracts it was captured 25,693 okhotnika27.

For the purpose of preservation of hunters on trade krayispolky on January 28, 1934 increased norms of their "hlebootovarivaniye". But it not much more changed a situation. Hunters held furs before approach of manufactured goods. Krayispolk created fund of awarding of leaders and improved supply of hunters with goods, necessary for trade. However limited opportunities and organizational defects turned these problems into chronic. And only from an okhotosezon of 1936/37 the regional authorities could organize providing hunting crews in necessary assortment (more than 80 positions), volume and delivery of goods in winter quarters before sezona28.

Ten years' retrade of valuable species of fur small animals affected the number of their populations. From the second half of the 1930th in the country and the region preparations of the majority of types of furs began to decrease considerably. The outflow of field men to the cities caused by decrease in material interest affected the volume of preparations. Increase in purchase prices of furs was insufficient. The procuring cost of skins in the comparable prices in 1938-1940 was three-four times lower, than in 1927-1929. The collective farm deducted a part of cost of the handed-over furs on replenishment of public funds. It put collective farmers in unequal conditions in comparison with other field men.

In the years of war the role of hunting increased. The state felt special need in export raw materials — furs. The resolution aimed at the development of fur preparations was accepted. Each area the plan of extraction of furs and a game and the necessary contingent of hunters-collective farmers was established. In the procuring organizations there was a fund food and industrial

goods for "merchandising" of furs and providing dogs with a forage. Hunters-field men were exempted for a trade season from a labor guzhpovinnost, not involved in works in other branches of the national economy. Therefore preparations of trade furs decreased not in such degree as it could be. And preparations of a sable and a muskrat even grew.

War destroyed hunting economy in the country. Some of its improvement began since 1950. However preparation of furs increased only at the expense of sables. The number of hunters-field men after war increased, but did not reach pre-war number. In 1955 they were 3.4 times less, than in the early thirties. The hunting-trade economy was influenced by the integration in the 1950th of settlements in northern areas which alienated hunters from places promysla29.

During the military and post-war period of rationalization of hunting economy of due consideration it was not given. The maximum volumes were extracted that undermined biological resources. And it reduced efficiency of hunting economy. To the middle of the 1950th the country leaders realized need of reorganization of hunting economy on the basis of rational environmental management.

Its transformation happened to the middle of the 1960th. The created system actually copied a collective-farm and state-farm system. Cooperative and state trade farms divided among themselves the richest hunting grounds. Besides, it transferred forest resources and the rights for their lesoexpluatation, including logging and processing. Trade specialization, possibilities of complex use of all biological resources of the fixed territories and development of fur farming caused their higher economic stability and economic efficiency. Fixing of grounds to promkhoza allowed them to hold nature protection and resursovosstanovitel-ny events more effectively. Their activity in total with efforts specialized

bodies and research and research and production structures provided preservation and restoration of the most valuable species of trade animals.

The structure of trade farms in the second half of the 1970th is shown in tab. 1.

Table 1 Hunting-trade farms of the Baikal Siberia in 1977 30 (numerator — number of farms; a denominator — the area, thousand hectares)

Territory GPH KZPH All

Buryat ASSR 8/14,800 8/13,878.0 16/28,678.0

Irkutsk region 4/8,000 16/60,419.0 20/68,419.0

Chita region 6/7,800 5/5,362.8 11/13,162.8

Region 18/30,600 29/79,659.8 47/110,259.8

Most of all promkhoz were in the Irkutsk region that was defined by its superiority in the area of hunting grounds. In Transbaikalia the quantity of KZPH and GPH was almost equal, and in Predbayka-lye — essentially differed towards cooperative farms, especially in the area of grounds. These proportions almost did not change until the end of the Soviet period.

Trade hunting in the region was provided by workers of two categories: regular and seasonal. The first in the mid-sixties gave 70% of furs and meat-dichnoy of products and over 90% of punts. In the Baikal region the number of professional hunters was constantly laid off. In the Irkutsk region their quantity to the middle of the 1960th in comparison with 1940 was reduced by 25%, in Chita — twice, in BASSR — by 1930 — almost by nine times. In the majority of promkhoz in the 1970th a considerable part of products (up to 50%) was got by amateur seasonal workers.

Despite reorganization, in the 1960th the hunting economy of the region represented the extensive industry, and increase in a gross exit of products was provided with development of new territories, but not an intensification of being available. In the 1970th the level of profitability of extraction of furs in KZPH was from 5.2 to 8.9%, in GPH — from 1.5 to 10.0%. It is not enough for the expanded reproduction demanding the minimum profitability in 25-30%31.

Though the existing complex farms of Glavokhota of RSFSR and Rospotrebsoyu-za were called hunting-trade, the role of hunting products in them continuously decreased, and this industry was not always the leader. Specific weight of logging and wood processing continuously increased, and the trend to their timber industry spetsializatsii32 was outlined here and there.

In the 1970th hunting was in a condition of stagnation. In comparison with the 1960th only production of a sable grew (from 85.4 thousand in 1965). Production of a muskrat was steadily reduced (from 1034.2 thousand). Preparations of skins of a squirrel remained rather stable (1482.4 thousand). At the same time hunting grounds of the region accustomed to the sparing mode (from 60 to 80% were used), and retrade did not exceed 10%. At the same time from 22 to 40% of grounds not osvaivalos33.

The sable whose production as a result of the held events returned to the end of the Soviet period on the leading place remained the most valuable fur small animal in the Baikal region. In furs preparations its specific weight in total monetary value was 50%34.

In the 1970-80th the main volume of preparations (quantitative) in the region provided trade of a squirrel which production was extremely unstable. In 1974 — 1985 the fluctuations in its preparation were in the Chita region 8 times, in Buryatia 9 times. In smaller territories — in borders of administrative regions, farms or their parts — preparations fluctuated in dozens, and in some cases in hundreds of times. This trend was shown on all zone (tab. 2).

The table 2 Preparation of Squirrel Skins in Siberia in 1974-1985 35

Region Specific weight Preparations,

regions, % one thousand . piece

of Environments- Mini- Poppy- Min- Poppy -

ny mum simum imum simum

Western 19 9 27 210 737

Siberia

Average 28 15 34 213 1,284

Siberia

Baikal 39 27 51 392 2,050

Siberia

Yakutia 8 5 25 130 719

Distant 4 2 20 62 759

Tab. 2 shows unconditional leadership of the region in preparation of a squirrel in a zone of Siberia and the Far East. On average 60% of resources of a squirrel are placed in Middle and Baikal Siberia, and at good harvests lived up to 80% of a squirrel here.

In 1946 the licensing of production of especially valuable types of fur animals which played at a certain stage a positive role in preservation of their livestock was entered. The subsequent practice showed that limitation of production and preparations of skins of a sable fails as a security action any more. So, in Siberia at limits in 150 thousand 250 thousand soboley36 were extracted.

By the end of the Soviet period basic shortcomings of the existing system of trade came to light. Collective and state farms did not create at hunters of interest in constant efficiency of the fixed site for themselves and descendants. They were focused on the maximum opromyshleniye of okhotougo-diya because could lose them at any time. At the same time the hunter was not able to opromyslit all fur resources of the territory. There was a question of a family or melkobrigadny contract.

The bans on trade of valuable types, an introduction and reintroduction of animals marked the beginning of transition from hunting to fur farming, i.e. from extensive methods of development of trade economy to intensive and rational. Crash of the Soviet system stopped development of these positive processes.

1 The miller A.V., Tulokhonov of A.K. Istori-co-geograficheskoye ensuring space monitoring of the transformed landscapes//Environmental and hydrogeological problems of environmental management in the Baikal region. Ulan-Ude, 1990. Page 121-122.
2 G.A. falcons. Hunting economy in cedar forests. M, 1966. Page 16.
3 Hunting economy of the USSR. M, 1973. Page 11.12.
4 V.T. Noskov. Prospects of development of hunting-trade economy//Buryatia: conceptual bases of strategy of sustainable development. M, 2000. Page 287.
5 V.V. Dezhkin. Development and formation of hunting economy of RSFSR//Hunting economy. M, 1978. Page 7; V.T. Noskov. Prospects of development of hunting-trade economy. Page 287.
6 V.T. Noskov. Prospects of development of hunting-trade economy. Page 292.
7 G.A. falcons. Hunting economy in cedar forests. Page 17, 18.
8 Hunting economy of the USSR. Page 16, 17.
9 Hunting economy of RSFSR. M, 1978. Page 8.
10 GAIO. F. R-1800. Op. 1. 460. L. 121.131; F. R-42. Op. 1. 612. L. 47.
11 Hunting economy of the USSR. Page 18.
12 Hunting economy of RSFSR. Page 9.
13 Arguments and facts. 1988. No. 47. Page 24.
14 Life of Buryatia. 1926. No. 7-9. Page 46; K.N. Mirotvortsev. To a question of division into districts of Siberia//Essays on physical geography of Eastern Siberia. Irkutsk, 1924. Page 25.
15 GAIO. F. R-218. Op. 1. 210. L. 7581; Siberian Soviet encyclopedia. Novosibirsk, 1929. T. 1. Page 414.
16 Life of Buryatia. 1926. No. 7-9. Page 44-46.
17 GAIO. F. R-565. Op. 1. 62. L. 2; Life of Buryatia. No. 4-6. Page 41-48.
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19 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 1087. L. 131; Hunting economy of RSFSR. Page 101.
20 GAIO. F. R-218. Op. 1. 147. L. 22; F. R-2383. Op. 1. 2. L. 37, etc.
21 Arguments and facts. 1988. No. 47. Page 24; Hunting economy of the USSR. Page 23.
22 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 794. L. 108; 814. L. 18; 815. L. 179; 1065. L.132.
23 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 1487. L. 47; 1560. L.118.
24 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 816. L. 41; Hunting economy of the USSR. Page 22.
25 B.R. Buyantuyev, G.Sh. Radnayev. Soviet Buryat Mongolia. Ulan-Ude, 1957. Page 228.
26 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 812. L. 5; 816. L. 51; 1064. L. 143; 1084. L. 212.
27 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 1355; 1363. L. 185; 1370. L. 74.
28 GAIO. F. R-600. Op. 1. 812. L. 5; 1064. L. 143; 1067. L. 10; 1086. L. 132.
29 G.A. falcons. Hunting economy in cedar forests. Page 18; Hunting economy of the USSR. Page 30.
30 Hunting economy of RSFSR. Page 146.
31 E.E. Syroyechkovsky. Prospects of use of resources of hunting animals of Far North of the USSR//Influence of economic activity of the person on populations of hunting animals and environment of their dwelling. Kirov, 1980. T. 1. Page 35-39.
32 NARB. F. R-248. Op. 20. 3661. L. 48; F.R. Shtilmark. Impact of forestry and landscape activity on the number of hunting animals of Siberia//Protection, vosproiz-

vodstvo and rational use of resources of Eastern Siberia. Ulan-Ude, 1973. Page 47.

33 E.E. Syroyechkovsky. Prospects of use of resources of hunting animals of Far North of the USSR. Page 35-39; Hunting economy of RSFSR. Page 154, 170.
34 V.G. Safonov, N.N. Bakeev, L.M. Shilyaeva. Resources of fur animals of Siberia and their use//Resources of fauna of Siberia: Hunting - fur-bearing animals and birds. Novosibirsk, 1990. Page 122.
35 I.P. Karpukhin. Geography of preparations and the prospect of rational use of a squirrel in Siberia//In the same place. Page 137-139.
36 M.I. Smyshlyaev. Trade rodents of Eastern Siberia//In the same place. Page 276-278.
Muriel Berenice
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