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The power and cottage industry cooperation in the conditions of a nepovsky experiment: problem historiography

o. V. Yagov


In article the transaction model of information and communicative technologies in the system of public relations is considered. This model is the most adequate model of information and communicative interaction for the system of the developed social forces and the relations of modern society as it is calculated on achievement of mutual mutual understanding between subjects of a public discourse and their target public through creation of mutually beneficial relations of putemmaksimal-ny accounting of interests and motivations of various segments of the target public.

O. Yagov


The evolution of views of Russian historians and theorists of the co-operative movement on mutual relations of power structures and cottage industry cooperation during the New Economic Policy realization is considered in the article. The author notes that during the Soviet historiographic period the co-operative policy ofBolsheviks was estimated positively, as a rule, and only at the turn of the 21st century reconsideration of the settled positions took place in the historical science, which has made it possible to look at the problem in a new way.

A problem of relationship of power structures and different types of cooperation including cottage industry, in the conditions of a nepovsky experiment always drew attention of theorists and practitioners of the cooperative movement.

However during the Soviet historiographic period the domestic researchers could not be exempted from an ideological zadannost of many starting provisions and, as a rule, did not leave for

a framework of the standard subjects including: illumination of policy of the Communist Party and Soviet state on support of cottage industry cooperation; course of implementation of the Lenin cooperative plan; involvement of cooperative network in socialist national hozyaystvo1.

In the majority of the coming-out works the Soviet period cooperative the builder - was idealized

stvo that naturally led to one-sided publicizing of the difficult processes happening in cooperation.

The first judgment of experience of relationship of the power and cottage industry cooperation in the conditions of the Soviet economic mechanism happened in the 1920th 2 It is necessary to notice that the alternativeness of views of the prospects of development of cooperation in the conditions of socialism was characteristic only of the first half of the 20th of the 20th century. Some researchers critically treated cooperative policy bolshevikov3, others equipped cooperation with the functions, unusual for it, connected with participation of cooperative systems in class borbe4.

From the second half of the 1920th of a discussion about the fate of cooperation practically stopped, and in the majority of the published works the cooperation was considered in a context with so-called Lenin cooperative planom5.

The 1930th — the beginning of the 1950th became the most difficult period as part of studying history of domestic cooperation. Researches of cooperative problems from this point practically break. It was connected with the fact that the prospect of further development of cooperation in the sphere of circulation was estimated as nonsocialist prospect for all national economy strany6.

In the conditions of the formed komandnoadministrativny system there was an active nationalization of cottage industry cooperation. In party directives it was claimed that in socialist society the leading role is played by state ownership therefore cooperation was considered only as a part of public property that justified process of nationalization of a cooperative system through creation of trade collective farms.

This idea was promoted in V.S. Dobronravov, A.N. Senko and N.K. tactical works of Afanasyeva7.

In 1960 — the 1980th the interest of domestic researchers in a problem of relationship of the power and cooperation during realization nepa8 renews. These years a number of theses on the considered problem was written and protected. However in most of them, as before, the main attention was paid only to positive aspects of activities of the Communist Party for socialist transformation of small-scale way of economy strany9.

Already in the twilight of the Soviet system which had for the end of the 1980th at scientists there was an opportunity to include earlier inaccessible actual material in researches, to consider various aspects of activity of the cooperated small producers without thinking about ideological installations that, certainly, increased objectivity and scientific level of publications.

At the beginning of the 90th of the last century there was a reconsideration of policy and practice of the cooperative movement therefore the new historiographic concept exempted from the dogmas which were established decades, and, first of all the noncritical analysis of activity of the party of Bolsheviks and the Soviet state in cooperative srede10 began to develop.

Scientists on the basis of the new, earlier closed sources, lift problems of introduction of party forces in cooperation, violent demolition of its social structure, intervention of the state in internal processes of cooperative systems. L.E. Fayn, L.N. Lyutov, V.V. Konovalov, P.G. Nazarov's works, etc. 11 were devoted to these questions

Historians at this stage recognized as insolvent the term "Lenin cooperative plan" and defined that in the period of "military communism" and the New Economic Policy doctrinal ideas of ruling party of cooperation dominated as making in the complete mechanism of creation of a socialist system.

It is rather fresh against the background of the stamps which were established for many years in a cooperative perspective removing from one work to another I.A. Kozlov's conclusions looked. In particular, he noted that "... the state support of kustarnopromyslovy cooperation in the second half of the 1920th led only to loss of the last economic independence, and private business in small-scale production was forced to adapt throughout the New Economic Policy to conditions of a dishonest game from party and fiscal bodies" 12.

Among scientists the point of view is formed that the state initially conducted approach to cooperation, and the last only defended. Elimination of independence of the cooperative movement pursued first of all political goals: ". to eliminate heads, undesirable from the political point of view" 13.

The significant contribution to development of the theory and practice of the domestic cooperative movement to the Post-Soviet historiographic period was brought by the scientist from Ivanovo L.E. Fayn. On the basis of the deep analysis of sources and literature he came to a conclusion that the 1920th were not "gold" decade of the Soviet cooperation at all. In the works the scientist consistently draws a line that the New Economic Policy was not a strong refusal from the "military and communistic" principles, and those changes which happened in the early twenties in party and state policy had tactical and tactical character, as confirmed the further course of events.

In the first fundamental work "Domestic cooperation: historical experience" L.E. Fayn noted that the policy of RCP(b) in the field of cooperation from the very beginning of transition to the New Economic Policy was oriented on keeping as much as possible levers of impact on cooperation in the hands not to give the last the chance to leave for nacher-

framework of the organization ton from above and principles of managing. The role of cottage industry cooperation consisted only in "merging of small-scale separate enterprises of certain handicraftsmen in the collective enterprises" 14.

Further he notes that from the middle of the 1920th "the Communist Party through the shots & lt spread in cooperation;...> began to make on it impact with the purpose to force to realize the utopian and adventurous pipe dreams of creation of society not compatible to the nature of cooperation" 15.

To similar conclusions, but already concerning small-scale production M.A. Svishchev came, considering that the state at the beginning of the New Economic Policy made certain concessions to handicraftsmen and handicraftsmen, having allowed to open the small industrial enterprises only for the purpose of the early recovery of the national economy of the country. In process of an economic recovery, from the middle of the 1920th the policy allowing existence of small-scale production sputtered out, and the state began systematic approach to small tovaropro-izvoditeley16.

The Ulyanovsk historian L.N. Lyutov also noted that in days of the New Economic Policy state regulation of cottage industry cooperation continued to be carried out by military and communistic methods. "Without encouraging development of the handicraft and cooperative industry on a chastnokhozyaystvenny, market basis & lt;.> proletarian state in the late twenties & lt;...> seeks for its integration in centrally - a planned system" 17.

In unison previous characteristic of provision of cottage industry cooperation in performances at scientific forums of the beginning of the 1990th of the Siberian researcher V.V. Konovalov sounds. "Supporters of the forced planting of socialism — he noted — tried to drag handicraftsmen in administratively knocked together artels working on obligatory

to squads of state agencies. The producers' cooperation lost signs of the amateur economic organization and was used as the production device entirely controlled by the state" 18. The researcher developed this situation also in the subsequent rabotakh19.

V.V. Kabanov Reconsiders the views of relationship of the Soviet power and cooperations. Concerning the prospects of the cooperative movement after establishment of the Soviet system he writes: ". from now on the fate of cooperation depended not only on cooperators how many from what place in life will be allocated by the new power of cooperation". Also he notes that if leaders of the cooperative movement ". knew about Lenin plans, perhaps, would be terrified" 20.

A.V. Voronin, analyzing in the dissertation research social aspects in cooperation activity, noted that obstacles from representatives of cottage industry cooperative bodies to entry into leadership team of communists, led to prohibition from party structures of registration trade soyuzov21.

Estimating the presented conclusions, it is necessary to emphasize that during the small chronological period the historians managed to formulate new basic approaches to a problem of relationship of the power and cooperation in days of the New Economic Policy. The aspiration to get rid of the doctrines dominating in the Soviet historiography about acritical and independent development of cooperation in the 1920th

was the uniting moment of the specified points of view

The beginning of this century was marked by emergence of a number of the works to a degree touching on an issue of imperious regulation of the cottage industry sphere in the conditions of a nepovsky experiment. In 2001 the monograph by A.N. Degtyarev "Kustarnopromyslovaya cooperation and services as object of state regulation came out

(on the example of Bashkiria in 1917 — 1940)" in which on the basis of a historical retrospective problems of economic formation of cottage industry cooperation in terms of its state regulation within the commodity-money address in post-revolutionary Bashkiria were investigated. The author tracked process of transformation from loner handicraftsmen to collective associations, cottage industry cooperation and further, at the same time having noticed that changes in process of production happened at rigid state controle22.

Distinguished from other researches became the monograph by S.F. Grebenichenko "Dictatorship and trade Russia in the 1920th years". Her author on the basis of study and the analysis more than 1200 regulations came to a conclusion that the authorities carefully monitored a situation in the cottage industry sphere and accurately reacted to it the edition of various directives and zakonov23.

The significant contribution to studying relationship of the power and cottage industry cooperation in days of the New Economic Policy was brought by V.G. Egorov who considers that the cooperative policy of the Soviet power generally was guided by a "state and capitalist" component of content of cooperation, practically without having defined its place and a role as independent way. And handicraft commodity work was regenerated only in the narrow limits which are not allowing to accumulate a tendency to its concentration on base kooperatsii24. Finally the researcher defined relationship of the Soviet power and cooperation as failed alliance.

Also the monograph by I.A. Chukanov "The Soviet economy in the 1920th years deserves attention: a new view (on materials of Central Volga area)" in which the separate section is devoted to cooperative policy of Bolsheviks on average the Volga region. Her author comes to a conclusion that by the beginning of the New Economic Policy cooperative policy ruling

parties suffered total collapse. In particular, it notes that "public authorities carried out concerning cooperation a number of purely administrative, "anti-market" transformations, for the purpose of a strong binding of cooperation to the created command system therefore cooperatives by the end of 1920 generally lost the market character" 25.

Other Volga region researcher R.N. Paramonova also summarized that "by the end of the 1920th the cooperative system of Central Volga area had vast experience of managing and broad prospects. However & lt;.> all attempts of cooperation to become independent force, to restore the principles of social movement suffered a failure" 26.

Yu.I. Slivka, having studied experience of cooperative construction in Lower Volga area, came to conclusion that the producers' cooperation, being the main producer of consumer goods in days of the New Economic Policy, in fact, was "stepdaughter" at Soviet vlasti27.

E.G. Gimpelson gave to relationship of power structures and cooperation in the conditions of realization of the New Economic Policy the assessment. In particular, he noted that the cooperation only to the middle of a nepovsky experiment exempted from "military and communistic" methods of regulation and which recovered the activity on the basis of the market beginnings in the second half of the 1920th appeared under strict state and party control again. The party organizations interfered with work of cooperatives, instead of elections "the continuous naznachenchestvo" kommunistov28 was observed. Finally E.G. Gimpelson summarized: "in essence, from the cooperative principles by the end of decade remained little. The end of these socioeconomic associations came nearer. They were subordinated to the state" 29.

L.E. Fayn in the last monografii30 gave to relationship of the power and cooperation in the conditions of realization of the New Economic Policy the deepest assessment, in our opinion. In particular, he writes: "Already from first months of transition to the New Economic Policy, providing to cooperation some eases in economic activity, the Bolshevist management undertook all possible, admissible and inadmissible, measures to put it under the most severe party and state control" 31. According to it, in 1925 the specific weight of communists in boards of 22 unions of a promkooperation reached nearly 60% and these figures confirm massive "introduction" of party forces in a cooperative system.

According to L.E. Fayn, nepovsky "experiment" not only did not provide revival of cooperation and occupation of the place corresponding it to the social and economic nature by it in life of society, but also barred the way for new attempt of its revival for many decades.

Thus as shows the historiographic review, the problem of relationship of the power and cottage industry cooperation in days of the New Economic Policy for many decades drew close attention of scientists. The Soviet researchers made the significant contribution to its study, but the main lack of their works was one-sided illumination of cooperative policy of Bolsheviks.

An exit of historical science from under ideological control in the late eighties allowed to formulate new approaches to studying a problem, and most of modern scientists came to a conclusion that the Soviet state used cooperation for the solution of the economic and political tasks. By the beginning of the 1930th the cooperative principles were trampled, and cooperation became only a part of the state planned and distributive device.

1 L.E. Fayn. History of development of the cooperative plan by V.I. Lenin. — M, 1970.
2 See: Cantor M. Fundamentals of cooperative policy of RCP(b). — M.; L., 1926; P. Sevruk. Cooperation and construction of socialism. — M.; L., 1927.
3 A. Malakhov. Russian cooperation and communists. — Prague, 1921; Tougan-Baranovsky M.I.O cooperative ideal. — M, 1918. — Page 6.
4 N.L. Meshcheryakov. Modern cooperation. — M.; Item, 1923.
5 Baltin A. Lenin and cooperation. — M, 1925; Lozova A. Lenin and cooperation. — M, 1925.
6 See: Theoretical problems of modern Soviet cooperation. — M, 1930. — Page 34.
7 See: Dobronravov of V.S. Orgstroitelstvo of local promkooperativ. — M, 1932; From A.N., N.K. Afanasyev. The local industry and producers' cooperation in the third five-years period. — M.; L., 1939.
8 I.G. Bulatov. Fight of the Communist Party for development of the cooperative movement in the USSR (1921 — 1925). — Penza, 1961; A.I. Buzlayeva. Lenin plan of cooperation of the small industry. — M, 1969; M.A. Chernyshev. Beginning of socialist transformation of the domestic industry of Siberia. 1920 — 1927//Working class of Siberia during construction of socialism. — Novosibirsk, 1975; N.K. Harchevnikova. Siberian producers' cooperation. 1920 — 1929//From the history of Siberia. — Issue 18. — Tomsk, 1975.
9 A.F. Chumak. Historical experience of the CPSU on socialist transformation of the small industry. 1921 — 1932: Yew.... dokt. east. sciences. — Kryvyi Rih, 1971; A.N. Markelova. Activities of the Communist Party for socialist transformation of cottage industry (1926 — 1932): Yew.... edging. east. sciences. — M, 1974; V.V. Konovalov. Party management of preparation of conditions of mass socialist transformation of the domestic industry of Siberia. 1926 — 1929: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. — Novosibirsk, 1977.
10 See: L.E. Fayn. Formation of the new historiographic concept of cooperation in the early nineties of the XX century//Bulletin of the Ivanovo university. — 2000. — Issue 2. — Page 34 — 46.
11 L.E. Fayn. The Soviet cooperation in a command management system vice (20th)//history Questions. — 1994. — No. 9. — Page 35 — 47; L.N. Lyutov. Cooperation as means of nationalization of cottage industry//Problem of history, the theory and practice of the cooperative movement in Russia. — Tyumen, 1992. — Page 62 — 63; V.V. Konovalov. About a role of a doctrinal factor in policy of Bolsheviks in relation to small industrial producers in the period of military communism//the History of the Soviet Russia: New ideas, judgments. — Tyumen, 1991. — Page 69 — 71; P.G. Nazarov. History of creation of the All-Union promkooperation. 1925 — 1932. — Chelyabinsk, 1993. — Part 3.; It. History of creation of the Soviet promkooperation. 1920 — 1923. — Chelyabinsk, 1993. — Part 2.
12 I.A. Kozlov. Revolution, New Economic Policy and fate of small-scale production//New Economic Policy Historical value: Sb. nauch. works. — M, 1990. — Page 80, 82.
13 S.V. Veselov. Cooperation and Soviet power: period of "military communism"//history Questions. - 1991. - No. 9-10. - Page 25-37.
14 See: L.E. Fayn. Domestic cooperation: historical experience. - Ivanovo, 1994. - Page 179-180.
15 In the same place. Page 220.
16 M.A. Svishchev. Small-scale production in the 20th years//the New Economic Policy: acquisitions and losses. - M, 1994. - Page 175.
17 L.N. Lyutov. Decree. soch. - Page 62-63.
18 V.V. Konovalov. About a role of a doctrinal factor in policy of Bolsheviks in relation to small industrial producers in the period of military communism. - Page 69-71.
19 V.V. Konovalov Vopros about cottage industry at the XII congress of RCP(b): strokes to the concept of "overcoming the New Economic Policy"//the Bulletin of the Tyumen state university. History. - the Issue 1. - Tyumen, 1996. - Page 63-70; It. Bolsheviks and producers' cooperation: to a question of communistic approach on "the cooperative front" in the first years of the New Economic Policy (1921-1923)//the Bulletin of the Tyumen university. - 1998. - No. 1. - Page 83-90.
20 V.V. Kabanov. Cooperation. Revolution. Socialism. - M, 1996. - Page 76.
21 A.V. Voronin. The cooperative policy of the Soviet power in the European North: the center and local authorities (1917 - the beginning of the 30th): Yew.... dokt. east. sciences. - Murmansk, 1997.
22 See: A.N. Degtyarev. Cottage industry cooperation and services as object of state regulation (on the example of Bashkiria in 1917-1940). - M, 2001.
23 See: S.F. Grebenichenko. Dictatorship and trade Russia in the 1920th years. - M, 2000.
24 See: V.G. Egorov. Domestic cooperation in small-scale industrial production: formation, development stages, nationalization (first third of the XX century). - Kazan, 2005. - Page 187, 195.
25 I.A. Chukanov. The Soviet economy in the 1920th years: a new view (on materials of Central Volga area). - M, 2001. - Page 235.
26 Paramonovo R.N. Development of a system of cooperation of Central Volga area in the conditions of the new economic policy (1921-1928): Yew.... edging. east. sciences. - Samara, 2001. - Page 195.
27 Yu.I. Slivka. Development of cooperation in Lower Volga area in 1921-1941: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. - Astrakhan, 2004. - Page 115.
28 See: E.G. Gimpelson New Economic Policy. New economic policy of Lenin-Stalin. Problems and lessons (20th years of the XX century). - M, 2004. - Page 233.
29 In the same place. - Page 236.
30 L.E. Fayn. Russian cooperation: historical and theoretical essay (1861-1930). - Ivanovo, 2002.
31 In the same place. - Page 448-449.
Lindsey Joseph
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