The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Destiny & #34; Words about regiment Igoreve" in E. Keenan's interpretation


VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007

arbitrariness. Under control also the term of detention at insignificant offenses and the more so in the absence of it got.

Civil lawsuits (the affairs connected with causing material damage - debts, violation of contract contracts and contracts, small thefts and also cases of dishonor) which understood magistrates, were conducted on the basis of competitive process. The claimant and the defendant or their authorized representatives participated in it. Women acted usually this way. The claimant (or his entrusted), having submitted the petition (application), had to "go behind business", i.e. gather evidence and report about them to court, pay office expenses, provide with "forage" of detainees on business and so forth. If the claimant "behind business did not go", in a month the case was dismissed, and from it took duties on legal costs.

The defendant was acquainted with the claim submitted on him then it and the claimant were obliged to become to interrogation in the time appointed by court. If the representative of one of the parties did not appear, then he also lost the case. If the defendant in whole or in part denied charges, then "dokaza" "for four images began: through willful recognition, through witnesses, through pismyanny arguments, through the oath". Each of the parties showed proofs and witnesses. The outcome of the majority of lawsuits, eventually, depended on testimonies of witnesses. According to the Cathedral code of 1649 (Chapter 10, Article 60), if svidete-

whether the claimant or at least one of them was not confirmed told them, that case was lost. The story by the witness was not any, judges asked it questions according to what was approved by the claimant, the witness claimed or denied his words. If the facts of the case were that that witnesses were not, then "oath" or an oath on the Gospel by both the claimant, and the defendant became as it was established in Cathedral code.1 2

In general, everyday life of institutions of city self-government was rather intense, full of diverse events. Institutions of self-government guarded the interests of city community, asserted their rights, took the initiative if it was talked of public advantage. In general existence of such bodies in the city essentially facilitated life of citizens, allowed to resolve many issues on places. Direct participation in practical activities of establishment promoted accumulation of practical skills on uses of potential opportunities which were given by the legislation of that time. The possibility of the legal solution of contentious cases by submission of applications and use of the right of the appeal of unfair actions and decisions promoted formation of civil sense of justice.


1 L.F. Pisarkova. The Russian bureaucracy during Peter I's era//National history. - 2004. - No. 1. - Page 29; Collection of laws on merchants, petty bourgeoises, posadsky and shop. - SPb., 1827. - Page 53-55.
2 V.R. Tarlovskaya. The country town and the educated absolutism//the Russian province. Culture of the 18-20th centuries. - M, 1993. - Page 41; L.F. Pisarkova. The Russian bureaucracy during Peter I's era. Conditions of service and characteristic features//National history. - 2004. - No. 2. - Page 15; I.I. Dityatin. Century S. - the St. Petersburg city society. 1785-1885 - SPb.,
1885. - Page 14-15; Pulkherov of A.I. Velikolutskoye municipal public government of 1785-1891. Historical review. - Pskov, 1892.

>- Page 15, 8-19; A. Shchekatov. Geographical dictionary of the Russian state.

>- T. 1. - M, 1801. - Page 1153, 1155; - T. 3. - M, 1804. - Page 1065; - T. 4. - M, 1805.

>- Page 925; - T. 5. - M, 1807. - Page 1127.


N.A. Chetyrina. A town hall - body of city self-government of the Sergiyevsky posad at the end of the 18th century//the Thousand-year history of Russia: Problems, contradictions and prospects of development. - M, 2004. - Page 341; CIAM. T. 73. Op.1. 431. L. 109. 462. L. 162.


L.F. Pisarkova. The Russian bureaucracy during Peter I's era. Conditions of service and characteristic features... - Page 15; A.E. Shepelev. High-ranking world of Russia. XVIII - the beginning of the 20th centuries - SPb., 1999. - Page 22.

RGADA. T. 681. Op.1. 7. L. 6 about.; A.I. Pulkherov. Decree. soch. - Page 15.

N.A. Minenko. Lines of public life of the city of Shadrinsk (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century) I/the Ural city of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century: history of daily occurrence. - Yekaterinburg, 2001. - Page 63.

N.A. Chetyrina. Decree.soch. - Page 342; E.A. Degaltseva. Daily life of the population of Siberia in the second half of H1H - the beginning of the XX century of I/Questions

10 11

stories. - 2005. - No. 10. - Page 77.

PSZ-1. - T. HS. - No. 10119; - T. XVIII. - No. 13032, 13082.

Collection of laws on merchants... Page 53-55; A.I. Pulkherov. Decree. soch. - Page 18. PSZ. - ZVII. - No. 4897. - Page 656; Collection of laws on merchants... - Page 476. I.N. Postnikov. Notes of the Bezhetsk policeman of the head. Lines of city public life of the end of the XVIII century. - Tver, 1914. - Page 6; A.I. Pulkherov. Decree. soch. - Page 14.

O.E. Koshelev's

>. Decree. soch. - Page 309-312.

UDC 930 (091)

The fate of "Tale of Igor's Campaign" in E. Keenan's interpretation

E.A. Kurenkova

GOUVPO "Moscow State University of service"

"Tale of Igor's Campaign" is, perhaps, one of the most mysterious monuments of Old Russian literature. Philologists and historians various hypotheses concerning a problem of determination of authenticity of the text expressed. The same arguments are used for proofs both falseness, and authenticity of the document. Among large works where opinions on falseness "Words move forward...", it is possible to select A. Mazon and A.A. Zimin's monographs. Not so long ago this list was replenished with work of the American scientist Edward Keenan "with Josef Dobrovsky

and the Origins of the Igor& Tale".

On May 17, 2001 in Warsaw on the International School of the humanities of Central and Eastern Europe it came out with revelation of "Tale of Igor's Campaign".

The American scientist believes that in the version existing in science about origin of "Word" only the fact that A.F. Malinovsky took part in its edition in 1800 is true. The fact that it is a monument of Old Russian literature of the 12th century is devoted to Igor Svyatoslavovich's campaign on Cumans in


VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007


1185 that it was found at the end of the 18th century in the Spaso-Yaroslavsky monastery by the count A.I. Musin-Pushkin and the original burned down in the Moscow fire of 1812, is "an absolute lie".

In favor of such destruction of the known history of origin "Words..." Keenan adduces two groups of arguments. The first group includes criticism of versions about origin of the manuscript. The scientist says that there are no documentary evidences of existence of the text of the poem. All existing certificates contain only in monuments of epistolary character and "are contradictory and false". Generally they go back to K.F. Kalaydovich who at the time of the Slova. edition was eight years old. The story about acquisition of the poem told by the count A.I. Musin-Pushkin at the archimandrite of the Spaso-Yaroslavsky monastery Ioilya Bykovskogo - "fraudulent". In catalogs of monastic library there is no konvolyut with the Chronograph at number 323 in which allegedly and there was "a Word.". Musin-Pushkin up to the death in 1817 did not say "obviously" about losses of the manuscript "the Word." in the fire of 1812, therefore, lost nothing. As knew that the poem was forged on his eyes in 1792-1798

Critical attacks against the text of the poem belong to the second group of remarks of Keenan. Here the American Slavist uses the favorite method: finds the quote having undoubted similarity to the studied work in later monument and then says that it is primary. Thus, "Word." it is written off from later monuments.

The American researcher found similarity of the text of the poem to the first printing editions of the Old Testament, in particular, by Moiseyev of the Pentateuch in the 16th century. Existence in "the Word." gebraizm from the Old Testament (ury, an ortma) gives to the scientist the grounds to assume that this work appeared how in Venice in 1524-1525 the Hebrew text of the Bible is printed, and considering fashion, widespread among Christians of the end of the XVIII century, for urim and thummim, - that it occurred somewhere after 1775. According to him, also "" presence at performing influence of the Italian Renaissance and application of some expressions borrowed from German only in the 16th century unmistakably is defined. "word." pestret bogemizm, puns and klassitsizm, false and real, showing that his author was extremely well familiar with classic Slavic languages and literature; he also knew Bible language, including Hebrew; deeply like valor and unity of Slavs; he was captured by sound and lighting effects, in particular - bird's and animal sounds; the identical deistic respect to paganism, Christianity and the personified nature was inherent in him; he quite well was guided in printing Russian ballads of the end of the 18th century and though as it is paradoxical, was a good judge of some is specific East Slavic linguistic and historical realities a little.

There is a question of the one who is the author of a fake? The American scientist finds in the author "unprecedented arrangement to the Slavic people", especially to Czechs, and draws a conclusion that the famous Czech Slavist Josef Dobrowski could be him,

who in 1792-93 got acquainted with a collection of the ancient manuscripts belonging to Musin-Pushkin. He made extracts from many works including from the manuscript "Words.". Keenan announces these concise extracts original sketches which were used then for production of a counterfeit by unfair Musin-Pushkin and Malinovsky. The last thought up, as if the manuscript was in structure of the collection with an Old Russian Chronograph. The fake called by "Tale of Igor's Campaign" was issued in 1800. However it is absolutely not clear how this Malinovsky's role which is thought up by Keenan is joined that in May

1815 he bought for 170 rubles from the Moscow petty bourgeois Pyotr Arkhipov the pergament list of the work, apparently from the text, made in 1375 a certain Leonti Zyablov. Zyablov, in turn, allegedly exchanged him at German Shimelfeyn, and the last acquired the manuscript in the Kaluga province from the landowner who forbade to mention her name. Malinovsky was scary proud of acquisition and began to prepare "the Word." to reprinting.

However his joy was saddened by news that Musin-Pushkin found the new list "Words. When comparing both versions of the text were identical. Their manufacturer was the famous Moscow falsifier of manuscripts Anton Ivanovich Bardin who copied the text from the printing edition of the poem.

According to Keenan, Dobrowski or did not suspect about Musin-Pushkin and Malinovsky's bad intentions at all, or for the unknown reasons did not begin to say that the true author of the poem is he, but not the unknown poet of the 12th century. The Czech Slavist kept silent. Also N.M. Karamzin, P.M. Stroyev, N.N. Bantysh-Kamensky and other persons close to Musin-Pushkin and guessing a true story of a monument were silent or "plaid the hypocrite".

The American scientist asks a question: why Dobrowski needed to play "the Chernihiv bard of the XII century"? The answer to this question is very unexpected. Keenan says that here we enter "dark depths of individual psychology" and it is necessary to consider the nature and the nature of an intellectual disease of Dobrowski. During the considered period there was an aggravation, and in such state it tended to compose "semi-antique" different texts. Keenan pays our attention to four facts:

We know from documents that for years about which it is (approximately

1793-1800), it is necessary nearly the most difficult period of a disease of Dobrowski.

We know that even during mental dissonances he was capable to write absolutely correct text with Latin, German and Czech languages and also to discuss difficult scientific questions near own hallucinations.

We know from observations over other people affected with the same illness that patients who endure manias are very often inclined to come back to texts or objects, created by them during the previous attacks.

We know after all, that subjects and contents of similar texts are defined by culture, Wednesday and the personality, that is they do not get out accidentally.



the American researcher connects by VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007

personally with Dobrowski many main subjects and signs of "Word" which their sceptics identified with trends and the interests of the end of the 18th century long ago. For example, if the text, indeed, contains some "messages" (bypassing the plots postponed from Zadonshchina and the Ipatyevsky chronicle), then the thought on which if slav brothers fight among themselves for good or territories ("This mine, and that mine"), they naklinut on themselves pernicious invasions of neighbors, most likely, is enclosed in them. For Dobrowski partitions of Poland, the second of which just took place, became such ominous harbinger: through contention among Polish Slavs the Russian Slavs occupied Slavic lands and allowed Germans (To Prussia and Austria) to plunder territories. These problems, as well as in general the future of Slavs, very strongly disturbed Dobrowski's mind just right in years which directly preceded emergence of the first Slova edition.

During the trip to Russia in 1792 Dob-rovsky already deeply joined that called by Slavophile business. Just before it (in 1791) he handled the well-known appeal to the new emperor Rudolf II on behalf of Slavs of the empire. And though Dobrowski's attitude towards Russia and Russians was some two-digit (he considered them for people brave, but plain), he, according to Keenan, (in particular during nonsense attacks) approved expansion of the Russian Empire of ad limites Persiae et Indiae [To borders of Persia and India (Latin)] and to lands which Slavs, according to him, occupied "eternal". The researcher notices some anachronism of geopolitical orientation of "Word" and comes to a conclusion that as it is directed mainly to those southern territories which even the extreme tension of historical imagination could not make "Russians", but who were of the main diplomatic and military interest to the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th century, actually, these observations and induced Mazon to raise a question absolutely fairly: whether it is necessary to recognize this text as "the poetic application to the Yassky world"?

The American scientist pays attention that in great variety of the works devoted to a denial of intuitively brilliant hypothesis of Mazon still nobody really addressed this geographical aspect of a problem. And Mazon, Keenan emphasizes, having noted "obsession" (mention obsedante) of "Word" of Tmutarakanyyu, did not emphasize one more geographical anachronism - numerous mentions of Danube. And though some of these mentions were somehow explained, and others are replaced by publishers with Don, the problem remains: why allegedly the epos of the XII century about a campaign of the Chernihiv prince to the region of Don tells this about Danube very much?

Keenan begins to solve this small puzzle from the analysis of one fragment which in this regard usually is not even mentioned probably because the word "Danube" it is not used there. In the 99th line, at the end of the well-known fragment known as "Svyatoslav's Dream", we read:

Plsnsk on Bolon has a bjsha debr Kisanyu, and will not banish k to the blue sea.

The researcher emphasizes that this line forces down from sense of translators and commentators on about -

tyazheniya of two centuries. According to him, this fragment puts forward three separate problems: localization of Plesensk, identification "debr Kisanya (Kisanya?)" and interpretation "I will also not banish".

The first publishers, referring to Tatishchev, assured that Plesensk was the city in Galichsky the principality on border with Volhynia. However Keenan pays attention to a problem which long time disturbed historians and archeologists: Plesensk is well described in the Ipatyevsky chronicle and confirmed with the latest excavation as the considerable city of the XII century, lay on Far North Galichsky the principality, is far also from Kiev where, authentically, Svyatoslav, and from the majority of the events described in "Word" saw the dream. Inconvenience of this fact, the scientist considers, generated many attempts, times risky, to identify Plesensk with some other, closer places to Kiev certified in the chronicle whose name let is approximately similar to Plesen-sk. Keenan calls the standard thought an arithmetic average of these hypotheses. After all, expansion of a dream in the text which was full of imaginations does not demand geographical accuracy, and it is possible to belong indulgently to certain historical divergences.

The researcher claims that Plesensk the Ipatyevsky chronicle, "History the Russian" of Tatishchev and "Word" is, no doubt, a place of today's archaeological excavations under the village of Plesnesko-Lvovsky area, near sources of the Seret and Bystritsa Rivers. Together with many other geographical points which it is not mentioned in the annalistic story about Igor's campaign Plesnesk is located in the territory which at the time of Dobrowski entered the Austrian Galicia. Keenan notices that near the Austrian Bukovina, also between Seret and Bys-tritsey, the Austrian commander Friedrich Josef, the prince Zaksen-Koburg-Zalfeld, billeted the troops for winter of 1788-1789. The northern area Cera-that is Bystritsa was the territory of the Principality of Yaroslava "Osmomysla". And the southern territory Siret - Bystritsa was the important arena in campaigns of the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791, in particular for the Habsburg troops. And in the context of this war which, according to Keenan, Dobrowski had to watch fixedly from Prague just on the eve of the trip to Russia, it is necessary to understand Yaroslav's communication and Galich (northern Seret - Bystritsa) with Danube (the southern Siret - Bystritsa). Contamination of two homonymic territories by Dobrowski the American scientist unites historical realities of "Word" with the "Austrian" prospect and the Slavophile interests of the Czech Slavist of that time.

Two other problems ("debr Kisanya" and "I will also not banish") are, according to the researcher, much more difficult. Keenan considers that P Jacobson solved the first of them by a konjektura, having created new reading "on Bolon bjshya dbrska the sleigh". But the scientist offers much more the simple explanation which is not demanding uniform corrections: "debr Kisanya" is one of several gebraizm which meet in "Word".

"Debr Kisanyu" Keenan understands as Hebrew unVp&W&i, "the dry course which extends on the northwest through the plain of Megiddo", well-known for the fact that here the Canaanite coalition was beaten under


VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007


Siseri's guide. This scene thanks to the Book Sudy 5:21 ("the Kishonsky stream позм^ав them [tsars of Canaan and to Taanakh], began to flow ancient, Kishonsky began to flow") and the First book by tsars 18:40 ("and Ilya Kishon brought together them [Vaal's prophets] to a stream and cut them...") became, according to the researcher, a constant antiquated metaphor for the place of death and slaughter and also the proof of God's force of providence.

Keenan pays attention to a mention in the Old Testament of own name р&шч in a combination with unV (the ditch, began to flow [the course of a stream]) and, also as for gebraizm that entered the latest bible texts with mediation of Greek, on a set of forms, characteristic of it (The Bible by the king Yakov: River Kishon, brook of Kison, brook Kishon; Vulgate: in loco torrentis Cison, torrens Cison; KralShchka Bible (1597-1593): Cison; Skorininsky Bible (1517-1519): vpotoyets of Kissov; Ostrozhsky Bible (1581): vpotots Kizzov, Greek text: Kiaaw, Ks[i]awv. unV often occurs in the Old Testament as a word on designation of places of burial, places of tossing of children, etc. And "дебрь" it is usually used in old Slavic language as a synonym of a ditch, a stream, a stream.

Such identification allows Keenan to venture interpretation mysterious "and I will not banish to the blue sea": on the basis of the Book Sudy 5:21 where in the Bible by the king Yakov swept them away is told, in the Kralitsky Bible - Potok Cison smetl je, and in the Ostrozhsky Bible - an izgna I am a water leak kadimin [instead of "ancient"]. So, accepting Jacobson's reading and others: "and nesoshya Kommersant k for the blue sea", and correcting in addition on the basis of a hypothetical initial transliteration of Dobrovs-kogo: "and unesosha je" (it is vicious reconstructed as "iu ne soshlju"), the American researcher receives "debr Kison, and an unesosha of Kommersant k to the blue sea {sea}".

However, Keenan recognizes, as this explanation is not satisfactory. A phrase "were (in you multiply) Kisonsky began to flow in Plesenska on the suburb, and they were born in the sea" and further it seems some incoherent, and, besides, it is possible that the suburb of Plesensk is mentioned in connection with the previous cries of night birds. Nevertheless the scientist concludes that dark "debr Kisan... to the blue sea" is a bible hint. Worthy such serious Christian gebraist as Josef Dobrow-ski, and absolutely inappropriate for Chernihiv the 12th century. In a similar key Keenan interprets one more "Galich / Bukovina" fragment:


Galichka Yaroslav Osmomysl

highly sjdish on svoyem zlatokovannjm so.

Mountains Ugorskyi Podper zheljzny pljka,

zastupiv Korolevi a way, shut v to Danube gate,

a vremena sword chrez a cloud, courts ryadya to Danube.

Thunderstorms yours on zemlyam tekut;

ottvoryaesh К&еву gate;

strjlyavsh s otnya gold of a table Saltani behind lands. Strjlyay Mister Konchaka, nasty Koshchey for the earth Ruskaya, for wounds Igorev of buy Svyatslavlich.

The fragment has many riddles: it is the only text where Yaroslav Vladimirovich Galichsky is called by "Osmomysl" and the most part of this fragment does not give in to satisfactory interpretation.

"Mountains Ugorskyi Podper zheljzny pljka, zastupiv Queens way, locks v Danube gate... courts ryadya to Danube". The researcher notes that most of commentators agree that it is about Carpathians Mountains and Danube, but at the same time usually note that Yaroslav Vladimirovich did not control and did not build the bridge on Danube. Nevertheless Tatishchev says absolutely clearly that Yaroslav strengthened the cities on Danube, and in a context gabsbursko - Russian-Ottoman diplomacy of the 1790th the Austrian Bukovina, according to Keenan, was considered as a key to Danube. Besides, Tatishchev was probably a source to information about Yaroslav's wealth (zlat, zlatoko-vaniye so).

The most difficult moment for the American scientist is the question about what "king" it is here. The use by a row court - and a row - in expression "courts ryadya" also is unusual that has no parallels in the corresponding texts. In "Word" this unusual association will appear later once again, in a fragment from two segments connected among themselves where it is about "court":

[159] of Vseslav Prince lyudem to a sudyasha, knyazem grads to a ryadyasha.

Keenan emphasizes the unusual use in both cases of the verb "ryadit" with direct addition in an accusative case. Nevertheless he pays attention to a standard way of expression of control, the direction or management in Czech of which the use of ffditi with an accusative case is characteristic. In particular, the researcher gives examples of comparison of these two lexemes in Czech: in the name of the book on which Dobrowski wrote the review in 1786: Wseobecny rad saudm pro Czechy, Morawu, Slezko, Rakausy...

At the American researcher the next line was of particular interest:

[131] Strlyavsha s otnya gold of a table Saltani behind lands.

The fact that here it is about "sultans" (as always deciphered the word "Saltani" from edttio princeps times), is for Keenan very doubtful, contrary to all thoughtless and anachronistical statements of commentators of rather alleged participation of Yaroslav Vladimirovich (died on October 1, 1187) in the Third crusade (1189-1192) and contrary to very scientific discussion of orientalists concerning history of the title "sultan". According to the scientist, such reading does not make sense in this context and besides is guided by the assumption about quite the most rare mistake of the copyist for Cyrillics who used and instead of ou or at. It seems to Keenan obvious that the author meant a phrase what the first publishers carefully rewrote, nevertheless did not understand: "s otnya table gold, s altana [s altany] behind lands". Altan[a] in starochessh language meant, as well as in original Italian option, a small tower, the covered terrace, a portico, a balcony, a belvedere or the pavilion. The researcher does not have doubts that here it is described how Yaroslav shoots "from a gold throne of [the] father, from an altana that very remote



VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007

[for many lands]". Such reading is confirmed by the previous text ("highly sjdish on svoyem zlatokovannjm so") and also the etymology of the original (alto in Italian "high").

Nevertheless the Italian word altana arose as the architectural term in Renaissance and got into Czech through German (here it is fixed not earlier than 1417). This fragment, the scientist believes, is quite expressive certificate under which "Word" cannot be the medieval Slavic text, and confirms our hypothesis about its origin. Dobrowski probably knew this word as from German where it was widely used since the beginning of the 16th century, and from Czech, but, it seems, by mistake apprehended it as the general loan from Latin.

The American researcher claims that the campaign of 1185 is not the main subject of the poem. "Tale of Igor's Campaign" is written not about Igor's campaign at all, in the text only "the handful of names" and approximately the one tenth part of verses are connected with events of 1185. All the rest - Yaroslavna's crying, Svyatoslav's dream, the story about Bojana, have not a direct bearing by 1185 and can be tied to other dates. However here Keenan makes a reservation that the campaign of 1185 was well-known for the Ipatyevsky chronicle, is popular with Tatishchev and in Catherine II's Notes on the Russian history therefore his choice is absolutely logical.

The last argument of the scientist is the appeal to probability theory. According to him, emergence of the text, similar "to the Word...", in the territory of Eastern Europe in the 12th century it is impossible. But emergence at the end of the 18th century of a similar fake is quite probable. Especially, Keenan considers, the composition of such texts had general character, and different fakes and imitations became banality.

All these constructions, the American researcher considers, at last allow to explain dark places of the work.

Modern Czech philologists-Slavists apprehended news of writing "Words." one of the leading representatives of the Czech revival Josef Dobrowski rather skeptically, having estimated only that the American colleague managed to find a number of the arguments testifying against authenticity of the epos.

Representatives of the Russian science modestly reacted to E. Keenan's assumptions. Two works devoted to the analysis of a hypothesis of the American researcher were published. It is A.A. Filyushkin's article "Psychopathic destruction "of the Word." and monograph by A.A. Zaliznyak "Tale of Igor's Campaign". Linguist's look". Both scientists meet that "the Word." leaves us more questions, than answers. And most likely to us never to find answers to these questions.

The list of the used literature

1. A. Filyushkin. Psychopathic destruction of "Tale of Igor's Campaign".


2. Zdenek Myslivicek. "Dusevni choroba Josefa Dobrovskeho". - Bratislava: Casopis ucene spolecnosti Safarikovy 1929, 3 (3-4): 825-835.
3. V.N. Tatishchev. History Russian, Part 3 (Moscow, 1964), page 146-147.
4. V.L. Vinogradova, etc. Dictionary reference "Words to a Regiment Igorev": In 6 volumes. (Moscow-Leningrad, 19651984), t. 6 (1984), page 92-93.
5. V.P. goats. Mysteries of falsifications: analysis of fakes of historical sources of the 18-19th centuries (Moscow: Aspekt-Press, 1996). See also: Ihor Sevcenko. "The Date and Author of the So-Called Fragments of Toparcha Gothicus".

>- Dumbarton Oaks Paper, 25 (1971), pp. 117-188.

6. Czech Radio 7, Radio Prague. -

UDC 930 (091)

To a question of features of the source study analysis of didactic complexes of oboshchayushchy character: a problem of relationship of editions and lists in the history of studying a domestic tyranny

V.V. Horikhin

GOUVPO "Moscow State University of service"

Among monuments of "secular didactic literature" of the Russian Middle Ages a specific place is held by so-called "fatherlike legends" - the moralizing texts opening the address of the father to the son. The tradition of compositions such is known in Russia since the most ancient times. It is necessary to carry to number of the earliest works of this genre first of all the texts which were Izbornik's part of 1076 - "The word of a certain father to the son", "Punishment svya-

that Feodora" and "Xenophon's lecture to children". Such known monuments to Old Russian writing as "Lecture to Anadan" from "The story about Akira wise" and "Gramotitsa" of Vladimir Monomakh also enter into the same group of early "fatherlike legends".

To mature samples of a genre, besides "Lecture of a certain reasonable father to the son, Kako to it life", "Lectures from sacred books about chadekh" and another anonymous "fatherlike legends" disseminated through numerous

Janice Russell
Other scientific works: