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City holidays in Western Siberia in the middle of XIX beginning of the 20th century

ty that after all men created glory of an age of Catherine the Great. That is by parody decrease Catherine ego-tripped in the role of the autocratic ruler of the great empire. Thus, in playful way one of fundamental stereotypes of the Russian consciousness - an embodiment of the power with a powerful figure of the male tsar, i.e. as well as in a classical case of the turned relations - the carnival described by M.M. Bakhtin was overcome, this line of women's board in Russia had compensatory character of overcoming diffidence. It reflects also specifics of the Russian situation - to great rulers of the western powers, such as Elizabeth Angliyskaya, there was no need for following to male style of behavior.

It is necessary to pay attention and that Catherine II, the German on the birth, but not Russians Anna Ioannovna and Elizabeth, managed to create the most successful option of women's board as she, the representative of European civilization, received feed of the western rationality allowing it to choose and to make successful decisions and it is easier to feel in a situation of violation of norms, traditional for the Russian society.

The Russian women in the 18th century passed very considerable way. In many respects they are obliged to these re-

to Peter the Great's forms, however the main results were shown later - at the end of the century and even at the beginning of the following. It is an exit of notable women to the public, emergence of female education at Catherine II, familiarizing with the elite forms of culture developed by earlier western civilization (subculture of coquettes of high society). Decembrists, color of the Russian nobility, were trained first of all houses, the mothers. But specifics of the Russian processes of reforming (focused first of all on military and political affairs) such is that women still, despite so bright phenomenon as women's board, remained cut off from public, and first of all imperious, spheres, great Russian empresses did not become the first feminists, building the policy by men's methods and male hands. Besides and the women who got an education were not demanded by society during that era, female education became only demonstration of prestige. It illustrates accurate attachment of "women's issue" to historical and cultural realities of a concrete era.

Article is prepared with assistance of a grant of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation on carrying out scientific research by young scientists in the leading scientific and pedagogical collectives of 2002-2004


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Yu.M. Goncharov


Altai state university

Holidays always played a large role in life of society, distracting from series of daily occurrence, serving as means of communication and entertainment, promoting formation and strengthening of community of people [1, page 9].

City festive culture substantially differed from rural, country. Moving of traditional agricultural holidays to city conditions could not but affect their character. In the atmosphere of the city such sushchestven-

ny lines of traditional holidays as the strict regulation and ceremonialism, the magic party of actions cease to be felt [2, page 6].

In pre-revolutionary Russia there were different types of holidays - state, religious, family. As well as now, non-working and holidays were celebrated in the calendar by red color. In 1896, for example, "red" days of the calendar was 42 [3, page 258].

The events connected with important points in life of reigning House of Romanovs were public holidays, as a rule: birth, baptism of successors, achievement of majority by them, marriage, crowning. For example, at the beginning of the 20th century holidays were on May 6 and on December 6 - a birthday and day of a name day (name day) of the emperor Nicholas II. On December 14 and on July 22 were a birthday and the name day of his mother - the widowing empress Maria Fyodorovna. To the emperor's spouse - the queen Aleksandra Fyodorovna respects were paid on May 25 and on April 23. Day of a crowning of a ruling imperial couple - sadly memorable day in the Russian history on May 14, 1896 also belonged to "royal" holidays (that day during the festivities on the Hodyn-sky field in Moscow about 1500 people) [3, page 258 died in a crush].

The government charged the organization of celebration of official celebrations to local officials. The ofitsioznost, deliberate solemnity and strict observance of an established order was characteristic of such actions. Any holiday in cathedral where citizens led by the administration were obliged to pray for the tsar began. Over the city the ringing of bells was distributed.

During "royal" holidays on government buildings and also on some private houses the State Emblems and a monogram in the form of a wooden framework with the initials corresponding to a case under a crown were established. In the evening the coats of arms were illuminated by multi-colored small lamps.

Quite often during the official celebrations held military parades. The value of military parades in public life of Omsk in which the military garrison, largest in Siberia, and the center of army management was located was especially high. Thanks to it in Omsk arranged also military triumphs that was not peculiar to other Siberian cities [4, page 116].

Military parades and ceremonies were at that time one of favourite entertainments not only the simple people, but also society.

For soldiers of city garrisons these days free treats from city society usually were given. So, in 1896 in Tomsk, during the celebration of a crowning of Nicholas II, to all soldiers

local battalion distributed "on a cup of vodka and pie" [5, l. 218]. Such tradition testified

about care of citizens of people who bore a hard burden of military service. The organization of free lunches with indispensable delivery of a wine portion was urged to create festive mood among soldiers in days of public holidays. On the other hand, the device of free treats for soldiers was demonstration of faithful monarchic moods from the young Siberian bourgeoisie, and sometimes and means to receive government award.

Even official holidays did not do without excesses. For example, in little Narym 1883 in day of celebration of a crowning of Alexander III "4 persons of excessive consumption of vodka" died [6].

After the trip of future emperor Alexander II across Western Siberia in 1837 in Tyumen and Tobolsk local - day of visit of the city by "the tallest person" joined number of the all-Russian public holidays. In Tyumen this date was celebrated most grandiosely. Custom annually to celebrate on May 31 this event remained in the city at the beginning of the 1880th. This day in country Aleksandrovsk to a garden the festivity was organized: "Since morning all young and old, having put on in the best dresses, go to a molebstvovaniye about health and prosperity of the adored Tsar-liberator; then after an exit from churches... hurry in a country garden where in richly stretched tents of the wife of eminent city citizens do already the charitable purpose business by different fruit and cookies. Hour in 3 p.m. for intelligent public magnificent dinner after which, at sounds of local music, the festivities begin is served in the station and then hours dances and a garden throughout already all night from 9 in the evening open burns with thousands of fires" [7, page 139].

Despite the considerable efforts made by the government and local administration at the organization of magnificent official celebrations of "solemn days", influence of public holidays on life of bulk of citizens - petty bourgeoises, merchants, commoners - it was limited only to a festive church service, contemplation of a military parade in those cities where there were military garrisons, and the simple entertainments arranged during the festivities [4, page 120].

For the bulk of Siberians traditional national and religious holidays had much bigger value. The calendar cycle of holidays brought a variety series of daily occurrence.

Christmas was one of the major holidays. In anticipation of his house diligently washed and cleaned. Rubbed floors, washed doors. To gloss

polished copper handles and to term wound them with protective rags that "not to zakhvatat". Beat out and cleaned fresh snow sofas and chairs.

The holiday of Christmas began spiritual ceremonies: went to matins, to a mass; after a mass with congratulations to seniors. Children and teenagers this day since morning went on the city and "glorified Christ". "To glorify" custom it was popular among all social groups.

For Christmas also was in custom that married daughters after a lunch went with husbands and children to parents. The next day did visits to the senior relatives and received guests. According to the calendar the Christmas holidays included 3 days off: On December 25, 26 and 27, but actually after Christmas night the holidays proceeded 12 days which were called a Christmas-tide.

On the Christmas-tide proceeding since evening on December 24 on January 6 (from Christmas till the Epiphany), the youth was fond of games and fortune-telling. A Christmas-tide was most brisk and cheerful season, especially for youth. An everyday occurrence were masked. Both adults and children walked on houses in the improvised suits with music, singing, dances. Masked, as a rule, drove about big groups together with musicians: "In Christmas evenings in Tobolsk still the usage remained to go disguised on houses familiar and unfamiliar and here under sounds of 2-3 musicians taken to dance with themselves a quadrille, the waltz, the Pole, etc." [7, page 139].

Especially popular this entertainment was in the small district cities. In Beryozovo in the 1860th also men and women from the circle of petty officials, petty bourgeoises, Cossacks ryaditsya. Also soldiers who, without changing clothes, and remaining in shape, arranged group "representations" went on houses of citizens: "Soldiers represent the invariable boat, - one of contemporaries wrote, - will sit down on a floor, and one will become as the helmsman and begin songs, wagging with sticks instead of oars" [8, page 378]. In Biysk "a .na a Christmas-tide petty bourgeoises ryaditsya by the way by "rasseysky new settlers", and as indispensable articles of a suit are considered: blue, krasheninny, by all means tight trousers, bast shoes if it is only possible to find them, the ripped caftan, and, above all - a hunk of black bread under the arm, masked has to beg" [9, page 220]. The official Mr. Kolmogorov claimed that all age groups of Siberians including elderly people, except for only Old Believers participated in the district cities in Christmas ryazheniye [10, page 265].

From the middle of the 19th century the number of public amusements on a Christmas-tide increased. The device of theater productions by forces of pupils of military schools, gymnasiums and soldiers entered a common practice in Tobolsk and Omsk. In Barnaul

performances were put by mining engineers and members of their families [4, page 121]. At the end of the 19th century in the Siberian cities the tradition of the device these days of fir-trees for children appears. Funds for Christmas children's holidays most often were raised on a subscription.

New year in the second half of the 19th century did not take that place which it takes today among calendar holidays. This day the citizens since morning visited cathedral where they listened to service with "a prayer for the tsar". Many parishioners led by all local administration usually gathered on a morning church service on January 1. After service, visits, congratulations followed. In the provincial cities it was accepted to bring to the governor a message of greeting on behalf of city society. In the evening

1 January at the head of local administration or in a public meeting the ball could be given. New Year's balls could be masked. In the middle of the 19th century the masquerades became fashionable in the provincial cities [11, page 45].

Among the Siberian citizens there is a meeting of New year and celebration of the Christmas-tide were followed by the customs connected with fortune-telling and various signs. As well as in general at Russians, in the region of guessing were the most popular among girls. But fortune-telling and belief in signs was widespread among all population groups. For example, in Tyumen among common people was considered that if on January 1 "who, having slipped, falls, then this year by all means will die". Guessed on the Christmas-tide and in the official environment. Here fortune-telling remained by tradition, and not prediction of the future, but entertainment of participants [4, page 124] was their purpose.

Maslenitsa - Cheese week of the Lent was one of the most cheerful holidays. The officer I. Belov left the description of celebration of Maslenitsa: "Never Omsk was so noisy and cheerful, as during this Cheese week. the city hitherto seeming lazy and sleeping, instantly odushevlyas began to fuss, the sleigh on vast space, a bigger part harnessed by couple of horses, a continuous chain scurry about on the main streets, the people crowd, rustle, frolic near and on ice slopes. Hundreds of crews, having passed the main streets, turn very slowly and as close mountains some behind others, the most part from this sleigh are similar to the flower baskets filled with the charming heads in hats which faces burn rouged by a frost behind many of them there are on a back gentlemen" [12, page 27-28].

The circle of entertainments for Maslenitsa was traditional: "For Maslenitsa arranged ice slopes with lamps, rode in big "koshevka" (sleigh) with color carpets, guzzled to the zavorot of guts" [13, page 41]. Characteristic features of celebration of Maslenitsa - driving from ice slopes and driving in sa-

nyakh - occurred in all Siberian cities. During drivings tried to flash daring, to show wealth of crew and beauty of a harness. In custom was to flood on the eve of a holiday public rolling mountains on central squares. Hills, or as they were called still at that time - "coils", were under construction on columns 5-6 m high. It was possible to sweep from such hill on distance up to 100 m. Mountains were decorated with fir-trees, and in the evenings illuminated multi-colored small lamps and flat dishes (these are the clay cups filled with fat, tar or pitch where the match was inserted and it was lit) [14, page 161]. In some cities - Tobolsk, Tara, Yalutorovsk - in the middle of the 19th century the public rolling mountains were paid [4, page 125].

In small towns of one of signs of a holiday there was a driving of "madam Maslenitsa". For example, in Kurgan in the middle of the 19th century in the last day of Maslenitsa knocked together the huge sleigh from six connected logs and boards, on them four columns with cross crossbeams fixed, on the top of a construction on a wheel "clown" sat. On the lower boards benches for carnival characters and musicians were placed [15, page 24].

According to G. Kolmogorov, in the district cities knocked together several sleigh "with top in the form of the boat covered with multi-colored fabrics, in the middle with a mast; on top human put scarecrows, there on a wheel also people sometimes sit down". In the middle of the boat were "disguised" which drove about on the city with songs and music. From rich houses sent them vodka and money [10, page 265].

In some cities of edge there were also local features of Pancake week entertainments. So, races which carried out on ice of the rivers also practiced in Tomsk and Tyumen along with traditional driving on horses. In Tobolsk rode not only in the sleigh from mountains, but also skates [4, page 125-126]. In Kurgan on ice of the river strengthened a long pole which top part was previously dipped into an ice-hole then it became covered by a thin ice layer. On a top of a pole placed a bottle of vodka or a rooster (sometimes a pig). The person interested to get this prize had to get on a pole to the very top [15, page 25].

After Maslenitsa there came the Lent during which noisy entertainments were not accepted. The official to V. Struva noted: "In Tomsk there were no sights, any entertainments. Here for the first time sharp transition from noisy Maslenitsa to the Lent, transition in the capital, in general imperceptible, and in particular for youth struck me" [16, page 16].

From spring holidays in the cities of the most significant there was Easter which was the main Christian holiday, besides, it was the first

a holiday which came after the 40-day Lent. Therefore approach of Easter with impatience was expected all groups of citizens. Prepared for a holiday of Easter in the Siberian cities "rich as wants, and poor as will be able", but everywhere baked Easter cakes, painted eggs, did cheeses. In rich houses sewed for all family of a new thing. Sacred week was spent in a circle of the family and acquaintances. In merchant houses the tradition was to send provisions to jails and almshouses at this time: "In Tyumen, for example, donations on holidays of Christmas and Easter were so big, sytna also are plentiful that landmark prisoners paid inspectors money that these days did not release further, and would give the chance to eat shaneg, eggs, sour milk and all what in other places it is necessary to pay further for" [17, page 9-10].

The celebration of Easter began with a solemn church service and a religious procession. I.E. Lyasots-ky described how it happened in church of the Tomsk university: "Doors of church were already open, many elegant people were seen. At doors the people became simpler - attendants and workers of the university crowded here. Along a corridor, long tables with Easter cakes were placed at a wall. Along the corridor to us the procession moved with singing. Ahead bore icons and banners. Behind hundreds of fiery uvulas from the burning candles flashed. When this procession approached church, church doors closed, and all accommodated more conveniently. The priest in a brilliant light cope clumsily became a back to a door and started singing" [18, page 23].

Easter was usually celebrated the whole week which and was called easter. The German scientists traveling in 1876 around Western Siberia A. Br and O. Finsh, having arrived in Omsk, with surprise noted: "Though we celebrated Easter 5 days ago, in Yalutorovsk, but here the holiday was in full swing still: all sported in festive suits and had fun, even benches were closed" [19, page 61].

For Easter festivities surely were organized. Because of a spring impassability of roads of festivities usually passed on sublime places as the driest districts of the city. Festive festivities attracted both city "aristocracy", and the center, and city bottoms. The police officer E.P. Klevakin left the description of this custom: "Easter days. All city has fun on holidays. Only masses come to an end, begin to travel around streets. Aristocrats city ride horses, do visits. People of the middle class, prosperous imitate the aristocracy, and those who have no horses, but have though one ruble, goes by carriers. In each house within a week are not cleared the table easter for -

piece and wine. On streets dirt nevylazny, but also it does not stop from swaying of idle people" [20, page 116]. For Easter holiday everywhere it was accepted to do visits and to receive guests.

Various representations for common people were a widespread easter entertainment: "On easter week on one of squares of the city settles local impresarios a swing and wooden farces for representation to the simple people of doll comedies and different focuses" [7, page 139]. Conjurers, acrobats, trainers, organ-grinders acted, showed views of capital cities and other pictures in mobile panoramas or rayka.

In many cities specially constructed a public swing. In the first half of the 19th century in Tobolsk there were several different types of a swing, from simple to very difficult, reminding a modern attraction "Ferris wheel". Different types of a swing were also in Tomsk in the 1850th [4, page 129]. In Tara, a big swing on which they could shake till 12-15 adults at once were arranged [14, page 161]. In the Siberian cities the swing was almost indispensable attribute of all festivities.

Sunday with which easter week came to an end was called the St. Thomas' Sunday. This day, weddings as he was considered as happy for marrying coped. The St. Thomas' Sunday was also maiden holiday. Believed even a bad sign if this day the girl stays houses, was considered that then she will not marry, or marriage will be unhappy, and the spouse - ugly.

The spring cycle of festive festivities came to an end with the Trinity (the 50th day from Easter) which marked also transition to summer. Usually it fell on the middle of May - the first half of June. Inhabitants, generally women and girls, together decorated churches and houses with young vegetation, birches: "On the eve of the Trinity all citizens bore from a market of a birch or fresh birch brooms. Brooms placed in banks, and birches dug in in the holes dug at gate or put in buckets. The smell of spring spread on all house. To churches there was a solemn service. A lot of people left to the forest, and the city seemed empty" [21, page 55].

Religious processions during the major orthodox holidays were important events in life of citizens. They represented a solemn church procession from one temple to another or to a certain place with icons, banners and other shrines, first of all with a big cross. Routes of the most important, the religious processions which had long tradition began in suburban villages or places where the esteemed relics were stored, and conducted to the city. Religious processions

caused big revival on city streets. Citizens led by the highest officials met icons still in the country, and many inhabitants accompanied their all way back. Usually processions were ahead noblemen and officials, then merchants, after them - other citizens with families. During stay of icons in the city, prayers served in churches, carried an image on houses and in offices where made prayers with a blessing of the waters. Religious processions accompanied nearly anything undertaking, significant for the city, for example opening of new educational institutions, the beginning of a fair.

An invited reception of guests was held on all holidays - family, church, state. In houses of rich merchants, tops of officials of guests convoked also on the occasion of arrival of important officials, famous travelers, scientists or in honor of any other outstanding events: receiving next rank, honorary title, rewarding with an award, successful transaction, etc.

Anniversaries of prominent citizens could be celebrated widely. The merchant Fedor Konyukhov in the "Kuznetsk chronicle" describes how in the city in 1879 celebrated 50 years of service in a priestly dignity of the archpriest P.T. Stabnikov: ".po to the termination of a prayer the hero of the anniversary and with it all clergy at 12 o'clock went to the house to the mayor where pervostateyny city society gathered; on the arrival of the hero of the anniversary town the head met him on a porch, and after an entrance to the room brought to it bread salt on behalf of city society and it with pleasure accepted; then all meeting was treated with tea, the vodka and snack made into the account of society; during snack the ecclesiastics and with them some and private, sang spiritual songs and. loudly three times shouted "hurrah"" [22, page 121].

Gradually became fashionable to celebrate anniversaries of business enterprises. For example, the trading house "M. Plotnikov and sons" who was settling down in Tyumen celebrated on November 1, 1899 the 10 anniversary of the existence. In honor of the holiday to all by the employee who served full 10 years it was given in an award 10% of the earned salary and also "very graceful counters" worth 25 rubles, made in Moscow, and one of steamship pilots received back 500 rubles contributed by it for the losses caused to firm. The celebration was followed by a festive lunch [23, page XXXV].

Also anniversaries of various societies were celebrated. So, on May 29, 1883 the Tomsk free fire society widely celebrated the anniversary. Members of society, having gathered at 11 and a half o'clock in the morning in the hall of City Council, went to a chapel of the Iversky Mother of God. During the procession ahead bore a banner of society, followed it with -

vt, and then there were members of four groups "in a strict order". The chapel had solemn speeches, then the prayer, and then a march under orchestra sounds on city streets took place. In 4 h p.m. the festivity at New Cathedral Square "with orchestra of music, songbooks, prizes with lasagnas on columns, carousels and a swing" in honor of the holiday began. In the evening the area was illuminated. The festivities "took place quite briskly", participated in it up to 2,500 people. The program of celebration ended with the dances which began in 10 h evening [24].

- the beginnings of the 20th century it is possible to carry various public holidays connected with a celebration of memorials and various anniversaries to number of new types of leisure of the Siberian citizens of the end of XIX. Very often similar holidays connected with officially admitted by names or the facts of the Russian history, were carried out at the initiative of administration. Everywhere, for example, the 300 anniversary of House of Romanovs was celebrated. The program of such holidays usually included service in cathedral, solemn speeches in honor of the celebrated event, a performance of pupils with recitation, singing of chorus. In this event all public organizations tried to make a contribution. So, the Tomsk petty-bourgeois society created the special commission on preparation of a holiday, planned the program of participation of society in it: "... in day of execution of the 300 anniversary. to arrange illumination of the house of the Justice, to expose a portrait of the First Tsar from House of Romanovs, besides to organize on the bank of Ushayki in the evening fireworks on what to assign up to 100 rub. Besides the device of illumination and fireworks to release in the order of mister chief of the province from 50 to 100 rub on the device of national amusements". Addressed to the emperor the petty-bourgeois society sent the congratulatory telegram with expression of faithful feelings [25, l. 3-18].

In some Siberian cities at the beginning of last century there was a tradition of carrying out literary holidays. For example, in Barnaul in 1902 celebrated the 50 anniversary from the date of N.V. Gogol's death, in 1909 - the 100 anniversary from the date of its birth. Names -

but renaming of a number of streets in Barnaul is connected with literary anniversaries: Irkutsk in Pushkin (1899), Kuznetsk in Gogol (1902). Big Tobolsk to Leo Tolstoy Street [26, page 116-117].

This tradition extended also in small towns. In particular, in Tara on the eve of anniversary day of Lomonosov served a memorial service. Next day after a molebstvovaniye for pupils tea with sandwiches and candies was arranged. Celebration continued in educational institutions singing of the anthem, then cantata to Lomonosov and reading its biography. Entered also literary morning with recitation of poems of Mikhail Vasilyevich the program of a holiday and distribution of awards by the best pupil [27, page 173].

Public holidays these years were widespread. In Tyumen, for example, in 1882 there was a celebration of the 300 anniversary of conquest of Siberia by Yermak, in 1886 - the 300 anniversary of foundation of the city was solemnly celebrated, and in 1912 "on August 26 in Tyumen there was a celebration of 100-year anniversary of Patriotic war of 1812 when for the people and pupils readings with pictures from the history of war of 1812 were arranged everywhere" [28, page 49-52]. In Tobolsk also celebrated 300-year anniversary of conquest of Siberia - December 6, 1882: "This day in the Tobolsk cathedral it was made, in the presence of the chief of the province and representatives of all estates of the city. solemn liturgy. Upon termination of a molebstvovaniye. at Cathedral Square there was a parade from the Tobolsk personnel reserve battalion". In the program of celebration also were: opening of a shelter for poor children, a breakfast in a public meeting and a dancing-party [7, page 19-20].

The new holidays becoming a part of city life demonstrated further sociocultural development of the region and provided to citizens much more opportunities for communication and cultural rest. New forms of city holidays were sign of the continuing decline of traditional culture and further formation of a city way of life.


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F.N. Podustov


Tomsk state pedagogical university

Studying a problem of completing of parts of the military Districts of Siberia and the Far East in 19251930 is caused: the critical relation to the existing form of the organization of a military system; need of development of model of army which would meet the requirements of modern society; falling of interest of youth in military service, decrease in prestige of army in society.

Besides, the author believes that without clarification of number and social composition of various categories of the military personnel of the Siberian military districts the consideration of the place and a role of the Red Army in social and political and cultural life of Siberia and the Far East during the interwar period is impossible. When studying cultural processes in the Red Army, its contribution and a role in social and political and cultural life of Siberia and the Far East in historical literature was not paid sufficient attention to the analysis of its organization, completing by ordinary and command and political structure, material conditions of living and life of the military personnel which undoubtedly are important and serve as the convincing proof of interdependence and continuity of these components.

Today during the reforming of Armed Forces of Russia and reduction of their number opportunities with higher quality to improve their structure, to call and leave in army naibo-are created

leu of worthy to carry out more careful selection of recruits. Unfortunately, a policy is not pursued of improvement of quality of staff of army purposefully. One of trends of functioning of capacity of army and the fleet is connected with further decrease in general education level, the culture of staff, especially draft youth. Following the results of the spring draft company of 1997, 27% of recruits had no secondary education, and 11% received only initial. According to the Ministry of Health, in 1997 28.4% of recruits were recognized as unusable to military service for health reasons, and 40% made faces with various mental disorders. Representatives from the least protected population groups go to military work, as a rule. About 30% from them were brought up without parents or in incomplete families. Taking into account the existing system of numerous delays the military service becomes substantially destiny of those young people who have no opportunity to get a good education, medical care, badly eat [1, page 96, 108, 109].

A question of the principle and the system of completing - an important question which rises from origin of each new historical type of army. Always was so that the new class coming to the political power created the military organization from those public forces which were

Alison Mabel
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