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Category: History

CULTURE of the RUSSIAN EMIGRATION (1920 30th)



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L.G. Berezovaya

The CULTURE of the RUSSIAN EMIGRATION (1920 - the 30th)

Cultural mission of porevolyutsionny emigration as heritage of the Silver age

At top of the development in the Silver age the Russian culture declared itself as one of leaders of the world spiritual movement. The silver age was torn off by political, military and social shocks of 1917 - 1922. But the powerful cultural movement could not disappear at once only from external adverse circumstances - culture has own sources and logic of development. The silver age also did not disappear. It was broken off, but its separate traditions continued to exist some time in the culture of revolutionary romanticism, and the most part - in culture "Russia No. 2" as sometimes call the Russian emigration of 1920 - the 30th

The barrier of concealment of this huge layer of the Russian history is already broken in the 90th, but the uniform answer to a question, what place in the fate of Russia takes an emigration phenomenon, not yet. There are several points of view which are based on various estimates of history of our country in the 20th century

Historical literature of Soviet period if mentioned the culture of emigration, then treated it as the counterculture unambiguously hostile to the Soviet power and the homeland. This tradition was created in the 20th and had the similar point of view in emigre circles. Two works which appeared almost at the same time can be an example of such "dialogue", but one abroad, and the second - in the Soviet Russia. It is A.T. Averchenko's essay "Dozen of knives in a revolution back" and A.V. Lunacharsky's article "The former people".

The second point of view which is given rise in exasperation of emigration of the first years consists in recognition as only the "true" culture of emigration. The logic was almost "Bolshevist" here: as in new, Soviet, Russia there is no political and civil liberty, any free spiritual life is impossible, and the ideologized culture cannot be called that. At first it was the romantic statement of the writer and publicist R.B. Gul: "We carried away the Homeland on soles of the boots". And then - and a position of some "irreconcilable" from among the Russian emigrants.

But not very many groups of emigrants including such authoritative leaders as P.N. Milyukov and N.A. Berdyaev agreed with this point of view. The alternative look was represented by "smenovekhovets", "the Parisian cadets" and other groups. In the aspiration to understand and accept changes in Russia they looked for a common ground of Russian "spirit" in new Russia and in Russia which left abroad.

At these points of view which are specularly turned relatively each other, one general: lack of dialogue, irreconcilability blindness.

What the historical phenomenon - the Russian emigration after revolutionary accident of 1917 is? What type of culture did she personify?

From Russia went much both to XVIII, and in the 19th centuries: because of political and religious prosecutions and just in search of the better lot. And the European history knows many mass outcomes and accommodation out of the homeland of considerable national communities (after the Polish revolt of 1830 - 1831, after the French revolution of 1789, etc.). And the history of emigration from Russia in the 20th century contains three waves: 1917 - 1922, after World War II and in "stagnant" 70 - the 80th

In domestic literature a semantic row was practically approved: emigration of the first wave, emigration of the second... the third wave. But in this definition if it finally takes the place in historical science, there is one serious inaccuracy which is capable to become conceptual. Distinguishing waves of the Russian emigration only on the temporary periods, we silently allow their identity in all other relations. Actually emigration from Russia in 1917 - 1922 and emigration from the USSR in the second half of the 20th century have very little general among themselves. The distinction consists not in emigration time, and in its cultural and historical sense.

The Russian emigration as a result of revolution and Civil war is allocated already with quantity and

simultaneous mass character (on various these from 1 million 200 thousand to 2 million people within only several years). But not in it its substantial specifics.

Left Russia as a result of revolution and Civil war made abroad unique community. Its exclusiveness was in that most important task that history put before refugees from Russia. One of writers of the Russian abroad V. Abdank-Kossovsky wrote in the Vozrozhdeniye newspaper: "Any emigration. did not receive so imperative order to continue and develop business of native culture as foreign Russia" (the Renaissance. Paris, 1956. No. 52. Page 121). Preservation and development of the Russian culture in traditions of the Silver age also puts emigration 20 - the 30th in the provision of a cultural phenomenon. Neither the second, nor third waves of emigration from Russia of the general cultural-national tasks (and in general any unifying purposes) set.

Emigration of the 20th consisted of three diverse layers occurring at different times. The first, the most not numerous, consisted generally of diplomats and businessmen. Those who in 1917 worked or lived abroad just did not return, hoping to worry dashing years. There were also those that could not return to Russia through fronts of World War I: actors on tours, diplomats, the Russian students and scientists at the European universities, etc. It was financially and psychologically the most safe, but also the most insignificant layer which made emigration.

The second layer - the most numerous and tragic: groups of refugees and White Guards who had to leave the homeland in 1919 - 1920. In one and a half years more than one million people, including about 60% - the military personnel who endured humiliation of defeat, fear, flight, disintegration of all family and public relations were forced to leave Russia. The central event of this period - the Crimean accident of November, 1920 when native coast left by the ships and allies 150 - 160 thousand people at once. And, above all - they left the last plot of land of Russia lost by them.

After mass evacuation from the southern ports (Novorossiysk, Sevastopol, Odessa) the main list of refugees began to be defined. Together with troops political figures, the former members of the State Duma, Provisional government, Constituent assembly, the local governments, just civilians left, - who managed to get on the sailing steamships.

This layer of emigration on the structure was almost exact copy of pre-revolutionary Russia. Here all social groups of society were presented: from peasants and Cossacks to members of imperial family. All nations, all professions, all age, all political parties (except Bolsheviks who appeared later, during Stalin repressions). Also the fact that they went to Europe most often without money, without the future, with humiliation and exasperation in heart was important. In this group of refugees military obviously prevailed. It influenced also their initial resettlement in Europe: where accepted the Russian troops: at first it was Turkey, then Serbia and Bulgaria.

The state and military figures who appeared in exile and also leaders of political parties began to form the military-political centers. Militant monarchists located closer to areas of dislocation of military units: Sofia, Belgrade. Liberal democratic parties of cadets, socialists, tinder funguses, Octobrists elected the centers with active political life: Berlin, Paris. They hoped for fast return and a revenge.

The third layer of the Russian emigration began to consist of the intellectuals and in general civil educated public since 1920. Originally they got to Europe together with the receding white armies through the Baltics, Poland, Manzhouli, Turkey. But shamefully well-known expulsion of the intellectuals in August - September, 1922

was the central event which defined a psychological spirit and the list of this of "cultural emigration"

The feature of this expulsion was that it was the action of public policy of the new Bolshevist government. The XII conference of RCP(b) in August, 1922 equated the old intellectuals which sought to keep a political neutrality, to "enemies of the people", to cadets. One of initiators of expulsion, L.D. Trotsky, cynically explained that this action the Soviet power saves them from execution. Yes actually such alternative was stated and officially: in case of return - execution. Meanwhile in lists "socially alien" only one S.N. Trubetskoy could be accused of specific anti-Soviet actions.

On structure the group sent "unreliable" entirely consisted of the intellectuals, generally intellectual elite of Russia: professors, philosophers, writers, journalists. The decision of the authorities for them was moral and political slap in the face. N.A. Berdyaev already gave lectures, S.L. Frank taught at the Moscow university, P.A. Florensky, P.A. Sorokin were engaged in pedagogical activity. And it turned out that they are thrown out as unnecessary stuff.

Though the Bolshevist government tried to present sent as insignificant for science and the culture of people, emigrant newspapers called this action "a generous gift". It was really "the royal gift" for the Russian culture abroad. Among 161 persons in lists of this expulsion there were rectors of both capital universities, historians L.P. Karsavin, M.M. Karpovich, philosophers N.A. Berdyaev, S.L. Frank, S.N. Bulgakov, P.A. Florensky, N.O. Lossky, the sociologist P.A.

Sorokin, publicist M.A. Osorgin and many other eminent persons of the Russian culture. Abroad they became founders of historical and philosophical schools, modern sociology, the important directions in biology, zoology, the equipment. "The generous gift" to the Russian abroad turned back loss for the Soviet Russia of the whole schools and the directions, first of all, in historical science, philosophy, cultural science, other humanitarian disciplines.

Expulsion of 1922 was the largest state campaign of the Bolshevist power against the intellectuals after the revolution. But not the latest. The streamlet of expulsions, departures and just escape of the intellectuals from the Soviet Russia ran low only by the end of the 20th when between the new world of Bolsheviks and all culture of the old world ideology "Iron Curtain" fell.

Thus, by 1925 - 1927 the structure "Russia No. 2" was finally created, its considerable cultural potential was designated. In emigration the share of professionals and people with the higher education exceeded pre-war level.

By this time also legal transformation of "refugees" into "emigrants" was defined. The boundary can be considered the Riga peace treaty of 1921 when borders and citizenship of RSFSR were established. Fleeing Russia after the revolution were deprived of nationality and were people without the homeland ("apatrides" as they were called in official documents of the League of Nations). The League of Nations formed after World War I gave to emigrants support. The glorified polar researcher F. Nansen headed committee on affairs of refugees. His efforts entered the so-called "nansenovsky passport". Decisions of the European governments gradually legalized stay of Russians in their countries. So in the 20th this phenomenon which united, according to the estimates of P.N. Milyukov, more than 25 countries of the world - the Russian porevolyutsionny emigration was created.

In exile the community was created. The former refugees quite consciously and purposefully sought to create community, to establish connection, to resist against assimilation, not to be dissolved in the people which sheltered them. Understanding that the important period of the Russian history and culture is irretrievably finished came to the Russian emigrants early enough.

In 1922 there was a collection of literature and art which carried the pre-revolutionary name - "Dogrose". Participated in it both the writers from the Soviet Russia and who appeared by then in emigration: V.F. Khodasevich, F.K. Sologub, A.A. Akhmatova, M.A. Kuzmin, B.K. Zaytsev, L.M. Leonov, B.L. Pasternak, N.A. Berdyaev, F.A. Stepun. It was still the "team", uniform on the spirit, born by ideals of the Silver age, its intellectual and spiritual wealth. Article F. A. Stepuna "The tragedy of the present" in this collection directly continued the ideas of "vekhovsky" authors. It wrote: "Development of the Russian revolution - continuous treachery of the idea which generated it. Sad change of these substitutions can be considered as almost finished now. The semi-mythical author of revolution, the people Russian, started back from the tragic creation for a long time" (the Dogrose: Collection of literature and art. M, 1992. No. 1. Page 92-93).

to

to Active continuation of spiritual traditions of the Silver age was promoted also by a high share of cultural people as a part of emigration. Outside Russia there was nearly a half of creatively active carriers of former culture, the leading representatives of philosophy and art of the Silver age. The unique situation was created: there is no state, there is no government, there is no economy, there is no policy, - and culture is. History put a cruel experiment which confirmed the truth stated still by figures of the Silver age: the main thing in preservation of a national face is not the state and not economy, but culture. Disintegration of the state does not involve death

nations. Only death of culture means disappearance of the nation.

This ephemeral "Russia No. 2", without having either the capital, or the government, or laws, scattered over the different countries of the world, kept only one - maintaining former culture of Russia in a foreign culture, inonatsionalny environment. In it emigration saw the only historical meaning of the incident, point of the existence. "We not in exile. We - in the message", - D.S. Merezhkovsky said. The problem of preservation of culture of the disappeared old Russia outgrew in missiyurussky emigration. The culture of the Russian abroad was phantom reflection of the Silver age in which atmosphere her representatives grew up.

The range of spiritual life of Russia in the first decade of the 20th century in the most catastrophic way was narrowed to the only dilemma: to keep (to preserve) or develop (that is to adapt, adapt) the taken-out Russian culture. Both ways were possible. Its universality, on the one hand, and modern "Russianness" - with another was feature of culture of the Silver age just.

The problem of preservation of culture long time seemed more important, nearly decade emigration lived in hope to return. At a meeting of the Russian emigrants in Paris in 1924 I.A. Bunin said: "Our purpose is to tell firmly: raise the head! The mission, a mission, heavy, but also high, is assigned by destiny to us" (Bunin of I.A. Missiya of the Russian emigration//the Word. 1990. No. 10. Page 67). Memoirs, philosophical compositions and political publications were united by the idea of a cultural mission of emigration. Roman Gul's word "We did not leave Russia, we carried away it with ourselves" became a keynote of many authors. Culture in this situation of "poslannost", execution of a historical mission gained exclusive value.

In this regard categorical rejection by emigrants of new spelling was indicative though transition to new spelling was prepared before revolution by the Russian Academy of Sciences. But reform was carried out already by Bolsheviks - and this circumstance for most of emigrants was a decisive argument. I.A. Bunin refused to read even the magazines interesting him if they were issued with application of "intaking" spelling. Only in the 30th the book culture of emigration gradually refuses the letter "yat".

In a situation of national "dispersion" Russian was the main sign of belonging to the left Russia. Printed word: newspapers, books, magazines - all this was not only the most effective, but also almost only effective way of preservation and transfer of cultural traditions. Neither personal contacts, nor other means of communication could compete to the printed word in a possibility of overcoming borders and distances. Intellectual culture of the Word: newspapers, magazines, books - became the most effective means of association of emigration.

Besides, the first years of the 20th century gave extraordinary acceleration to development of a publicistic word, journalism. Open political struggle of the beginning of the century imparted taste to the political speech, newspaper journalism, a performance on a meeting. Conditions of the abroad strengthened all parties of the importance of the printed word, language was nearly the only uniting beginning for emigrants. The enormous need to understand what happened to Russia, determined the content and potential of development of publishing in emigration. The hypertrophied importance of the printed word quickly designated also priority spheres of intellectual activity.

1. Purely intellectual creativity: actually philosophy, a religious thought, creation of several versions of the myth of "the general destiny" - in general some phantom of "national consciousness" in the absence of the consolidated nation.
2. Literary creativity. Literature remained most integral and large "island" of the Russian culture in exile. It kept the main types and genres: prose, poetry, literary criticism; novel, story, poem. It a long time kept language (even old spelling), a manner of the literary letter in that necessary variety for which the left Silver age so was famous.
3. Literariness of other spheres of the Russian culture abroad. Literature even in exile kept traditional influence on other spheres of creativity: painting, music, scenography. It at first provided some integrity of the Russian culture abroad.

Skills of intellectual activity were peculiar to the majority left Russia. Emigration of the 20th is the intellectual solution oversaturated by the "writing" people. The contingent writing far was beyond professional journalists and writers. It is possible to distinguish several specific groups from them.

The first are professionals: writers, philosophers, journalists. Abroad there was a most part of poets, writers, secular and religious thinkers whose professional activity lay in the intellectual sphere.

The second are politicians. Weight turned out idle, without real political activity of leaders of various parties switched to theoretical justification of the views. And if to consider that practically all parties in emigration broke up into separate groups, then there was enough soil for verbal polemic.

The political figures who appeared in emigration left the big massif of political journalism with recipes of "rescue of Russia" and reflections about the one who is guilty of the accident which comprehended Russia. A part of this journalism is of interest not only as an echo of political fights, but also as the literary and cultural phenomenon.

The third are fans who considered article in the newspaper or the book as a way to earn or just to express. Each emigrant respecting himself considered it necessary to write own memoirs: from aged mother general of P.N. Wrangel to the 17-year-old grammar-school boy.

Establishing a certain similarity of national spiritual life required creative communication. Meanwhile uniform writer's association abroad never existed. The only "vseemigrantsky" writer's congress was organized in 1928 in Belgrade by the Serbian king Alexander I (he studied at the time in St. Petersburg and was fallen in love the Russian culture). But it was the only attempt of association. And generally spiritual life of emigration began to gather around small intellectual points of inclination: publishing houses, educational and educational institutions. Emigrant libraries and archives were quickly enough formed.

The library of I.S. Turgenev in Paris was especially distinguished from libraries. It was founded in 1875 by I.S. Turgenev with assistance of the singer Polina Viardo. All emigres of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries visited "turgenevka". Among her readers G.A. Lopatin, M.A. Bakunin, V.I. Lenin, Yu.O. Martov appear. In 20 - the 30th. The Turgenev library endured the second blossoming. Not only the books and magazines, but also the literature which is taken out from Russia, documents, letters, diaries published in emigration came to its funds. The solid hand-written department and archive was formed, own museum with the pictures presented by artists with Shalyapin, Bunin, Lifar, Nizhinsky, Benois's personal belongings began to be completed.

Accident came in 1940 when the German army occupied Paris. Rosenberg then took out the most part of turgenevki funds to Germany (besides, the Polish, Ukrainian library, archive of Republican and democratic association of P.N. Milyukov, there are a lot of museum and private collections). The taken-out funds were gone, their destiny is still unknown. After World War II the Turgenev library in Paris was restored, though in more modest sizes. She acts and now.

Formation of such cultural centers around libraries, publishing houses, educational institutions corresponded to a cultural mission of the Russian emigration; they provided some kind of "protection" against other cultural environment, promoted maintaining own cultural traditions. The aspiration to separate from the life of other state surrounding them in general Was characteristic of emigration of the 20th so many purely Russian institutions are created that it was possible to be born, study, to marry, work and die, without having said words in French. Among emigrants there was even such joke: "The good city of Paris, only here is a bit too much French".

For establishing intellectual communication the intellectuals in many respects as if returned to forms of cultural life of the beginning of the 19th century: to literary salons, circles, clubs. In Paris the literary bohemia gathered on Montparnasse in Rotonda and Kupol cafe. The literary and political salon was kept by the former ambassador of Provisional government cadet V.A. Maklakov. Also the House of arts was active,

created in Berlin at the beginning of the 20th: there took place readings, exhibitions, discussions.

But the real, full-fledged literary salon similar to that existed in Russia of a "gold" Pushkin century, it is possible to consider Sunday meetings in Gippius and Merezhkovsky's apartment on Kolonel Bonne Street. The apartment was allocated with huge library of Merezhkovsky

>- it was also bought in 1909 for this library. Now here both masters, and young writers of emigration gathered. There were politicians, philosophers here, also Bunin sometimes came though disliked Merezhkovsky' couple. The hostess - "magnificent Zinaida" was the queen of salon.

On memoirs of the young then poetess Irina Odoyevtseva, the appearance and manners of this woman were remembered at once. She was a great debater, almost never with anybody agreed. Also Merezhkovsky and Gippius's married couple impressed. It were two absolutely different both on appearance, and on character of the person. The high, stately Zinaida Nikolaevna dropping a bass "nonsense I does not agree", was famous not for female cold and skeptical mind. And sickly, unusually sensitive, enthusiastically treating all new, Dmitry Sergeyevich pouring quotes and mystical prophecies. But it was the most delicate couple which lived all life in identical delusions and illusions. Never for all the life they left for an hour, and it was never boring for them together at all distinction of their identity or thanks to it (I.V. Odoyevtseva. On coast of Seine. M, 1989. Page 36-48.49-52).

Both of them were a little "too", and it created the saturated creative field around this married couple. The atmosphere of discussions, cultural creativity reigning in their house transferred habits of the 10th to disputes and search new, the special relation to the value of identity and originality, a creativity cult here. Claimed that at Sunday meetings it was forbidden to speak only about two things: about weather and about life.

Populous and interesting "Sundays" in their apartment in the late twenties began to turn into something more organized. Evening especially was successful on February 5, 1927. The report on Pushkin and on the Russian culture was made by the poet V.F. Khodasevich. Acted loftily, all were excited and immediately decided to organize literary society with the "Pushkin" name "Green Lamp". V.F. Khodasevich, G.V. Ivanov and owners of salon were the most jealous organizers of society.

Literary society "Green Lamp" was popular and there were more than ten years. At its meetings listened to reports on culture and literature, read new works. At one of such meetings the young poet D.M. Cnut in enthusiasm exclaimed that the capital of the Russian literature is not in Moscow now, and in Paris.

On meetings many though the invitation letter which, however, turned out without special work was required sought to get. On these notes the historians can restore names of visitors of Green Lamp. There were P.N. Milyukov, A.F. Kerensky, I.A. Bunin, A.N. Benois. The poet Georgy Ivanov who was very much appreciated by Z.N. Gippius was the permanent chairman of society. Here the younger generation of poets of emigration was formed: Odoyevtseva, Mamchenko, Cnut, Poplavsky and others.

Thus, in forms of creative communication and in the cultural addictions the emigration adopted those ways of communication which were characteristic of Russia at the beginning of the 19th century: literary salon, circle, club. Art tastes became rather more conservative also: realism, "World of art", symbolism, modernist style. Vanguard search of the 10th in emigration did not take root. The special role of the "thick" magazine and a leading place of poetry repeated.

the Principle of "a cultural nest" which was the main mechanism of existence of the Russian culture abroad, assumed close interaction of all spheres of creativity: literatures, music, painting, scenography. Interaction of artists in emigration sometimes turned into direct vital need of survival. However the fine arts were in a bit different situation, than literary creativity.

First of all, an initial dilemma - to keep the original culture or to try to get used to the European cultural field - for art culture was not particularly acute so. The fine arts are a little connected with language, it "is easily translated", it is always more international and

it is demanded. Especially as art of the Silver age went in line with world cultural process, and in the vanguard breaks was even in the lead. Here split was more noticeable not among artists of the abroad, and between those who left, and those who remained in Russia.

Vanguard art was the farthest from a problem of maintaining "Russianness". It and before revolution was most implanted into the European culture. In the late twenties the Russian vanguard abroad, having generated several currents in scenery and fashion, uncontrollably breaks up to the separate schools which are often presented by the only personality. Artists unite already not so much on similarity of forms and picturesque language how many on the personal relations, associations, collaboration.

Creativity of M.Z. Chagall who after death of "a legend of Montmartre" Modigliani became the leader of the leading art experimentatorsky direction in Europe - the so-called "Parisian school" is demonstrative in this regard. Having arrived to Paris in 1923, it for the rest of the natural remained is faithful to the Russian motives in the creativity. But when maintaining the Russian subject its art language is international. At meetings with his pictures the viewer plunges into the ocean of magic images: lovers fly over the city, the jug with flowers costs in the middle of the river, in blue twilight hours, violins, fishes fly, images of native Vitebsk flash. This children's view of the world when images and memoirs run one on another, softens also former addiction of the artist to any "-isms".

Around this very individual artist in 20 - the 30th in Paris the international group of artists with so strong personality concentrated: Paskin from Bulgaria, Czech F. Kupka, Pole Markussi, natives of Russia N.M. Suetin, O. Tsadkin (2ayokte), A.P. Archipenko and others. They played a significant role in disintegration and transformation of cubism and all European vanguard.

Also the sharpness of futuristic orientation of vanguard consigned to the past. At the beginning of the 20th one of the French avant-gardists writes the laudatory ode "hotly favourite" to Louvre. The European vanguard in the 20th endured the periods of recession and rise, from it uncountable groups and small groups separated, it was more and more individualized, but the most important for its destiny - the vanguard uncontrollably lost the social and utopian programmnost. It did not apply for becoming art of the future mankind any more.

This circumstance also served as the divergence moment between the European vanguard which the Russian artists entered (especially much in this direction V.V. Kandinsky in Germany, and then in France made), and art of vanguard in the Soviet Russia (The blue rider / Under the editorship of V. Kandinsky and F. Mark. M, 1996). By the beginning of the 30th of hope of the Soviet government on the fact that the vanguard will create truly proletarian art were exhausted. Increase of totalitarianism in a number of the countries of Europe changed also national doctrines. Nazi Germany and Stalin Russia were those two states where from 30th the vanguard search was stopped by force of the state prosecution and the option of totalitarian realism set in.

Avant-garde artists who continued the experiments had no relation to the Russian painting any more, having had serious impact on all courses of the European vanguard. P.N. Filonov, M.Z. Chagall, V.V. Kandinsky and K.S. Malevich's creativity became a part of world culture now. It was other solution of a dilemma "to keep or assimilate".

In art tastes and preferences of emigrant public the vanguard was removed as it was perceived as mechanistic and "revolutionary" art that made some impact and on the choice of art language of the Russian painting in emigration. Artists as if returned to stylistics of the 1900th. Former "members of the World of Art Movement" and innovators took a step back: from a stilizm and a formotvorchestvo to the modernized classicism. Even extremely left cubists and futurists turned to neo-romanticism. After confusion, chaos and experiments, painting returned to harmony.

Figures of "The world of art" appeared in fashion again. A.N. Benois, L.S. Bakst, M.V. Dobuzhinsky, N.S. Goncharova could continue participation in productions of opera and ballet performances within "The Russian seasons". Abroad there is a lot of and fruitfully artists K.A. Korovin, I.Ya. Bilibin worked,

F.A. Malyavin. All of them took active part in cultural undertakings of emigration.

The critic S.M. Makovsky demonstrated success of emigrant painting at the French audience. Since 1920, creativity of M.V. Dobuzhinsky who worked hard for Petropolis publishing house reaches new level. The City Dreams series of 1918 - 1921 opened "prophetical horror of Dostoyevsky". In its registration there were Kuzmin, Akhmatova, G. Ivanov's books, the Dom Iskusstv magazine was issued. The Parisians who are skeptical about all foreign paid tribute to thin portraits of Sorin, M.F. Larionov and N.S. Goncharova's decorative uniqueness, "musical" landscapes of G.K. Lukomsky. Success unprecedented in the homeland fell to lot of artists from the younger generation of emigration - A.E. Yakovleva and V.I. Shukhayeva who worked in style of neoacademism. After L.S. Bakst in Paris art of theatrical sceneries and suits S.Yu. Sudeykin, and in Berlin - B.D. Grigoriev shone. The Russian performances in N.K. Roerich and Anisfeld's registration caused an applause in New York, and Brailovsky's productions - in Sofia. I.Ya. Bilibin who accidentally got to Cairo was "the first artist" there.

The Russian musical culture abroad appeared in the best conditions - music the most international art. On the eve of the revolution in Europe on tours there were several groups of actors of imperial theaters. They became the first emigrants. The Russian musical culture in Europe shone the 20th with real "stars": singer F.I. Shalyapin, dancers and ballet masters M.F. Kshesinskaya, A.P. Pavlova, V.N. Nizhinsky, M.M. Fokin, G.M. Balanchivadze (J. Balanchine), S.M. Lifar, T.P. Karsavina. "Prince Igor", "Boris Godunov", "Snow Maiden", "The Tale of Tsar Saltan", "The legend on a hail Kitezh", "The royal bride" went by forces of the Russian opera performers on the European stages.

Till 1929 S.P. Dyagilev, and after his death - S.M. Lifar continued carrying out the "Russian seasons". Productions of the Russian ballet performances became an integral part and the French culture by this time. So, vanguard French artists Zh. Cocteau, E. Satie and P. Picasso took part in preparation of some enterprises of Dyagilev.

From the Russian composers most quickly and naturally the most vanguard I.F. Stravinsky entered the European culture. S.V. Rachmaninov more often was perceived as the masterly pianist. The Russian musicians abroad enriched the western culture with domestic classics. P.I. Tchaikovsky's music, A.N. Scriabina and operas by N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov enjoyed special popularity. The ingenious Russian choreographer Mikhail Fokin was the founder of the American ballet theater, the most prestigious ballet award in Paris bears a name of the outstanding dancer Václav Nizhinsky, New York is proud of the museum of the great artist-philosopher Nikolay Roerich.

The emigrant public in the art tastes showed far bigger conservatism, than before revolution. The psychological instinct of self-preservation took away from experimentalism of the eve of revolution by quieter previous period. Peredvizhniki became fashionable, landscape writers enjoyed great love. In general the realistic school of painting was perceived as a subject of national pride and a symbol of "Russianness". There was even a new "pseudo-Russian style" in ballet and opera settings on the Russian plots. It quite often developed into simple imitation which the French called "a&la russe" style, but fashion for everything "it is original Russian" in emigration was it is ineradicable. Numerous squash with "the true Roma", restaurants with "the Cossack ensembles" and waiters in the embroidered shirts, concerts of the Russian "sentimental" romances at vulgarity all the sometimes satisfied burning homesickness and the familiar cultural atmosphere.

Revival of the Russian icon and iconography abroad continued. Interest in it as to an object of art only amplified. In Prague the scientific seminar of the wonderful expert on the Byzantine and Old Russian art N.P. Kondakov for many years worked. Works of this seminar and N.P. Kondakov were published not only in the Russian publishing houses. In the 20th on the European cities the mobile exhibition of icons which was organized by the Soviet government passed. The fashion for collecting of icons among foreign collectors began (Hummer, Davies, Hera, Kostaki).

The icon-painting tradition of the Russian modernist style in emigration was carried on by the artist D.S. Stelletsky. In its painting of walls and an iconostasis of church of Sergiyev of a farmstead in Paris the Byzantine and Old Russian motives connected to a church canon and color search of the Silver age. In the 20th

the artist started realization of the dream - to illustration "The Tale of Igor's Campaign. The first options of illustrations were written before revolution and acquired by the Tretyakov gallery. And 54 was written to emigrations from the assumed 60 sheets. The seeing this fruit of almost semicentennial work S.M. Makovsky enthusiastically wrote about "magic of color", about "color thinking" as essentially new step in art language of the Silver age.

Craze the Russian old times, according to an ironical remark of F.A. Stepun, in emigre circles generated "a birch cult". Creativity of many masters these years is noted by really reverent attitude to traditional Russian culture: to fairy tales, national old times, customs, pe

Jeffrey Blair
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