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125 years since the birth of professor B.L. Stepanov - the organizer of the first department in Siberia for geologists-intelligence agents



stranitsa of history TPU

UDC 553 (09)

125 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH OF PROFESSOR B.L. STEPANOV - the ORGANIZER of the FIRST DEPARTMENT IN SIBERIA FOR GEOLOGISTS-INTELLIGENCE AGENTS

A.Ya. Pshenichkin

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail: lev@tpu.ru

The main stages of formation of geological education at the beginning of the 20th century at the Tomsk Institute of Technology and results of scientific research and pedagogical activity of professor B.L. Stepanov, first head of the department of prospecting matter in Siberia are shown.

Mining-and-geological formation, investigation of mineral deposits.

Boris Lvovich Stepanov was born on July 4, 1883 in the Semipalatinsk region in family of the official of Resettlement management. In the late nineties of the 19th century the family moved to Tomsk where Boris ended the 1st Tomsk classical gymnasium. Having got secondary education, successfully entered the Vladivostok institute of east languages. Having ended the first course and, apparently, at insistance of parents and for material reasons it was transferred in 1902 to the Tomsk Institute of Technology (TIT) on the first course of recently opened mountain office.

Violently developing mining industry in Siberia at the beginning of the 20th century was in great need in the experts capable to be engaged competently in studying a geological structure of Siberia, to conduct search and investigation of gold deposits, iron, coal and other mineral riches and to direct mining works. Therefore the first dean of mountain office Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev was faced by a hard task - not only the end of construction of the mountain case and filling of its offices and laboratories the necessary equipment, devices, collections of breeds and minerals, selection of high quality teaching personnel (who should be invited from the European higher education institutions and to interest in something), but also development of programs of training, preparation of lectures of the given courses and productions of laboratory researches. Everything had to be begun with "zero".

During the first period at institute and on mountain office the classes were on strict course si-

a stem, calculated for the 5-year term of training. The sequence of studying disciplines, terms of tests, examinations, design of degree projects and their protection was established [1].

Professor Boris Lvovich Stepanov (1883-1963)

The defeat of Russia in war with Japan which generated revolutionary performances of the democratic public, workers and peasants could not lay aside progressive students. Student's disorders of 1904-1905 led to temporary closure of Tomsk Institute of Technology and to stay of classes from January, 1905 to November, 1906 Krom of revolutionary slogans students of TTI opposed also the course system of training. And fall of 1906 according to the decision of Council of institute the transition to the subject system of training which was characterized by total freedom of teaching and training without respect for the sequence of passing of disciplines, rigid terms of examination and duration of training was carried out. With introduction of this system of training the students began to be distributed not at courses, and on semester. Transition to the subject system of training led to utter chaos in educational process [2].

However this system of training existed not long. At the end of 1906. Council of institute, for improvement of a certain order in educational process, developed "Educational rules" by which the course was divided into 10 semester. The studied objects were divided into general education, obligatory and not obligatory. Visit of lectures appeared free, but was strongly recommended to attend them. The sequence of studying objects was established, the minimum of offsets was established. Once in a semester and no more than three times for all course was allowed to take examinations in each subject. Examination terms were established: January, May and September.

For students this system of training was more difficult, than a former course system and they actively opposed it. However it remained up to February, 1917 [1, 2].

Here in such difficult situation at institute V.A. Obruchev and the pedagogical collective headed by it had to work. But, despite of everything, proceeding from requirements of ore mining industry of the Siberian region of Russia and understanding of need of training of highly qualified personnel, Vladimir Alekseyevich improved process of training of students of mountain office, created the school - School of the Siberian geologists. And the group of teachers selected, as they say, "by the piece", inviting high quality professors from the universities of the European part of Russia. Arkady Valerianovich Lavrsky, Pyotr Konstantinovich Sobolevsky, Lev Lvovich Tove, Mikhail Erastovich Yanishchevsky, the freelance teacher professor Alexey Mikhaylovich Zaytsev and others were invited and contributed significantly to training of students and formation of the Siberian geological school of professor.

At the Tomsk Institute of Technology, in one of the first higher education institutions of Russia, under the leadership of V.A. Obruchev it was carried out narrow spetsializa-

a tion on older years. On mountain office there was a miner specialty, razvedochnogeologichesky, metallurgical (mining) and surveying. Prospecting and geological for the first time in Russia it was offered by V.A. Obruchev and, as a matter of fact, became the center of the arising Siberian geological school.

Students geologists received not only good general education preparation, but also excellent preparation on the main issues of mining: studied a driving of excavations, their fastening, a water outflow, lighting, mineral processing, mining mechanics, mountain art. Besides, they studied such specific objects as construction and surveying art, architecture, metallurgy, engines and coppers, technology of water and fuel and many others.

V.A. Obruchev and teachers of mountain office gave special attention to reading the special courses forming the geologist as the high quality expert. These are courses - mineralogy and petrography, historical geology and paleontology, practical geology and physical geology.

Since 1904 on the fourth year for geologists of mountain office, proceeding from urgent need of violently developing gold matter in Siberia, professor L.L. Tov began to read absolutely new subject - "Gold Business", allocated to them from the general course of geology. This course was of great importance in training of the Siberian geologists, specialists in gold. Itself L.L. Tov was a high quality specialist in gold and had wide experience of work in the Siberian gold mining [1, 2].

Professor V.A. Obruchev for the first time in Russia (and in Europe) developed and began to give to students to geologists since 1906 the course "Field Geology" which he published later in the form of the textbook and at which students of many higher education institutions of the country studied. The textbook sustained not one edition. The theoretical knowledge gained by students in the course of training was fixed by summer practicians. Annually for students of the 1st and 2nd courses of all offices of institute practicians under the leadership of teachers of geodesy and construction office were carried out geodetic and construction. Students of older years underwent special practice at the large mining enterprises of Siberia, the Urals.

The big geological practice for the first time offered and which is carried out by V.A. Obruchev and his assistants in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk near well-known "Columns" became new form of education of students of geologists after the 2nd course. This area was chosen because there is a big variety of rocks, an interesting geological structure, other features allowing to train fruitfully students of practical geology and to drawing up geological maps. On one of the first the practician of 15 students geologists under the leadership of V.A. Obruchev set up the field camp near the small river Bazaikhi. And in Techa -

ny month, wandering on the valley of the small river Bazaikhi, carried out geological shooting of the adjacent area and made the geological map.

V.A. Obruchev attached great value in training of students of practical orientation, placed emphasis on field researches. It trained students of vigilance of a look, to an eye estimation, observation. Showed how the thinnest changes of color, structure, the drawing of rocks, minerals are important for knowledge of the stone nature; cultivated practical imagination without which there is no geologist [3] at students.

On two last years future geologists prepared the degree project - the plan of investigation of some concrete field. For development in students of scientific thinking in the chosen specialty the writing of theses also was provided in curricula. As a rule, degree projects and works were written on the materials collected by students during a work practice and protected in specialized educational offices and laboratories of mountain office. For example, the thesis of the first release of the student M.A. Usov was written on a subject "Dzhaira granites and Urkashire in the Western Dzungaria on the collections collected in expeditions of 1906 under the leadership of V.A. Obruchev and P.P. Gudkov" [5].

Having gained extensive theoretical knowledge and having had good practical training on production, graduates of mountain office of Tomsk Institute of Technology on mines, the mines, mines felt like full-fledged experts; they were not confused by complex underground economy of the mine, mine, complexity of the structure of ore bodies and a geological structure of the area. And they were appreciated on production.

So arose and gradually the Siberian geological school which planned got stronger and the ancestor V.A. Obruchev - the first dean and the organizer of mountain office in Siberia carried out it.

Duration of training of students at the Tomsk Institute of Technology, including on mountain office, was caused not only the initial pre-university training of future students strained by the program of training which was constantly improved in the course of training, but also student's disorders, strikes and almost one and a half-annual termination in this regard of classes at institute. Therefore terms of training of students of the first releases averaged from 7 to 9 years. The first release of the Siberian engineers at institute took place in December, 1906 on mechanical and chemical offices and made only 30 people [4].

And the first release on mountain office was carried out in May and December, 1908. In total 20 mining engineers, including on prospecting specialty of 6 people - A.V. Arsenyev, N.Ya. Verevkin, N.S. Morev, I.Z. Mochalov, N.S. Penna - future professor and the dean mountain

by

of faculty of TTI and M.A. Usov - future professor, the academician, the dean of mountain faculty, one of organizers of the Siberian school of geologists and the Siberian Geological Committee were let out [4-6].

Here in such difficult conditions also formation of the higher geological education in Siberia was trained the first sets of students and B.L. Stepanov in technical college, the first beyond the Urals.

We almost know nothing about student's life of Boris Stepanov. Whether he participated actively in stormy student's life or it was entirely absorbed by study and work, we already, probably, do not learn. But judging because in archival documents of institute during its training there is no mention of his surname and he did not leave us almost any certificates on student's years, it is possible to conclude with high probability that he active "revolutionary" was not.

At Boris Stepanov interest in independent research was early shown. So, being on a work practice during the summer period of 1905 at the Spassky copper-smelting plant located in the Akmola region on border with the Semipalatinsk region he studied technology of enrichment of the interspersed copper ores of the Spassky field and smelting of copper. And also investigated solonetzic soils of Karakalinsky and Akmola steppes. Proved the competent expert and during the summer period of 1906 it was invited by Resettlement management of the Semipalatinsk region to a position of the senior hydraulic engineering for exploring the possibility of formation of saline soils when plowing soils in the Semipalatinsk resettlement district and carrying out hydrogeological researches for water supply of resettlement settlements.

Works these B. Stepanov for Resettlement management were continued four summer field seasons. During this time under its management about 250 wells of kolonkovy and shock and rope drilling with a general metric area about 3500 of running were drilled it is put off. On these materials it made in 1907 the card of a depression of ground waters of the Cara-kalinsky county and the report where the insufficient promyvochnost of soils of the area was proved that could influence formation of saline soils when plowing soils is submitted. In 1908 and 1909 on the instructions of Management of B. Stepanov two projects were made: on an irrigation of the Chidertinsky site (between Caracals and Akmola) waters of the Chiderty River with use of the pump station; and irrigations of the Prikurchumsky strip waters of the Kurchumy River. For this purpose it was offered to them to use old Chinese aryk [7].

Knowledge gained at institute successfully was put by B. Stepanov into practice where he proved to be as the competent expert and the organizer able to apply non-standard decisions (use to an irrigation of old Chinese aryk). Besides, work on a task of Resettlement management, gave it the chance to earn and not to be not bad from dependence at parents.

After listening of the course "Gold Business" which for students geologists of older years professor L.L. Tov for the first time began to read B. Stepanov passed practicians on gold objects. So, in 1910 he was engaged in studying breeds of a mon-tsonitovy formation of the basin of the Saraly River and communication of a zolotonosnost with them. And in 1911 under its management the field group was engaged in investigation of placer gold around Kolyvansky lapidary factory. Processing of these materials and writing of the report for the customer it was carried out under the leadership of professor L.L. Tov.

In 1912 B. Stepanov, having studied on mountain office of TTI of 10 years, successfully defended the thesis on the subject "Montsonitovy Formations of the Basin of the Saraly River" which was highly appreciated by the commission of mountain office and is recommended for printing. Unfortunately, remained not found out - whether it was printed or not.

The most part of graduates of mountain office after the termination of institute remained to work in Siberia. And the young specialist, the mining engineer B.L. Stepanov, was not an exception. He devoted more than 17 years after the termination of institute to studying richness of Siberia.

Having received good theoretical preparation at institute under the leadership of V.A. Obruchev's professors, L.L. Tov, L.A. Lavrsky and others and practical skills and abilities on a work practice, and further - at field works of numerous expeditions, B.L. Stepanov became the experienced geologist and among the Siberian scientists and industrialists of mining held big authority and respect.

At B.L. Stepanov pedagogical abilities were early shown and pulled him for teaching work. So, being still a student, he in 1907 was elected the teacher of the Tomsk general education courses, and since fall of 1913 is elected the assistant at paleontologic and geological offices of the Siberian high female courses.

In 1916 Boris Lvovich is invited the teacher of the Siberian technical courses where he gives lectures and a practical training on geology is conducted, the special course "Search of Water and Well-drilling" with production of summer field practical works is taught. Here where the experience gained on a work practice in 1906-1909 during the work for Resettlement management in the Semipalatinsk and Akmola regions where he was engaged in hydrotechnical and hydrogeological researches was useful to it.

At the Tomsk Institute of Technology B.L. Stepanov began to be engaged in teaching activity since 1913 which proceeded up to its departure to Moscow in December, 1930

Fall of 1913, according to the recommendation of the dean of mountain office L.L. Tov, B.L. Stepanov was elected the assistant at department of geology where charged it carrying out a practical training at courses

field and practical geology, and summer educational geological practicians with students of prospecting specialty [7].

In 1916 according to the proposal of professor P.P. Gudkov B.L. Stepanov gave a trial lecture on petrology and was elected the teacher to department of geology where lecturing and maintaining a practical training on engineering geology on construction office was entrusted to it. In the subsequent, in 1919-1924 it still is assigned with the lecturing and maintaining a practical training on petrology, ore fields on miner specialty, on the general geology - on metallurgical specialty, on practical geology and exploration business

>- on prospecting specialty.

Preparation for lectures and a practical training as for students of mountain office of institute, and listeners of the Siberian high female courses and the Siberian technical courses were taken away from B.L. Stepanov by many forces and time. But it was not sorry about it. He liked to work with youth. Young, beautiful, charming, not deprived of sense of humour when it is necessary - strict or indulgent Boris Lvovich excitedly conducted classes. The big erudition and experience of practical works in field conditions did his lectures saturated and intelligible.

B.L. Stepanov read lectures on field geology very originally, often without adhering to the program, receding from the forms of presentation of material taken at the higher school. It were, generally stories from own practice, business councils and manuals to future geologists. He was able to carry away students the stories about hard work of the geologist. At lectures he constantly reminded students: "The geologist should study the science more and more with a bias towards the practical requirements imposed by mining industry and to change the role of the historian of the come true phenomena for a role of the prophet and head" [8].

The person is very original and original, versatily educated Boris Lvovich was not only the talented geologist, but also the great musician. And students respected him and loved.

Except the main pedagogical work B.L. Stepanov is a lot of forces and time, especially during the summer period, gave to practical geology, production. The focus of his interests in geology is very different and as the geologist of a wide profile, B.L. Stepanov acts as the consultant of Enzoloto trust for any given questions of investigation and operation of gold fields, as the practical field geologist, conducting geological shooting or investigation of ore and loose gold deposits, coal, manganese, polymetals, refractory clay, investigation on water or carrying out engineering-geological researches along the railroads under construction.

After the termination of institute B. Stepanov on company funds of Vizirov carried out investigation on placer gold to the summer period of 1912 by the Kiystona machine around Kosminsky crafts, races -

put in a northern part of the Southern Yenisei taiga. And in 1913 in the same area by request of Vogau carried out expertize of the Ayakhtinsky radical gold deposit.

The war of Russia which began in 1914 with Germany recovered the industry of Siberia. For iron and steel works of Kuznetsk iron ores, manganese, coal and other minerals were required. There were not enough explored reserves of ores. Therefore by the order and at the expense of Kuznetsk coal and metallurgical Joint-stock Societies in 1914 under the leadership of B.L. Stepanov five parties carried out investigation on hematites around the Guryev plant and on red iron ores near Yurman in Salair Ridge; near the village of Durnova of the Kolchuginsky County the investigation on manganese was carried out; one of parties around the Gavrilovsky plant carried out investigation of refractory clay, and another in the neighborhood of of Seme-nushkina - ochre investigation. Prospecting works of brown and red iron ores and ochre were conducted by drilling of kolonkovy wells and a checkpoint of holes, and manganese investigation - small mines and drifts.

It is necessary to have good organizing abilities and professional knowledge to organize and coordinate work of several parties conducting at the same time investigation of so diverse minerals. Boris Lvovich successfully coped with it. As a result of the carried-out prospecting works, reserves of the iron ores, manganese, refractory clay so necessary for metallurgical industry of Kuzbass were increased.

During the field periods of 1915-1916 B.L. Stepanov was the assistant to the prof. P.P. Gudkov when conducting exploration works in the Telbessky iron ore area where was engaged directly in investigation of magnetite ores on Temir-Tau, Su-harinke, Telbesse. Here it open and explored in 1916 the Stepanovsky magnetite field [7]. Investigation of iron ore fields was conducted by a checkpoint of holes, ditches, cuts and diamond drilling by the Kreliusa machine.

A part of the summer field period of 1915 one of groups under the leadership of B.L. Stepanov was engaged in studying a zolotonosnost on the Mrassu River and its inflows. Studying the structure of Mount Patyn, being in sources of the Orton River (right inflow of the Mrassu River) was carried out. As a result of researches it was shown that in the area the breeds similar to in what Telbessky magnetite fields are localized are developed. On the Mount Patyn, fragments of breeds with a magnetite vkraplennost were found. For identification of possible anomalies by B.L. Stepanov the regional magnetometric shooting as a result of which the magnetic anomaly connected with a small scattered vkraplennost of magnetite was established was carried out.

One of parties under the leadership of B.L. Stepanov carried out by summer of 1916 preliminary time -

a branch the adit and a cross-cut of lead-silver ores on C. Birch, right inflow of river Mang-dybash. Here, in the neighborhood of Mount Uyzen the magnetometric shooting which revealed poorly expressed magnetic anomaly was carried out.

The February revolution in 1917 in Russia and coming to power at first of Provisional government, then the Soviet power, the Civil war, a counterrevolutionary performance of Kolchak in Siberia, guerrilla war, hunger, ruin - but in this rough revolutionary time did not stop geological researches of subsoil of Siberia. As well as in peace time, during the summer field period the geological parties conducted researches. They say that there was even a secret agreement between V.I. Lenin and A.V. Kolchak not to touch geologists. Apparently, these politicians well understood that whoever came to the power, but after that "revolyutsionnokontrrevolyutsionny chaos" the country will need to be restored. And ores, coal, oil, construction materials will be for this purpose necessary. Therefore geological parties went to a taiga, to mountains, to the tundra...

B.L. Stepanov in 1917 on the instructions of the Kuznetsk coal and metallurgical Joint-stock Company carried out by

studying a geological structure of the Durnovsky field of manganese in the Kolchuginsky County, begun with it in 1914. By results of works as B.L. Stepanov the quality characteristic of ore was given and field reserves are counted [9].

To the same time, on the instructions of Management of the railroad, B.L. Stepanov carried out geological researches along the route of the railroad under construction from Kuznetsk to the Telbessky mine and a branch line to Temir-Tau, so-called "by Kolchuzhnaya a new building". By results of works in Management of the railroad the report and the expert opinion on places and unreliable slates, dangerous concerning sliding of breeds, was submitted. Besides, results of numerous determination of physicomechanical properties of the breeds which are selected along the route of the road under construction which determination it was carried out in mechanical laboratory of the prof. I.I. Boborykin of a tta [10] were presented in the report.

During the summer field period of 1918 B.L. Stepanov directed party which carried out investigation on coal in the neighborhood of railway stations Balay and Troitsk and Zaozerna. Investigation was carried out by a driving of holes, kolonkovy drilling, and detailed investigation with preparatory work - adits. As a result of the carried-out prospecting works, Balaysky coal mines were open.

Fall of 1918 the destiny, as they say, "smiled" to the Siberian geologists. Their old dream - creation in Siberia of geological establishment which would coordinate was fulfilled and directed all geological activity in the enormous Siberian territory. In 1907. By the first congress of gold industry entrepreneurs it was put forward

before the Ministry of Trade and the industries of Russia the petition for need, in addition to the Central Geological Committee in Petrograd to create local geological institutions which would coordinate work of geologists for the benefit of certain territories.

In the subsequent the progressive geological public repeatedly raised this question (1908, 1911 and 1912), addressing both the Government, and Mountain Department, and Geological Committee. So, by the geologist L. Yachevsky in 1908 it was even developed and presented to specially educated commission of Geological Committee and Mountain Department "Project of the organization of geological service in Siberia" which provided opening in Siberia of three geological offices for the western, central and east its parts. However decisions were not accepted [11]. The reasons for that was, apparently, a little

>- it and mistrust of government officials to local Siberian geological shots, and the reference of the Government to the shortage of funds for carrying out in life of the offered projects, and probably unwillingness of Geological Committee and Mountain Department to share with someone else the power and, the main thing, finance.

Revolution and civil war, a rupture of communications with Geological Committee in Petrograd forced Councils of Working and Country deputies of some provinces to create the geological services for service of the current needs of mining.

And here in the fall of 1918, after the Czech revolution when Siberia was separated from the European part of Russia, the Draft decision on establishment of the Siberian Geological Committee was introduced to Council of ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government of Kolchak, at the initiative of P.P. Gudkov and the geologist of the Central Geological Committee E.E. Anert. On September 18, 1918 at a meeting of Governing Council of the Provisional Siberian Government it was decided: to found the Siberian Geological Committee. 155 thousand rubles were allocated for initial actions for the organization of geological service. To professor of geology of TTI P.P. Gudkov, the acting as the Managing director of the Ministry of Trade and the Industry of the Government of Kolchak, it was entrusted to develop the draft of the provision on the Siberian Geological Committee. For this purpose P.P. Gudkov in Tomsk held on October 23-27, 1918 a meeting from the Siberian geologists and geologists and the staff of the Central Geological Committee: E.E. Arnet, M.M. Vasilevsky, V.A. Voznesensky, A.A. Gapeev, A.V. Goguntsov, V.K. Kotulsky, D.V. Nikitin, A.I. of Pedashchen-co, I.Ya. Rybakov, Ya.S. Edelstein, V.I. Yavorsky, I.S. Yagovkin working during the summer period in Siberia and who are cut off from the European Russia by fronts of civil war [11].

After the rough debate proceeding 5 days the decision on creation of the Siberian Geological Committee (Sibgeolkom) was made, the provision on the Siberian Geological Committee and the Instruction to the Siberian Geological Committee where all field of activity, states, the rights and duties of members of Sibgeol-koma and its relationship with the Central Geological Committee was regulated are adopted.

Professor Pavel Pavlovich Gudkov was elected the first chairman of Sibgeolkom. The teachers and graduates of mountain office of TTI who were taking part in work of a meeting, A.V. Lavrsky (vice-chairman), M.K. Korovin (scientific secretary), M.A. Usov, N.S. Penna, N.N. Pavlov, K.E. Gabuniya, K.G Tyumentsev, A.M. Kuzmin, A.V. Arsenyev, N.N. Urvantsev, B.S. Stepanov, A.I. Kozlov, S.D. Kuznetsov, N.P. Rachkovsky [11] were a part of Sibgeol-koma.

In the adopted Provision on Sibgeolkom three main directions it activity were defined: 1 - research of a geological structure of Siberia; the 2 - studying mineral deposits and the territories adjoining to them; 3 - the hydrogeological and other geological researches connected with satisfaction the current inquiries of economic life of Siberia. Sibgeolkom's tasks also included drawing up and the edition of geological maps, accounting of mineral resources, creation of the catalog of fields, the museum of applied geology, information bureau of geological researches. To Sibgeolky the right for coordination and coordination of all geological works which are carried out in Siberia was granted.

And already during the summer period of 1919 according to the Sibgeolkoma program 11 forwarding groups in the territory of Siberia under the leadership of M.A. Usov, A.M. Kuzmin, N.S. Pen, B.L. Stepanov, K.G. Tyu-mentsov, N.N. Urvantsev, M.K. Korovin, etc. worked. Exploration on gold, iron, manganese, coal, construction materials was conducted [12].

B.L. Stepanov's group was engaged in studying fields of manganese in Salair Ridge, including, ore occurences near the Gavrilovsky plant. In the submitted report on completion of works the geological economic characteristics of ore occurence is given, the quality of ores is described and preliminary reserves of manganese are defined [13].

In 1920 B.L. Stepanov in Sibgeolkom was appointed the manager of industrial investigation of minerals of the Kuznetsk district. And on the instructions of Sibgeolkom carried out investigation on Mrassa River placer gold from the mouth to the summer field period upstream on 300 km, on its inflows - streams you Put, Fyodorovka, Cara-Chick, etc. and also on a watershed of the Kondoma Rivers and Mrassa, in so-called "Kolarsky Belogorie". Works extremely were at a loss adverse weather, a flood of mountain small rivers and impossibility to receive food in local uluses. However the party managed, besides identification of the general geological

structures of the studied area to receive perspective materials under the terms of its zolotonosnost. Especially interesting concerning gold were results of studying vicinities Ust-An-zasskogo of the ulus of the valley of Mrassa, between Unushkul and Anzak. On the Ortonu and Fyodorovka Rivers (right and left inflows of Mrassa) the mines working there were surveyed. Shlikhovy approbation and holes opened three gold-bearing small rivers which are not touched still by gold prospectors here. In the surveyed area widely developed breeds similar to in what telbessky iron ore fields are localized were revealed.

In sources of the Ortona River the structure of Mount Patyn where in slopes of breeds in 1915 B.L. Stepanov established a vkraplennost of magnetite was studied and magnetometric shooting is carried out. In the current year near the mountain Patyn B.L. Stepanov revealed slopes of breeds not only with a small vkraplennost of magnetite, but also with streaks of magnetite, with power up to 1...5 cm of Mineragraficheskiye and petrographic studying collected material in cameral conditions and also data of magnetometric shooting showed prospects of the area on identification of the field of magnetites here.

On the way back B.L. Stepanov's party at the request of local inhabitants Shors took the observations and measurements necessary for drawing up the estimate on production of explosive works on destruction of thresholds on some sections of the Mrassy River [13].

In 1921 Sibgeolkom's guide appointed B.L. Stepanov the head of department of industrial investigations of minerals of Siberia. By this time the geological service of Siberia was on rise, and geological parties according to the plan of Sib-geolkoma and on tasks of the industry conducted systematic geological researches and investigation of coalfields, iron, manganese, gold, nickel, polymetals, construction materials and other minerals in Kuznetsk Alatau, Gornaya Shoriya, Salair Ridge, Altai-Sayansk folded area, Yenisey Ridge, in Norilsk. And B.L. Stepanov was responsible for all this.

In summer a field season of 1923 B.L. Stepanov at the request of Enzoloto trust led geolgo-prospecting party of trust and carried out geological shooting of the Ayakhtinsky gold field in the Southern Yenisei taiga and degreasing of the Ayakhtinsky mine with which the was sign in 1913, carrying out its expertize from Vogau. In September-December Stepanov's party finished pumping of the flooded Ayakhtinsky mine and on the mine started explutatsionny works. The detailed exploration of zircon and monazite, dated for the Ayakhtinsky granitoid massif was conducted to the same field season, investigation on Gerasimo-Fedo-rovskom the gold field located in the valley of a stream Pine-forest the systems of river Mu-rozhnoy in the Southern Yenisei taiga [7] is carried out.

One of parties under the leadership of B.L. Stepanov conducted geological survey and prospecting works of gold fields in the Olkhovsko-Chibizhensky ore field to field seasons of 1923-1924. Investigation was carried out by ditches, cuts, pipes, holes, superficial mines and cross-cuts. By results of works the report was written and article for printing "by Olkhov-sko-Chibizhensky the gold region, its geological structure and conditions of a zolotonosnost" is prepared [15].

B.L. Stepanov conducted by summer of 1924 on the instructions of Enzoloto trust geological survey and investigation in the neighborhood of the Avenirovsky mine in the Xie-vero-Yenisei taiga. As a result of works the quartz vein with the industrial content of gold which was outside concession of Enzoloto trust was open and explored. B.L. Stepanov submitted the application for discovery of the field [7].

In July, 1924 the mining engineer, the large geologist-intelligence agent I.S. Vasilyev who was on Sibgeolkom's staff and in combination TTI giving in 1922-1924 lectures at department of mountain art for students of geologists-intelligence agents the course "Prospecting Business" developed by it, was transferred to Leningrad where he continued to give this course in the Leningrad mining institute to the death in 1928. I.S. Vasilyev's lectures, in the form of the textbook "Course of Prospecting Business", were posthumously published by the Leningrad mining institute.

Due to I.S. Vasilyev's leaving, the course "Prospecting Business" was transferred to department of geology, and reading it it was entrusted to B.L. Stepanov who was on the staff of this department which he read till December, 1930

Over the years both the professional skill of B.L. Stepanov, and pedagogical grew. According to the recommendations of professors M.A. Usov, M.K. Korovin, A.V. Lavrsky on September 19, 1925 B.L. Stepanov was elected to a position of professor and approved in "Applied geology, ore fields, mountain investigation". When electing A.V. Lavrsky gave appreciation to teaching activity of B.L. Stepanov, having especially paid attention to his ability to intelligibly state and systematize the courses given by it. M.A. Usov, besides, gave appreciation to his research and production activity, especially when studying gold fields and, in particular, its work "A geological structure, structure and conditions of a zolotonosnost of the Olkhovsko-Chibizheksky ore field" [14].

On memoirs of professor A.M. Kuzmin B.L. Stepanov who is perfectly owning the Fedorovsky method of determination of structure of plagioclases heat-natrovykh field spars and the most important constants of the color minerals necessary for diagnostics of magmatic breeds, at the request of professor M.A. Usov helped it, in the early twenties to the young scientist, to master Fedorov's method.

A.M. Kuzmin was very grateful for it

Material in them was stated to B.L. Stepanov, since the guides to the Fedorovsky method existing then were rare, heavy that caused certain difficulties in development of this method both in students, and in experts-petrografov. Thanks to B.L. Stepanov's help

Mikkelsen Flemming
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