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EVOLUTION of VIEWS of the DON INTELLECTUALS In 1905-1907.



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EVOLUTION of VIEWS of the DON INTELLECTUALS In 1905 — 1907

Don intellectuals were a compound and integral part of the intellectuals of the country. In 1905 the territory of the Area of Army of Donskoy made 154 thousand sq.km that almost equaled to the Voronezh, Kharkiv and Tambov provinces combined; its population made 2.7 million people - it is approximate population of many central provinces of the country.

By our calculations (on the basis of materials of a population census of 1897), the approximate number of the Don intellectuals at the end of the 19th century (without the studying youth) was 15.8 thousand people or 2.4% of all amateur population of the region that was a little less, than countrywide — 2.7%.

At the beginning of the 20th century the activity of the intellectuals was carried out generally within cash desks of mutual aid and scientific and educational societies. Such organizations to Dona in 1905 was: 4 — teacher's rooms, 6 — medical, 1 — medical assistant's, 1 — musical. The main activities of similar societies — rendering financial support to the members (in the form of grants and loans), identification by it of the place of work, providing the reduced the price medical care, care of improvement of working conditions; for satisfaction of spiritual needs at societies libraries were created, at general meetings scientific reports and lectures were arranged.

A considerable part of teachers, doctors, pharmacists, paramedics, railway, post and cable and office employees, journalists, actors, pupils of average educational institutions (by our calculations, in high school — age 17 — 21 year — in 1905 about 4.5 thousand people studied at Don) on the origin, working conditions and life were closely connected with the people. Policy of autocracy in the field of national education, health care, culture, the lawlessness and difficult financial position, activity in the region of political parties objectively promoted involvement of the intellectuals and serving in public life of the country.

In the conditions of revolution work in legal benefit societies, in the educational and scientific organizations did not satisfy a noticeable part of the intellectuals of Don any more. Promotion of professional, and then and economic requirements, creation of the illegal unions and joint stock company -

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tivny participation in political struggle — such is there was an evolution in views of an active part of the local intellectuals.

In the professional sphere the following demands were made: teachers — introduction of general compulsory and free elementary education, periodic convocation district and regional teacher's congresses, a protection of the personality from an arbitrariness and intervention of stanitsa and rural administration both in school, and in private life; doctors — improvement of setting of medical business at factories and the plants of Rostov, introduction by "a legislative order at the expense of the state of the general and compulsory school education", introduction of the 9th hour working day at factories; pharmacists — reduction of nights on duty to 10 in a month, use of boarding house at pharmacy — to the discretion of employees; paramedics — the right for independent practice, participation in work of medical and sanitary councils and congresses of doctors. The called groups of the intellectuals and also post and cable, railway, office and bank employees tried to obtain improvement of conditions of the work. Reform of high school was supported by pupils.

The Don intellectuals vividly reacted to events on January 9, 1905 in St. Petersburg, beatings of health workers in Balashov of the Saratov province and pupils in Kursk, dismissal for progressive views from the St. Petersburg conservatory of N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, chernosotenny riots, etc.

In the statements of the Don teachers, doctors, railway employees, engineers, lawyers accepted in the spring and summer of 1905, the studying youth more and more sharp criticism of the existing orders sounds, demands of democratization of society are more and more persistently made: boycott of the Bulyginsky Duma, convocation of the Constituent assembly, introduction of the political rights and freedoms, formation of zemstvo to Dona. During this period local offices and groups of the All-Russian Union of Teachers (ARUT) are created, teacher's congresses on districts and a regional congress, the first in the history of the Don teaching are convened (on August 15, 1905, Novocherkassk, more than 200 delegates). By our calculations, the number of members of AFU to Dona was 530 — 580 people — about 40% of all local teaching. About 450 of them (these are 80%) were rural teachers.

Considerable radicalization of views and moods of the intellectuals and employees happened in the fall of 1905. The next moments demonstrate to it: a) the new organizations — the Rostov union of kontorshchik and accountants, the Union of pharmacists of the Don region, the Union of pupils of all average educational institutions of Rostov and Nakhchivan are created; workers and employees of the Vladikavkaz and Southeast railroads unite in uniform labor unions; b) such proletarian form of fight as a strike is used: in the fall of 1905 in the region strikes of teachers, pharmacists, railway, post and cable, office and bank employees, pupils of average educational institutions took place; c) joint workers' protests, employees, Don intellectuals in October, November, December political strikes; d) the local unions of teachers, pharmacists, kontorshchik and accountants, pupils sent the representatives to the Rostov Council of working deputies for coordination of actions; in close contact the labor union of the Vladikavkaz railroad workers which part also employees were worked with Council; e) the liberal and democratic intellectuals of Don rendered moral and financial support risen in December, 1905 on Te-mernike.

In 1906 — 1907 in social and political activity of the intellectuals of edge there is a recession. Some unions (for example, kontorshchik, pharmacists) stopped the existence, others (labor union of the Vladikavkaz railroad workers, the post and cable union) — almost did not show the activity. These years, local groups of the All-Russian congress of teachers continued work, but during this period their activity did not reach such scope, as in 1905 any more

The only group of the democratic intellectuals of Don whose movement grew, got stronger, entered a new stage of the development, there were pupils of average educational institutions. At this time in Rostov the largest acted on Don till 1917 the social democratic student organization (in April, 1907 it contained 367 of "the organized associations bringing a membership fee and adopting the party program") which had close ties with the student organizations of Novocherkassk, Taganrog and the South of the country.

Moods and views of the intellectuals were influenced by all complexity of the Russian reality (in economic, socio-political, cultural, national and other areas of life). The unstable "intermediate" position of the intellectuals causing its continuous fluctuations, world outlook eclecticism, vagueness of social ideals was of great importance. Political orientation of the intellectuals was defined also by features of fate of each individual, variety of conditions of formation of his views, differences in volume and the nature of social experience, individual originality of structure of consciousness of certain people.

Romagnoli Lisa Evelina
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