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Process of establishment of public organizations in the second half the XIX beginning of the 20th century (on the example of the Penza province)



IZVESTIYA

PENZA STATE PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY of V.G. Belinsky HUMANITIES No. 11 (15) of 2009

IZVESTIA

PENZENSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO PEDAGOGICHESKOGO UNIVERSITETA imeni V. G. BELINSKOGO HUMANITIES No. 11 (15) 2009

UDC 006.2 (471.327+09)

PROCESS of ESTABLISHMENT of PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN the SECOND HALF of XIX - the BEGINNING of the 20th century

(On the example of the PENZA PROVINCE)

© lake of V. DOBROV

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history e-mail: dob_ov@mail.ru

O.V. Dobrova - Process of establishment of public organizations in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century (on the example of the Penza province)//PGPU News of V.G. Belinsky. 2009. No. 11 (15). Page 96-104. -

In this article organizational and political and legal prerequisites of creation of public organizations in the Penza province at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century are considered and also features of this process are noted. Keywords: Provisional rules, public organizations, society, charter.

Dobrova O. V. - The Process of establishment the social organizations at the end of the XIXth-the beginning of the XXth with. (for example of Penza province)//Izv. Penz. Gos. Pedagog. Univ. Im. V. G. Belinskogo. 2009. No. 11 (15). P. 96-104. - This article covers political and legal preconditions for creating of social organizations in the Penza province at the end of the XIXth-the beginning of the XXth with. and the peculiarities of this process.

In the second half of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries the Penza province was a typical sample of the Russian province. The All-Russian census of 1897 showed that 123.3 million Russians lived in the province and only 2.3 million - in the capitals. Urban population in provinces there were 14.5 million, that is is 6.3 times more, than in the capitals. In the Penza province lived

1 470,474 persons, from them 139,838 - in the provincial center. The literacy of the population respectively was 36.4% in the city and 14.7% in the province [1]. The local economy had agrarian character, including insufficiently developed industrial sector occupied with processing of agricultural products.

The abolition of serfdom did not cause immediate transition from absolutist to a bourgeois political system. The autocracy took only a step towards the bourgeois monarchy. The same can be told also about political system of the Russian society which, generally, in the second half of the 19th century, kept the feudal character, having gained only separate bourgeois lines. Class forms of association of citizens continued to exist. The appeared bodies of territorial and city self-government given the chance to be shown public activity of liberals in essence were public institutions.

Nevertheless, updating both state, and public began. There was an opportunity

for expansion of public undertakings. Therefore emergence of desire in citizens to participate in the solution of social, educational, cultural problems in society is quite natural. The best way of realization of this desire - association of adherents in the organization. A.D. Stepansky, the famous researcher of public organizations of pre-revolutionary Russia, assigns them an important part in a research of history of the country. He considers that "public organizations are an element of a political superstructure and represent the most important kind of the public institutes forming together with institutes state the system of the political organization of society"; - also gives such definition - "the public organization is the association of citizens voluntary self-coping, properly issued regularly operating for achievement of definite political, social and economic and cultural purposes of non-productive character" [2].

The government for public organizations could on the one hand, create the best conditions for development of its activity, with another - it is simple not to allow opening it per se, i.e. the financial and legal status of the organization completely depended on the relation with the power. Agreeing to creation of public organizations (i.e. the voluntary self-coping associations of citizens) go-

the sudarstvo had to recognize the rights of social groups for the legal status and the legalized sphere of free activity. Nevertheless, public associations were carefully controlled by state bureaucracy which watched closely their activity from beginning to end (authorized opening, issued standard charters, determining by that the internal structure, the sphere and methods of activity of the organizations, exercised the current supervision and closing in case of discrepancy with the established standards).

Bourgeois transformations of the 60-70th did not bring Russia of special political freedoms, including freedom of the unions. However, as a result of the liberal reforms of Alexander II and the subsequent direction of domestic policy, the power began to treat public work more tolerantly. Revival of all spheres of public life, activization of citizens' initiative was observed.

If opening of society at the beginning of the 19th century required the adoption of its charter personally the emperor, then from the middle of the century (after reforms of the 1860th) - the corresponding minister: internal affairs, national education, the state imushchestvo and so forth (except the societies asking special privileges and privileges). Treat number of the laws granting the right for opening of society: the law "About Representation of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Right of an Adoption of Charters of Societies for Mutual Assistance or with Other Charitable and All-useful Purpose" of January 12, 1862, "About granting the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the right of an adoption of charters of public and private charitable institutions" [3], etc. Most societies was under authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, were engaged in their separate groups: minister of national education (scientific organizations), minister of the state imushchestvo (agricultural societies), Minister of Finance (commerce and industry organizations), etc. But at the level of the ministries it was hard to achieve opening of the new organization, and the charters submitted for approval could be exposed to numerous changes.

From 90th years the development of so-called approximate and normal charters for certain types of societies became widespread. They were developed for 15 types of associations: race, hunters of horse run, mutual assistance learning and learning, city and rural firefighters, a grant to the poor, the help to the needing pupils, consumer, agricultural, sobriety, musical and singing, cyclists, mutual aid, mutual aid in case of death, the mutual aid marrying. Almost all of them are published in releases of the collection made by G.K. Von-Plato [4].

It only created visibility of simple process of an adoption of charters. The pre-revolutionary researcher N.P. Anufriyev wrote: "... It is not necessary to think that with the publication of normal charters the Russian people acquired the right for a statement predostavlya-

emy them charters, even at their identity with the normal charter. Normal charters need to be understood as set of rules and conditions at which observance the administration can, but it is not obliged, to solve education and action of any private society..." [5].

On the one hand, in 1896 in view of numerous requests for opening of the societies coming to the ministries, the order of permission of opening even more became simpler: the local administration (governors, city's mayors) gave permission to opening of the public organizations adopting the normal or approximate charters issued for them. And with another - it put their complete dependence from the power.

Putting activity of the legal organizations in a limited framework, the government strictly pursued the organizations illegal. Under the law of 1867 all those societies which after not application ought on these permissions, will evade from the purpose of their establishment were considered illegal ", or will begin to cover with plausible actions such direction which in any relation is harmful to the state improvement or public morality" [6].

In 1900 all issues on societies were resolved by Department of common causes of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. As a part of the Ministry the 2nd special office which submitted directly to the minister's companion was created. In the instruction for this office approved on March 30, 1900 the circle of the issues resolved by it, in particular "cases on consideration, a statement and change of any charters of private, scientific, charitable and other societies, associations, circles, clubs, artels, on-pechitelstv, cash desks, courses, classes and thousand rubles of institutions made a reservation. and also orders about closing of all private societies which charters are approved by the Ministry of Internal Affairs" [7].

After 1905 this office became the main body which was engaged in the Ministry of Internal Affairs in public organizations including other departments. Certain societies "supervised" also some other divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: Head department for the press (literary organizations), Medical council (medical societies). The department of trade and manufactories of the Ministry of Finance was engaged in the organizations of assistance to commercial education and the legal working organizations; Charity organizations through the head prison department - the Ministry of Justice.

The ministry of national education controlled, perhaps, one of big groups of public organizations: benefit societies of teachers, educational societies, scientific organizations at educational institutions, the student's organizations. In June, 1902 by position of Committee of Ministers and according to "The highest pleasure of the Sovereign Imperator" passed to this department from maintaining the Ministry of Internal Affairs of society of care about primary education and similar them the organizations [8]. In a month the minister on -

native education obliged directors of national schools that those "claimed at the local provincial administration of exact data on the existing societies of care about primary education and accepted those societies in the maintaining" [9]. Besides he asked to inform societies and to explain to them that before any changes they have to be guided by the old charters and the general resolutions and orders of the government existing for the specified societies. Now the organizations had to deliver every year no later than January 15 to the local director of national schools of data for the expired year in the form offered MNP. The form included:

>- the name of society;

>- location of board;

>- number of members (honourable, valid, employees);

>- account budget;

>- the institutions which are contained or subsidized by society;

>- cash of the capital or property (inviolable, current assets, value of real estate).

Among other innovations there was also an obligation to report about time and the place of general meetings, besides local police, also to the local inspector of national schools, "with the indication of the questions which are subject to discussion in meetings" [10].

Contents of charters, and together with them and activity of societies as a result of all these innovations did not undergo any significant changes. Transfer from one department to another was formal as control from Department of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of activity of public organizations remained. Charters, financial statements and lists of members of societies, as before, were sent to Department. It is possible to claim that from now on administrative observation of activity of the considered formations doubles.

The legal framework for creation and activity of public organizations in 1906-1917 were published on March 4, 1906. "Provisional rules about societies and unions" [11]. Till this time among numerous Russian statutes there was no general law on public organizations. The first and till 1906 the only general norm giving the chance to public organizations to have the legal status, it is possible to consider Article 64 of "The charter of deanery" 1782 in which it is told that the justice of deanery protects in the validity the law the approved society, association, brotherhood or ionic similar establishment [12]. Then the legal status of various voluntary organizations before revolution of 1905-1907 was defined by Article 16 of "the charter about prevention and control of offenses" forbidding "to all and to everyone to get and maintain in the city society, association, brotherhood or other similar meeting without permission or the consent of the government" [13]. "At study I correspond -

shchy parts of the next edition of the Arch appearing in the 90th first of all the contrast between abundance and thoroughness of the norms directed to that "to slow down, forbid, to close and so forth", both unsystematic character and uncertainty of standards of "positive character" is evident - A.D. Stepansky notes [14].

"differently the situation with a question of permission of societies was - there was a lot of not clear and uncertain. Remained the only general norm speaking about "the lawful statement of societies". page 117 of the charter about prevention and control of offenses" which "did not give the intelligible answer to the main issue where and on what conditions it is possible to get permission to creation of society". "Thus, the order of permission of societies which was established since the beginning of the 20th century in the form of the royal statement approved by Committee of the Minister of the charter of society was based not on an exact letter of the law, and on tradition" [15].

The manifesto among other civil liberties proclaimed on October 17, 1905 also freedom of creation of the unions and holding public meetings then started creation of the bill of societies and the unions. "Provisional rules" became the first and the act, only in the history of pre-revolutionary Russia, in which the diverse precepts of law scattered by all parts of the Code of laws defining bases of activity of the legal organizations were aggregated and processed taking into account modern legal practice. In the Code of laws "Provisional rules" were located as appendix 1 to Article 118 of Chapter V of Section II of the Set of charters on prevention and control of offenses.

"Provisional rules about societies and the unions" entered simpler scheme of establishment of public organizations. They were registered at specially created presence, Provincial on public affairs, - the collegial bodies identical on the structure and competence to the Presence which are already existing at that time on city and territorial affairs. Representatives of the highest official provincial device (the chairman Prisutstviya is the governor, the vice governor), judicial authorities (prosecutor and the chairman of district court), the highest officials public (the mayor, on one public from provincial zemstvo and City Council, the chairman of a provincial territorial justice) and class (the provincial leader of the nobility) self-government were a part of Presence.

Facilitating the procedure of control of actions of societies, Rules regulated literally everything. In the charter the purposes of the organization, ways of achievement of this purpose on what means it will exist where there will be a board (council, committee), its duties, the amount of membership fees, quantitative and social composition of members, measures to strengthening of means, conditions of reception and an exit, duties of a general meeting have to be by all means specified.

Provincial public presence dealt with all issues connected with activity

public organizations: opening, registration, prohibition, closing. Cases in them were considered by a majority vote with obligatory participation of representatives of public organizations. When the governor agreed not with opinion of most of members of Prisutstviya, he had the right to suspend execution of the decision of Prisutstviya and to submit to it the Minister of Internal Affairs (Article 39 of "Provisional rules about societies and the unions"). The charters submitted for approval were considered very attentively, and at the slightest discrepancy with Rules, were sent back for revision. So was with the adoption of the charter of "Nizhnelomovsky society of education of N.N. Yagodinsky". In §2 of its charter it is said: "The general education in all forms and shapes enters tasks of society: the highest, average and the lowest and also out-of-school, as in the relations of theoretical development of the questions started by education, and for creation of institutions for practical carrying out it in life. For this purpose society prints: books, brochures, and periodicals, lecturing, congresses, schools of all types, the museums, book warehouses, reading rooms, educational walks, excursions, etc. arranges and also promotes the organization of educational national entertainments" [16]. These purposes and ways of their achievement from the point of view of Prisutstviya did not correspond to the established rules. In the magazine of a meeting it is noted: ". Presence found derogation from the requirements stated in Article 21 of rules namely: objects of Board are not specified and... accounting order. Then Presence draws the attention of founders that according to Paragraph "A" of the article 21 purposes of society have to be expressed precisely and definitely, as well as ways of its activity, meanwhile, there is no both that, and another, have no certain character: main objectives of society are a little indistinct, and modalities of action demand accurate information. and, at last, the purpose of society is taken in extremely big scale so modalities of action are hardly achievable to society..., and therefore Provincial Presence defines: to return to founders the charter, for its addition in coordination with the requirements stated in Article 21 Governed." [17].

Presence refused registration and in case the petition of founders was not notarially attested (their legal capacity), or the fee by two brands on 75 kopeks was not paid stamp, or 4 rubles 50 kopeks on the publication of announcements are not presented in Provincial sheets and Senatorial announcements.

Due to the rise of revolutionary movement of 1905-1907 the Ministry of Internal Affairs publishes several confidential circulars. In one of them and it is said: "to .dopuskat their (organizations) legalization as the law on March 4, 1907 only in the presence of undoubted data on lack of their communications with social democratic groups, and in the first attempts from the marked organizations to derogation from the set limits -

yatelnost to close them as the specified law" [18].

But even earlier, in 1895 the director of the department of police N.N. Saburov specified that societies have to work "kind of under a glass cap" its departments... On June 10, 1901 there is confidential circular No. 6235 of the Minister of Internal Affairs D.S. Sipyagin in which he directly addresses governors, city's mayors and ober-chiefs of police about obligatory observation of private societies [19]. It (minister) closed the Union of mutual aid of the Russian writers which was, according to him, a shelter for various doubtful faces in the political relation and "a source of promotion harmful to the existing system of the ideas". And in 1903. Other official, Tre-pov, suggested to limit the number of the amusements by three arranged by societies in a year, and to resolve art exhibitions to a review only after preview of censorship [20].

According to officials from the Ministry of Internal Affairs the Provisional rules provided too much freedom for public organizations. The ministry addressed governors with the offer to state the view of the matter. Aspiration of the central power "to eliminate the defects noticed in practice" Provisional rules on March 4, 1906 became a basis of contents of the above-mentioned circular. For discussion of Provisional rules of the Ministry of Internal Affairs the special questionnaire was made, leaning on which local authorities had to estimate weaknesses of the law on March 4, 1906. The circular paid attention to really important aspects of the law: in what degree there corresponds to needs of the population the new order of establishment of societies (attendance and registration), an order of opening by societies of offices, desirability of allocation in the law in separate group of labor unions and many other things.

The responses which arrived in response to the government circular gave an idea of almost biennial effect of Provisional rules in various regions of the Russian Empire. Opinion of representatives of local government in issues of public amateur performance were defined by their professional and personal qualities, political views, the experience which was available for them and features of provinces which they operated.

For development of measures for improvement of the law capable to regulate creation and activity of public organizations and unions, some governors tried to understand that organized public amateur performance was, and began the responses with the analysis of the reasons and prerequisites which forced the government to go for creation of Provisional rules on March 4, 1906. Emergence of this statutory act them was considered as the concession to social movement received as a result of development of revolutionary process in 1905. The law, according to them, has to combine public and state interest, i.e. completely control freedom of formation of societies and unions.

Expressing the general opinion on the history of preparation of Provisional rules, the Kiev governor P.N. Ignatyev wrote: "The law bears on March 4, 1906 on itself clear traces of haste with which it was made. its edition coincided with meanwhile when a part thanks to the deep changes which happened in an organic system of our homeland, a part thanks to a sermon of the liberating exercises brought from the West, our society captured the universal fermentation which was expressed, by the way, and in the strengthened aspiration to self-determination and amateur performance, one of symptoms of which was formation of mass of the unions. constantly seeking to jump out of a close framework in which squeezed their legislation of that time. It was necessary to give an outcome, more broad lands to again appeared public forces and stratifications, and at the same time to enter them into the lawful course, to secure against abuse of them for the destructive purposes. This difficult task was also meant by the law on March 4" [21].

However representatives of local authorities considered that the reasonable compromise of the state and public interests in Rules did not manage to be reached on March 4. On the contrary, in their opinion, the law put public requirements over state. "The events of the last years indicating the arisen aspiration of individuals to be grouped in uniformity of the purposes in public and state life pursued by them, the law on March 4 brought to life, - the estlyandsky governor wrote and. V. Co-rostovets, - meaning to respond to this imminent need goes, however., into extremes: it gives too big freedom in any formation of societies and political parties., absolutely eliminating the government power from the right to enter consideration of admissibility or inadmissibility of formation of such societies and leaving behind it exclusively passive role - to certify only the fact of nascence of any given society" [22].

So, it was originally refused registration of "Professional society of workers of printing in the Penza province" (The magazine Penza provincial on cases of societies and the unions of presence of May 5, 1907) [23]. Existence of the e point in §2 providing delivery of grants on time of strikes was a cause of failure. In particular in the magazine it was noted: ".t. to. the law of December 2, 1905 cancelled 1358 and 13581 articles of the Code about punishments providing widely proceeding economic strikes in the enterprises which do not have public and state value; the strikes provided by 13582 and 13583 articles of the same code under our law are recognized as crime and are pursued in a criminal order. Provincial Presence cannot recognize as lawful delivery of grants during the strikes in general even if they would have purely economic character. At last, Presence by the resolution on registration of such society in which charter there is a point allowing delivery of grants during the strikes thereby would recognize already

lawful and the strikes punished by the law, and society on the basis of the charter would have the right to issue strike pays to members.". As this point was the only thing which prevented registration of society, correction of the charter did not take a lot of time, and in a month it was entered in the register of societies on the Penza province [24].

In implementation of the current control of work of public organizations the big place was given to studying members of their heads. The information about leadership team of the non-political organizations arrived to the governor right after election of new board of society. If the reliability of heads of society raised doubts of the power, it was put under control of provincial gendarme management. However, if there were though some data on unreliability, to society could be just refused registration. So happened to "Professional society of bakers in Penza". The application on registration of this society was submitted on February 6, 1908, and on February 24 the governor sent the instruction to the Penza chief of police, to find out, founders are how reliable. In the official report of the chief of police it is said: ".uchreditel of professional society of bakers in Penza peasants A.L. Babichev, K.A. Andreyev, A.S. Ksenofontov, as it turned out according to collected data, behavior and moral qualities disapproving though in political unreliability they were not noticed." [25]. Together with the chief of police of data on founders also the Penza district district police officer collected. Addressed to the governor it writes more in the official report specifically: "the peasant of the village of Blokhina, Chertkovsky volost living in Penza, A.S. Ksenofontov, according to the police officer 2 parts of Penza, fills with misgivings concerning his political reliability since does not differ in good behavior and has communications with persons in general unreliable, and on that I find participation it in the professional society of bakers offered to establishment unsafe" [26]. As a result the commission found an acceptable excuse and refused registration of this society: "Ordered: meaning that as that others, etc. can serve undesirable interpretation of the charter, the Provincial Board defines the inaccuracies allowed in the charter of professional society of bakers in Penza in edition: the statement of founders of the marked society of peasants of A. Babichev of l., K.A. Andreyev, A.S. Ksenofontov to reject what to founders to announce through the Penza municipal police department" [27]. Unfortunately, the charter of this organization in business did not turn out so we cannot judge those inaccuracies which are noted by Provincial Board fully.

Claims to the wrong drawing up separate paragraphs of the charter noted also the address about the adoption of the charter "Society of inhabitants and voters of Penza" and about a zaregistrirovaniye of this society. On request of the governor for reliability submitted the application from the chief of Penza Gubern-

sky gendarme management such answer came: "N.N. Meshcheryakov on the data which are available in management in 1906 belonged to konstitutsionnodemokratichesky party, but in it did not show vigorous activity. After that, other information about him did not come to Management" [28]. And here in the Magazine Penza Provincial on cases of societies and the union of presence of November 20, 1909 it is noted:

"LISTENED to

>:. From the draft of the charter of society by the way it is visible that edition of §9 (Rights of society) by founders is stated so "Society has the right on all industries of municipal economy to make reports, to develop them in the commissions, to discuss at general meetings and to submit for discussion of City Duma".

Addressing consideration of this paragraph Provincial on cases of societies the presence finds that founders, including in the draft of the charter such edition of the specified paragraph it violate 67 articles of the policeman of situation in which it is precisely specified according to whose offers, to requests and requirements the City Duma starts discussion being its business management. In a type of this, Provincial Presence without acknowledging the possibility to approve to lips of the mentioned founders, DEFINES: Vyrubov's request, Prosvirni-nykh, etc. in registration of society to reject what him with return of the charter and to declare with a subscription through the Municipal Police Department" [29].

Reducing control of activity of public associations, the state at the same time continued to be wary of similar manifestations of public activity of masses, not unreasonably being afraid that they will become a formation source in the society of oppositional moods. In the article "Fight against Starving" V.I. Lenin noted "one old truth: the police government is afraid of all contact with the people of a little independent and honest intellectuals, is afraid of any truthful and courageous word which is directly turned to the people, suspects - and suspects absolutely fairly that one already care about valid (but not imaginary) satisfaction of need will be equivalent to propaganda against the government because the people see that private philanthropists sincerely want to help it, and the tsar's officials disturb it." [30]. Governors and city's mayors were recommended to pay special attention to the purposes of societies specified in the draft of the charter. They had to be expressed very much definitely and accurately, without leaving an opportunity to treat them is double. It was necessary to watch also that the purposes of the organization which are formally specified in the charter by legal were only cover and allowed to be shown revolutionary by aspirations. At the slightest doubt in clarity of the purposes of society, the refusal in registration had to follow. In case of receiving confirmation that association actions deviate the approved charter a little it was necessary to close such association [31]. Being guided by these circulars, presence had to is very attentive to consider everything I arrive -

shchy applications and drafts of charters. So, it was refused registration of "Ust-Rakhmansky Volost Muslim popechitelny society" whose draft of the charter was found how made not according to requirements of the law on March 4, 1906. Claims looked as follows: ".1) §2 in which the purposes of society are stated, (O.D. is allocated by me) it is said that society assumes to render assistance to construction of mosques, opening of arrivals, cemeteries, i.e. the purpose religious. Meanwhile, as under §4 of letter A of the law on March 4 the societies pursuing the religious aims do not approach under effect of this law. 2) in §2 of item 7 there is a reference to rules of Sharia, without indication of in what these rules consist. 5) and 19 both maintaining books, and correspondence between members of society is allowed by notes to §§18 in Tatar, meanwhile, as in §21 of letter E that has to be made only in Russian" [32].

Similar red tape with the adoption of charters caused indignation of contemporaries: ".tolko jealousy of a public initiative peculiar to the Russian government, it is possible to explain preservation at us obligatory and besides preliminary censorship of the purposes and means of again arising private societies so far. - Noted

N. P. Anufiriyev. - Hardly it is possible to imagine that any society striving for any unlawful or reprehensible goal would express in the charter presented to government agencies, the true intentions. Such societies do not need at all in any statement and always find means to exist illegally. Therefore nothing remains to government agencies to which preliminary censorship of charters of again formed societies is entrusted how to show to nobody unnecessary and all burdensome work of an otyskivaniye in charters of legallistic mistakes and omissions, and all only to put on society a government brand" [33].

"Eventually, the contents of the royal legislation on public organizations came down to establishment of a circle of the public authorities which had the right to allow opening of any given organizations and to approve their charters. - A.D. Stepansky emphasizes - at the same time the law did not contain any precepts of law by which both the organizations, and bodies knowing them had to be guided. Establishment of these norms belonged only to the sphere of an administrative discretion, function, the structure, structure, the rights and obligations of public organizations were defined, first of all, by their charters" [34].

In 1903 in Riga there was a collection made by K.G. Von-Plato, "Regulations on the private societies established with the permission of the ministries, governors and city's mayors". In this edition advice in the order of establishment of societies was given and the outer official side of the procedure was described. In von-Plato's description it looked thus: "The persons wishing to found society. give

about volume the application to the governor. to whom attach the draft of the charter in duplicate and the list of all founders of society with the indication of their name, middle name, surname, rank and exact address."; the governor could permit independently if society was established under the normal charter. If the charter was made about derogation from the last, then ".takovy have to be especially stipulated in the application with the indication of the causes of the necessity of the asked retreats.". After the adoption of the charter the minister or the governor, it went to founders with the obligation to report about opening of actions of society, besides, to provide 10 copies of the printed charter. "Irrespective of this, the persons who received the approved charter are obliged to submit to the governor the copy it for familiarizing with the subject business now" [35].

The scheme given above, one may say, is simple and logical. Actually the question of establishment of any given society dragged on because of "very long red tape in the adoption of charters caused need of the intercourses on them with different departments" [36].

Having received the petition, the draft of the charter and the list of founders, the governor sent them to a response to local police bodies and only after obtaining from there answers made the decision. If creation of public organization demanded permission of the ministry, the governor directed the conclusion there, and there all materials were considered in the relevant departments, and each instance had the right of the ban. So, for example, the medical department considered not "expedient" opening of "Association of the Penza doctors". Addressed to the governor the report (13.11.1897) with a request for its opening to which the draft of the charter of Association was attached was submitted. In it it was said: "Association of the Penza doctors", setting as an object to provide cheap medical care to the known part of the population (people not poor, but low-sufficient), and to help copartners and their families, believes that implementation of these practical purposes will serve as the best means for association and rapprochement of doctors among themselves and will give them the chance of constant exchange of thoughts. Therefore in a type of absence in Penza of society of doctors, in the draft of the charter of Association to be allocated the due place and in common scientific and practical development of medical questions" [37]. On what from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, medical department the answer (31.03.1898) came: ". From the enclosed draft of the charter it is seen that except the mutual aid purpose (payment of pensions and grants), the Association pursues also scientific (theoretical and practical interests). Connection of these tasks at establishment of Association is represented, according to Department, hardly expedient since each of the marked purposes, for its successful achievement, the trebuyetisootvetstvuyushchy independent organization. Development of the relevant charters would not make difficulty because, as for educational

medical societies, and for the societies pursuing the aims blagotv?

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