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At sources of the Tomsk school of theorists



After in 1937 Tomsk was left by P.S. Tar-takovsky, and in the summer of 1939 left D.D. Ivanenko and A.A. Falcons, the theoretical physics in Tomsk for 30 years took very modest place in a wide and bright range of other directions of physics in the Tomsk higher education institutions and the academic institutes which appeared by the end of this period. Researches in the field of theoretical physics were conducted, but even the theorists grouped generally around theoretical department of the Siberian Physics and Technology Institute (SPTI) looked at theoretical physics as on "servant" of other directions of physics.

Will of circumstances the scope of theoretical researches was limited to the theory of a solid body. This direction developed in the teorotdel SFTI. There was also small group of theorists led by E.A. Arinstein working in the field of statistical physics. But after E.A. Arinsh-teyn's departure to Tyumen, scientific work in Tomsk in this direction was practically not conducted. There were certain theorists in TPI dealing with applied issues of the accelerating equipment. The view of theoretical physics as on the section of physics serving other directions was very actively cultivated then in SFTI, its echoes remained there before the beginning of a new century (though by the end of the 20th century from there democracy povymet theorists). The modesty of the position held by theoretical physics was emphasized, in particular, with that circumstance that till 1969 in Tomsk there was no doctor of physical and mathematical sciences who defended the doctoral dissertation in this direction (according to the nomenclature of that time of VAK the specialty was called 01.04.02 "Theoretical and mathematical physics").

When I in the summer of 1969 after two years' work as the senior research associate of physical faculty of the Moscow university returned to work in Tomsk polytechnical insti-

So our windy tribe Grows, worries, boils And to a coffin of great-grandfathers restricts.

Will come, both our time, And our grandchildren good luck will come From the world will force out and us!

A.C. Pushkin

here and will of the rector of that time of TPI A.A. Vorobyova it was appointed (and then soon and it is chosen on a competition) the head of the department of theoretical and experimental physics of TPI, this "prosaicness" of work of theorists in Tomsk, an obvious raid of provincialism struck me most of all. After the raging Moscow scientific life where theorists played leading roles in physics, here everything was quiet and peaceful, nobody felt that theoretical physics is, at least, a half of all physics in general that the theoretical physics of a samotsenn, has the physics, other than other departments, internal laws of the development and the internal logic rather independent of topic of the day. I wanted to change, make this situation of a research on theoretical physics in Tomsk self-sufficient especially as the general scientific atmosphere in Tomsk of that time was close to ideal, the prestige of science was extremely high, and work of the scientist though did not bring any special material benefits (however, as well as at all times), but held unconditional authority on the Tomsk society. On this background at the beginning of the 70th there was also our theoretical group.

Approximately in 10 years, by the beginning of the 80th, situation changed radically and the Tomsk group of theorists had strong all-Union and international authority, and the eightieth and the beginning of the ninetieth years were "harvesting time". These years an overwhelming part of participants of group became doctors of science and successfully continue the activity still. By their efforts it was created and the authority of the Tomsk theoretical physics is supported. These are current professors V.A. Bordovitsyn, I.L. Bukhbinder, S.P. Gavrilov, S.V. Ketov, G.F. Co-pytov, P.M. Lavrov, V.E. Lyubovitsky, S.L. Lyakhovich,

A.G. Meshkov, V.V. Obukhov, S.D. Odintsov, S.V. Sazonov, B.F. Samsonov, A.Yu. Trifonov, N.I. Fedosov, I.L. Shapiro, A.V. Shapovalov, Sh.M. Schwarzman, I.V. Shirokov, V.Ya. Epp. Not all from them now rabo-

thaw in our city, but all of them made very noticeable contribution to activity of the Tomsk group of theorists. Some of them were active participants of creation of group, many came to a heat of its activity, the majority in group since the students or a postgraduate study. The contribution of everyone is noticeable and unique. But here I want to tell about three of my colleagues who, on my personal belief, were ideological founders of the scientific directions and played a crucial role in formation of scientific research in theoretical physics in Tomsk during the initial, most difficult stage of creation of the Tomsk theoretical school. Perhaps, my look is subjective, other participants of events see them in a different way and otherwise estimate a role of each of us. But it is my private judgment and, I hope, it contains some part of an objective truth. Three about whom I want to tell here very briefly it is Vladimir Nikolaevich Shapovalov, Dmitry Maksimovich itman, Igor Viktorovich Tyutin. All of them are well and until now. Perhaps, they see themselves differently, but I will tell about them as I perceive them. All of us close age (V.N. Shapovalov - 1936, I am 1938, I.V. Tyutin-1940 g, D.M. Gitman of-1944 g) to write our scientific biographies, perhaps, still prematurely - it is not over yet... To write household biographies - not my path. More likely, it memories of the scientific party of our life during creation of the Tomsk theoretical school and a role of these people in this process.

The Tomsk theoretical school does not become isolated the Tomsk university, its physical faculty. Now it does not become isolated even our country. But, certainly, physical faculty of TGU is it a1ta mater. It is more surprising by that that all three were never a staff of physics department of TGU though two of them, as well as I, graduates of this faculty (I.V. Tyu-tin finished the Moscow Physics and Technology faculty).

Vladimir Nikolaevich Shapovalov

I nodding was familiar with Volodya (I will dare to call my colleagues on names, I think, they will not bear a grudge against me for it) in student's years (he was more senior than me on two courses). Then we had no many years of almost any contacts. And in 1969, when it after not a really successful postgraduate study, several years of search of the scientific path and (at last!) protection of the master's thesis worked in the teorotdel SFTI, our ways were crossed. But we met at first on the chess soil. Exchanging views on different occasions, all of us carried on a talk and on scientific subjects more often. I was struck by area of its scientific interests. He was engaged in the theory of division of variables in the equations of mathematical physics. What is the division of variables - any physicist and the mathematician knows. But very few know about existence very netrivi-

the alny and graceful theory of division of variables, the main contribution to which at the end of the 19th century was made by the German mathematician Stäkkel.

I was always attracted by precisely solvable tasks and I wrote by then two-three works where found new exact solutions of the equation of Dirac. Volodya in candidate applied this theory to Chaplygin's equations, heat conductivity and some other, with mine, then very ambitious, the points of view, to the "insignificant" equations. There are "interesting to the whole world" Schrödinger equations, Klein-Gordon, Dirac... Why not to apply this theory to them and not to add to 3-4 already known exact decisions about couple of dozen and even one hundred new? I with levity of the layman rushed in this exotic. The main advantage of this theory was not only what was possible "on science" to find new solutions of the equations, but it was possible to give for each interesting equation full classification of all in general of opportunities and, thereby, to close a question for this equation. However, the problem of full classification for more or less interesting equation (for example for Klein's equation - Gordon) was so labor-consuming that one-two persons could spend not one year of work. But it was the real subject for small collective in 5-6 people for several years of good work. Volodya lit up this opportunity.

I involved (in different quality) absolutely young then A.G. Meshkov, A.V. Shapovalov (Alexander Vasilyevich Shapovalov - Volodya's namesake), V.V. Obukhova. All of them became professors subsequently, doctors of science and these researches formed the basis of their doctoral dissertations. The noticeable contribution to this work was made by future professors D.M. Gitman, P.M. Lavrov, I.V. Shirokov, dozens of candidate were protected in this direction. Volodya possesses the main scientific ideas here, main of which, in my opinion, consisted that he saw the algebraic party of this especially analytical task and managed to construct the main algebraic ways of its decision. Work in this direction is continued still and yet it is not visible its terminations.

Volodya later left several years Tomsk, having gone to Kalmykia, to Elista where works as the associate professor at physics department of the Kalmyk university. In Tomsk "housing problem" became for it a stumbling block and when to it the graduates of our physics department working there suggested to resolve this issue by moving to Elista, he after long fluctuations left there. The first years after its departure with it intensive scientific contact, and the member of our group, subsequently professor was kept, A.G. Meshkov also moved to Kalmykia (same "housing problem"). I many times was in koman-

dirovka in Elista. But "reorganization" made inaccessible many places of our country, and in recent years scientific communication with Elista was practically interrupted. However the seeds of scientific ideas seeded by Volodya in Tomsk still yield a plentiful harvest, and the mathematical physics as one of the scientific directions of the Tomsk theorists takes very noticeable place both by the number of the people working here, and on the importance of the received scientific results.

Dmitry Maksimovich Gitman

Dima appeared in our group around 1973 He was already a candidate of science, having defended the dissertation under the leadership of E.A. Arinstein in statistical physics. Its deep interests lay in the quantum theory of the field, and such researches were conducted then only in our group. At that time it worked in TIA-Sura at department of physics. Large specialists in the quantum theory of the field among us were not, and it had to study a lot of things independently. He paid a tribute to hobby for exact decisions, was a coauthor of many works on this subject (subsequently we with it wrote the monograph published in 1990 in the international publishing house Kluver Academic Publisher on this subject).

At Dima the critical intuition is well developed. Though the person he, in my opinion, rather rigid, however this rigidity such is that does not push away people, and it quickly and skillfully not only entered into our collective, but also occupied in it one of the leading positions, having organized group of the young people working under its patronage. In this group there began future professors Schwarzman, Lavrov, Bukhbinder, Lyakhovich. Having defined the direction, perspective for that period, - quantum electrodynamics with external and intensive fields - he managed to interest in this problem not only a part of the Tomsk group, but also the staff of theoretical department of Physical institute of P.N. Lebedev of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (FIAN) in Moscow. Our young colleagues became frequent guests in FIANE, in MSU, in Dubna, and in it his considerable merit. It did not avoid the works on a research of concrete physical effects and executed by it then together with colleagues of a research on problems of the theory of radiation, stability of a vacuum in external fields, features of manifestation of effect of Aaronov-Bom attract interest still. But one of its main opening is that it "opened" I.V. Tyutin for Tomsk. When I.V. Tyutin worked in Tomsk, they together with young people not only executed the researches which entered nowadays scientific monographs but also for many years defined the general very high class of the Tomsk researches on the quantum theory of the field.

Having passed to the middle of the 70th into the Tomsk Pedagogical Institute (nowadays the university), he headed department of the mathematical analysis, and very quickly around this department the youth was grouped (including her current manager - professor P.M. Lavrov). Scientific work was conducted very intensively, it was interesting to all. We held scientific seminars then in the House of scientists, and these seminars brought together large audience. Did not forget and about another - often played together soccer, basketball, went to the pool. And in all this Dima was one of the main zakopershchik. Despite a big difference of our natures, we were always able to find a common language in the main thing, acted together, never between us arose large misunderstanding. Small tensions happened - not to do without them, but they never passed into something more serious. It very well was reflected in common causes.

At the beginning of the 80th at Dima the desire to move to Moscow became notable to be shown - its Moscow scientific links became very strong. Of course, I understood that its departure will be for us loss - our collaboration took place successfully, but I realized that if it manages to make it, then it and for us can open new opportunities. I in process of the opportunities promoted its moving to Moscow, as happened in 1985 Dima worked at the Moscow institute of radio engineering and electronics. During the Moscow period it continued intensive cooperation with residents of Tomsk. Then, after disintegration of the country, he went abroad and now takes constant place of professor in Brazil at the largest Latin American university in São Paulo. Surprisingly but its cooperation with residents of Tomsk gained new qualities - he invites residents of Tomsk to long terms in São Paulo now for joint scientific work which takes place successfully. Thus, its influence on the Tomsk theoretical physics is felt still.

Igor Viktorovich Tyutin

We, however, as well as the vast majority of physicists in the seventies, knew I.V. Tyutin long before personal acquaintance. BRST abbreviation meaning very uncommon special symmetry in the quantum theory of the field is known to each physicist. This abbreviation is formed of the first letters of surnames of authors of this opening, and the last letter "T" just and is obliged to Igor.

The history of Igor in Tomsk is very curious, and It is necessary to tell several words about it. I saw Igor several times before direct personal acquaintance at seminars in FIANE, he was friends with the acquaintance to me from 60th B.L. Voronov (in the 60th - the student of MSU, nowadays professor and long-term nauch-

ny employee of a teorotdel FIANA). But personally D.M. Gitman in the mid-seventies acquainted us. On all who had pleasure to discuss some scientific problems with Igor, always a deep impression was made by his lucidity of mind, ability at once to see an essence, clearness of formulations. And all this in good Russian, without dryness, and even with a joke. Especially I was always impressed by its critical gift, ability to see a weak point in the proof, a doubtful argument in a discussion (from acquaintances to me personally people, perhaps, B.L. Voronov only mentioned above whose critical gift, in my opinion, is unique and comparable unless with erenfe-stovsky surpasses in this regard Igor). I think that to all measures Igor is the first-class theorist - and on the actual contribution to science and on intelligence. Igor in the mid-seventies at one Moscow scientific institute worked, but he could always be met at a scientific seminar in teorotdel FIANA where his teacher academician E.S. Fradkin worked. Somehow accidentally I learned that Igor did not defend the doctoral dissertation yet. It was for me very surprising. It became clear that it has some tensions with the management of institute where it worked and though its doctor's is quite ready, but he does not manage to receive from the institute necessary documents for its protection. And then at D.M. Gitman the brilliant thought was born: to suggest I.V. Tyutin to leave the institute, to be enlisted in Tomsk pedagogical (D.M. Gitman already worked in TGPI) where immediately will issue it all papers, necessary for protection, to protect doctor's, and then to decide the future depending on the developing circumstances. In exchange to ask I.V. Tyutin to spend some time in Tomsk, for our young people to read special courses on modern problems of the quantum theory of the field and if which of young people (or old) to it attracts, then and to become the research supervisor. When Dima stated me this idea, it very pleased me. Dima vigorously undertook negotiations both with Igor, and with the management of teacher's college. I than could helped it with this difficult business. And we were successful in this almost mad invention. Igor agreed with our offer, and we achieved the consent of the local management to this uncommon step.

In March, 1978 Igor was enlisted by the senior research associate of TGPI, received all papers, necessary for defense of a thesis, and in 1979 a mustache -

peshno protected it in FIANE then held a position of professor of TGPI. But when the fever connected with protection fell down, Igor found very sensible and hard-working young people in our company, with pleasure began not only to teach them to the theory of the field, but also performed with them great collaborations. Especially successfully there was its cooperation with D.M. Gitman and P.M. Lavrov. We are obliged to Igor that researches on the quantum theory of the field in the Tomsk group by the end of the seventieth reached the highest world level.

Igor spent by

in Tomsk 4-5 months in a year, his family remained in Moscow. In teacher's college he not only conducted scientific work with members of our group, but also gave lectures to students (from good will of the management of institute the lesson schedule adapted to his arrivals). But in a couple of years a certain inconvenience of its situation in educational institute as regular teacher began to be felt (both for him, and for the management of institute). Then I agreed with G.A. Mesyats, the director of ISE Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science of the USSR (I then managed at this institute a teorlaboratoriya), about its transfer in April, 1981 to ISE teorlaboratoriya by the senior research associate, and in teacher's college Igor remained part-time professor. In total Igor worked in Tomsk more than seven years. In September, 1985 Igor nevertheless returned to Moscow where now works in the teo-rotdel FIRAN. But after return to Moscow it successfully continues cooperation with residents of Tomsk. Especially successfully there is a collaboration with P.M. Lavrov, the doctoral dissertation of the last was a consequence of this cooperation, in recent years Igor performed very interesting collaborations with professor of our university S.L. Lyakhovich.

I told about three people who very significantly influenced in the ideological and organizational relation formation of the Tomsk school of theoretical physics at its initial stage here. In recent years, as it also has to occur, the role of leaders is undertaken by others, but I considered important to allocate a contribution of these people to our common cause. New generations of theorists already badly imagine, "as it began and who stirred up all this trouble". Let this small story will remind of already left time which moves away from us more and more promptly, but let there will be a memory...

V.G. Bagrov

Charles Cunningham
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