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From the history of the Russian emigration: G.P. Fedotov and E.Yu. Kuzmina-karavayeva (mother Maria) on perekrustka of vital and creative destinies

GALYaMIChEVA anastasiya




In article the question of relationship of eminent persons of the Russian emigration - to mother Maria is considered

(IT. Skobtsovoy) and G.P. Fedotova. Their joint activity in various emigre organizations is considered.

An attempt to find common ground of their creativity and traces of creative interference is made.

The article considers the relationship of such a notable figures of Russian emigration, as G.P. Fedotov and Mother Maria (E.Ju. Skobtsova). The author examines their mutual aid in common cause in emigration. The author tries to compare their beliefs and articles and to understand how this prominent people influenced each other.

Russian emigration, G.P. Fedotov, E.Yu. Kuzmina-Karavayev (Skobtsova, mother Maria), religious and philosophical society "Krug", Orthodox Business, Russian Student's Christian Movement; Russian emigration, G.P. Fedotov,

E.U. Kuzmina-Karavaeva (Skobtsova, Mother Maria), religious-philosophical society "Circle", "Orthodox cause", Russian Student Christian Movement in Emigration.

In the history of the Russian emigration there are two figures about which it is written and is known quite a lot. Each of them in itself gained considerable recognition: the famous poetess, the artist, the journalist, the public figure Elizabeth Yurevna Skobtsova (in first marriage — Kuzmina-Karavayev, in monkhood — mother Maria) and the historian, the religious philosopher and the publicist Georgy Petrovich Fedotov.

There is, however, one aspect which is a little studied so far: question of their relationship. Its consideration can open much new and interesting, for many years they went hand in hand on Road of Life, educations of the younger generation of emigrants were engaged in business, reflected over the same problems, constantly supported each other at the difficult moments.

E.Yu. Skobtsova was born on December 8, 1891 in Riga in family of companion prosecutor Yu.D. Pilenko. After the sudden death of the father in 1906 Elizabeth Yurevna with mother and the brother Dmitry moved to St. Petersburg. In 1909 ended the Stoyutinsky gymnasium of St. Petersburg with a silver medal and it was enlisted on historical and philological faculty of Bestuzhevsky courses. In 1910 married the relative N.S. Gumilev of D.V. Kuzmin-Karavayev.

Thanks to acquaintances of the husband (marriage continued till 1913) it approached many cultural figures of the Silver age, also associations of artists "The union of youth" became the active participant of "The shop of poets". A.A. Blok had a great influence on formation of her personality. In the spring of 1917 Kuzmina-Karavayev entered a party of Social Revolutionaries. In the years of Civil war she took part in the white movement in the south of Russia, in 1919 married the chairman Kuban regional are glad, the eminent Cossack person D.E. Skobtsova, and in 1920 forever left Russia. Originally Skobtsov' family found a shelter in Serbia, and in January, 1924 moved to Paris.

Anastasia Aleksandrovna GALYAMICHEVA — to. and. N, the senior teacher of department of history and the ethno-confessional relations of PAGS of P.A. Stolypin Ualyaman

G.P. Fedotov appeared in Paris one year later. Been born on October 1, 1886 in Saratov in family of the managing director of office of the governor, it graduated from historical and philological faculty of the St. Petersburg university in 1912 and was left at department of general history for preparation for a professorial rank. Area of scientific interests of G.P. Fedotov was spiritual life of the western Middle Ages. In days of revolution and Civil war G.P. Fedotov did not adjoin one of contradictory camps, and in 1920 became professor of department of general history at the Saratov university. Fedotov hoped to find the place in new Russia, counting on old pre-revolutionary contacts among the Saratov Bolsheviks. (In 1905 he was one of the most active propagandists of Bolshevik Party in Saratov.)

By 1917 P. Fedotov, however, already left excitedly Marxism and revolutionary movement, returned to deep faith in God. The attempt to find itself in the Soviet Russia was unsuccessful for Fedotova, and in 1925 he forever left the Homeland, having located, as well as thousands of other Russian emigrants, in Paris.

Thus, courses of life of our heroes even before their departure from Russia were noted by lines of similarity: both of them left the circle of provincial officials, both grew up in religious families, and in young years experienced hobby for the socialist ideas.

G.P. Fedotova and E.Yu. Skobtsova's acquaintance took place at the V congress of Russian Student's Christian Movement in Clermont who passed on September 12 — 18, 1927. According to G.P. spouse of Elena Nikolaevna Fedotova, their friendship "remained than not saddened up to the end" 1. From same year it is possible to speak also about a close interlacing of their creative destinies.

In 1927 in Paris two brochures by E.Yu. Skobtsova under general name "Spirit Harvest (Lives of Saints)" 2 were issued. G.P. Fedotov published the review,

1 Fedotova E.N. Georgy Petrovich Fedotov//G.P. Fedotov. A collection of articles in 6 t. — Paris, 1988, t. 1.
2 E.Yu. Kuzmina-Karavayev. Spirit harvest. — SPb., 2004.

in which gave to work very high otsenku3.

G.P. Fedotov's review still remains unnoticed by researchers of his career, and, meanwhile, it, in our opinion, takes an important place on the most important turn of a career of the thinker — the appeal of the pupil of the St. Petersburg school of historians of the western Middle Ages to the Russian hagiographical tradition. His well-known book "Saints of Ancient Russia" which was published in 1931 in Paris is in many respects both continuation, and addition, and a peculiar dialogue of the author with the book E.Yu. Skobtsova. G.P. Fedotov paid the main attention to another dimension of orthodox sanctity: on pages of his book the group of ascetics, mystics, hermits, "masters of a prayer" — those who influenced society a personal example of service of Bogu4 appears at the reader.

Their participation in activity of the Russian Student's Christian Movement (RSCM) was the main business uniting G.P. Fedotov and E.Yu. Skobtsova. Georgy Petrovich made a special contribution to activity of RSHD as the organizer of a youth circle on studying history and cultural heritage of Russia through works by the Russian writers, poets and also historians and philosophers. Elizabeth Skobtsova took active part in work of a circle, mainly in its literary seminar devoted to disclosure of the Russian national consciousness in the Russian word and to studying a spiritual condition of modern Russia in its fiction.

A graphic evidence of accord of thoughts and G.P. Fedotov and E.Yu. Skobtsova's ideals are two articles about a circle on studying history and cultural heritage of Russia RSHD. It is very indicative that they carry the identical name — "Studying Russia" 5.

3 G.P. Fedotov. Review of the book: E. Skobtsova Zhatva spirit. Issue 1 — 2//Modern notes, Paris, 1927, 35, page 554-555.
4 G.P. Fedotov. Saints of Ancient Russia. — Paris, 1931. The latest separate edition of the book is the most available to the modern reader (M., 1990).
5 E.Yu. Skobtsova. Studying Russia//the RSHD Bulletin, Paris, 1927, 9, page 17 — 19; G.P. Fedotov. Studying Russia//the RSHD Bulletin, Paris, 1928, 2, page 29 — 32.

The religioznofilosofsky society of Krug collecting at one table of writers, poets, critics and philosophers of the Russian Paris was other common ground of ideological searches of E.Yu. Skobtsova and G.P. Fedotov. Arose Krug in 1935 and existed prior to World War II. A fundamental source of our data on work of this creative association is the report on its meetings made by G.P. Fedotov during the period from December 2, 1935 to May 3, 1936 g1. The conversation was the main form of work of Krug. The report of one of participants on philosophical, historical or world outlook subjects became the introduction steadily. The list of participants of Krug was changeable, however both G.P. Fedotov and E.Yu. Skobtsova were indispensable participants of all his meetings. In G.P. Fedotov's report a specific place is held by the message about E.Yu. Skobtsova's report, already mother Maria (on March 16, 1932 she accepted monastic tonsured), "An evil miracle" which was read on April 20, 1936. The report was devoted to an eternal problem of life and death. Maria called the last mother by "an evil miracle" — an evil celebration miracle over good in the terrestrial world. As G.P. Fedotov reports, participants of a meeting introduced the idea that death gives to the person awareness of uniqueness and fragility of life, so, and its values, and immortality, on the contrary, "would obeskrasit life". Apparently, the nature of discussion of the report was caused by the aspiration of participants to support mother Maria who tested a terrible tragedy — the death of the 4-year-old daughter Anastasia in 1926, and then, under the terms of the French legislation, forced to be present at exhumation and reburial of a body of the daughter in 1931. The tragedy served as the main motive of making decision on a post-threshing barn. Mother Maria understood the monastic service as maternal service: "I saw before myself the new road and new meaning of life: to be mother of everything, all who need the maternal help, protection, protection" 2.

the Aspiration to embody the ubezh-

1 G.P. Fedotov. The report on work of Krug//the New Hail, Paris, 1936, 11, page 136 — 160.
2 E.Yu. Kuzmina-Karavayev. Favourites. — M,
1991, page 420-421.

a deniye in practical affairs brought Orthodox Business charity organization to life. Opening in the fall of 1932 of the hostel for lonely women became the first charity event of the new organization. The metropolitan Eulogius who personally blessed this undertaking remembered: "Mother Maria employed a residence in the depth of the lane (9, villa de Saxe), light, convenient, with a small garden, and began to take boarders for a cheap payment. The need in the cheap Russian hostel was big, and the house was quickly filled. At the hostel of m Maria suited the Church of the Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God; inhabitants of the house began to visit her willingly... The mansion could not accomodate everyone any more to lodge in it toilers soon, its sizes did not allow m of Maria to be developed in all width of its plans, and in two years the foundress moved to Rue Lurmel, 77, to the big house" 3.

In this house the ceremonial meeting at which it was officially declared creation of the Orthodox Business organization took place on September 27, 1935. G.P. Fedotov who was near mother Maria in all diverse undertakings of Orthodox Business became one of its most active participants. Professor of the Parisian theological institute often could be seen in the central Parisian market where he acted as the porter of mother Maria buying products for the charitable dining room. He was the most popular lecturer at literary meetings of Orthodox Business, the tireless organizer of free excursions on the museums of Paris for the Russian youth coming to the capital of France from the province.

The beginning of World War II forever shared lots of G.P. Fedotov and mother Maria. G.P. Fedotov used the invitation of the American Jewish working committee and managed to leave from France occupied by fascists to the USA. As for mother Maria, she decided to remain in France and to fight against fascism. She said: "Only now will begin real

3 Eulogius (metropolitan). Way of my life. — M, 1994, page 493.

work, and not only among Russians, but also among the French, and even Germans" 1.

Orthodox Business continued to work in new, much more difficult conditions. At the same time there are bases to assume that G.P. Fedotov continued to influence mother Maria. In our opinion, it is indicated by an embroidery, unique for her art creativity, "Saint Philip the Metropolitan of Moscow", executed in 1940 for the Church of the Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God on Lurmel Street. The uniqueness of this work is that all other works of art by mother Maria were connected with evangelical and antiquated texts. Appearance of the Russian Saint who drew at the time special attention of G.P. Fedotov could be reflection of indestructible spiritual bonds between two eminent persons of the Russian emigration. In 1928 the book by G.P. Fedotov "Saint Philip Metropolitan of Moscow" which became an event in spiritual life of the Russian emigration was published in Paris.

Participation of mother Maria in a resistance movement brought it in 1943 into a concentration camp Ravensbryuk. She lived expectation of a victory, continuing creative activity behind a barbed wire, but on March 31, 1945 was executed in gas kamere2.

Even after tragic death of mother Maria G. P. Fedotov remained for her family one of the most expensive and

1 E.N. Fedotova. Decree. soch., page 28.
2 There is a legend that mother Maria a feather -

stepped that day a threshold of the gas chamber instead of other prisoner of Ravensbryuk condemned on the death penalty.

dear people. Not accidentally to it across the ocean from post-war Paris mother E.Yu. Sofya Borisovna Skobtsovoy Pilenko handled a request to become the editor of the collection of works of the daughter conceived by it. This edition was not carried out during lifetime of S.B. Pilenko. Only in 1992 in Paris the two-volume book of Articles E was published. Yu. Skobtsova.

Article will be appropriate to be finished, in our opinion, in the lines from G.P. Fedotov's letter to S.B. Pilenko. On January 9, 1948 he wrote: "Dear Sofya Borisovna! I was very touched, having received your letter, and is grateful to you that you addressed me. Of course, I will make that I can, for a redaktorstvo of its inheritance. I very much loved it, despite the difference of our characters. I will tell more: in Paris, maybe, I had no more loved one, besides family... What it was the wonderful place — "Orthodox Business", and all this is created, that is united by m Maria" 3.

The community of fate of G.P. Fedotov and m of Maria was shown also in the history of their return to Russia. It was inseparably linked with revival of Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian religiousness on an end of the 20th century. The name of G.P. Fedotov was high in the history of the Russian religious philosophical thought, and the spiritual feat of mother Maria became the basis for her reckoning to the Community of Saints on January 16, 2004

3 G.P. Fedotov's letter of S.B. Pilenko//Messenger of the Russian Christian movement. — Paris; New York; M, 1992, No. 166 (III), page 154.
Scott Goodman
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