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Religious ethics in coronation fireworks of the 1724-1750th.

e. A. Naymark


the 1724л1750th - x

Work is presented by department of the Russian history. The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor T.G. Frumenkova

The orthodox etnka in fireworks is insufficiently analyzed by historians. Symbolical expression of good, humility, sacrifice was embodied in special emblems which will be investigated in article.

The Orthodox symbols in fireworks havebeen insufficiently analysed by historians. Symbolic expression of good, submission and beneficence was realized in special emblems, which are analysed in the article.

Coronation fireworks were organized in Russia, since Catherine Alekseevna's crowning. Researchers analyzed cultural value of "pyrotechnic representations", in a complex studied odes and prosaic literature of the 18th century, but - lie gave attention national,

to church etiquette allegories of emblems


fiery holidays.

In Peter the Great's reign in fireworks the symbolics expressing worship of God was not used. The two-headed eagle became a widespread Russian national emblem in coronation "fiery shows". He was the central secular dominant - - a symbol of the imperial power.

The emblem with the image of the Pious Maiden praying pe-is less known

red an altar from which there was an altar-fire smoke. It began to be used in Peter II's reign and further became widespread. Its image designated return to orthodox ethics of humility, obedience as in emblematic language of the beginning of the 18th century the altar symbolized these tsennosti2. The composition with the image of the maiden inclined in a prayer became since the end of the 1720th same important as the military attributes, and sometimes surpassed se in the importance.

The image of the worshipping women was traditional. Catherine I several times spoke at a crowning of 1724 as the kneeling, obedient spouse of Peter the Great. Approximately in 1730 in the allegorical image of Academy

sciences by a holiday of a crowning the maiden with children who is piously inclined in front of Mars to which Slava put on a wreath of Pobedy& is represented. The composition symbolized gratitude of the monarchess and her citizens to the god of war for triumphs.

The maiden's allegory, ^ praying before an altar, was for the first time used in illumination during Peter II's crowning of 1727 Feofan Prokopovich designed to this celebration of the image of the main orthodox values: patriotism, belief, justice. Symbols, allocated from the general military and panegyrical rhetoric, altars with a symbol were


God above also incensed (fig. I). Them dopol-

b)/? Г& , shch ~

Fig. 1. Drawings to Peter II's crowning: and - a censer; - an altar

allegory nyal with the image of royal persons who kindled fire to Gers-5

the tvennik stylized under antiquity or prayed before them. Emblems in the projects F. Prokopovich -

did not explain talno. These emblems resembled a censer from the collection "Symbols and Emblemata" (fig. 2). Ya.Ya. Shtelin represented similar symbols in drawings to -

Fig. 2. A censer from the collection "Symbols and Emblemata"

to ronatsionny fireworks for Anna Ioannovna. However on emblems of the academician censers, and uncertain objects (most likely, altars) 7 were represented

(fig. Z). Illustrations to emblems were drawn by the famous authors, including X. Goldbach.

Sacrificial censers were represented in different situations. The big censer was nari-

comes with and

Shch * I

I At -

Fig. 3. Draft copy of the drawing of Ya.Ya. Shtelin

to a crowning

Religious ethics in coronation fireworks of the 1724-1750th

sovano in draft copies to Peter II's crowning


separately with the inscription "VOTA PUBLICA". In classical Latin there are several widespread translations of a noun of vota: I) desire, 2) prayer, 3) exclamation. Russia interpreted a phrase as "will of the people" or "a national prayer". This rhetoric was often used in the antique odes devoted to the Roman emperors.

In the short description of the parable about Solomon's court the censer symbolized good,


wise victim. Inscription: "Accept, My God, for the good" - under an obelisk (symbol of wellbeing of the power) and contention opposition to peace one-man management designated advantages of the stable reign based on execution of divine will and knowledge. The illustrations in drawings to projects of a crowning of Peter II composed by F. Prokopovich were complemented with symbols of humility, wise humility, sacrifice.

During Peter II's crowning all canons of a wedding lost in 1724 on the kingdom were restored. Feofan Prokopovich accused authors of a coronation ceremony of 1724 of sedition. He did not call Catherine I's crowning a historical example for the organization of coronation of Pyotr the Second. The archbishop tried to revive authority of Church and in particular the highest clergy during new representation of the power. It restored the rule of assignment by the bishop (but not the secular person as it was in 1724) crowns on the head of the monarch who is kneeling the custom of a church throne (constructions on the corresponding subject of the archbishop, but not monarch) revived, singing of the prayer, glorifying of thanksgiving by the highest clergy, etc. During the crowning of 1727 the firing from guns was cancelled. On a triumphal arch, medals and during the fireworks, religious emblems were used. Remembered a little Peter the Great. Innovations had to prove that the social and political paradigm changed.

Nevertheless secular symbols of the power were used in fireworks. The ideology of absolutism, idolization of the power (and at the same time its desacralizations because of recognition of the terrestrial bases of the right for reigns), full justification of actions of the monarch was of great importance. That is why in a coronation ceremony at Anna Ioannovna's accession the role of Church was reduced again, the cult of personality of the empress began to develop. During a holiday there was a firing from guns, showed big fireworks.

However the military subject in coronation fireworks after Peter I was applied much more less than in the first quarter of the 18th century. In Anna Ioannovna's reign the images of a prayer before an altar were widely used in symbolics. In the form of the maiden who was kneeling at an altar Russia or subject empresses was represented. However in coronation fireworks of the 1730-1750th mainly secular symbolics was applied.

In "vectorial" fireworks for birthday of Anna Ioannovna of 1738 the religious emblems glorifying the empress were used. In the description and maxims to it it was reported: "Russia in image velikolepnyya wives, having at the head an imperial crown. & lt;...> The victim Burning on an altar means pure desire and intention of this action; and the smoke ascending from onyya which does a cloud tversta-go the sky shows undoubted hope that this desire is pleasant to god and from it blagoslav-lyatsya by a mercy uslyshaniye" & #34;. The fact that in these "vectorial" fireworks dated for a birthday of Anna Ioannovna the poetics and rhetoric characteristic of coronation fireworks of reign of Peter II was used is remarkable. The distinction was that merits of the empress were even more exaggerated. An image of Russia in the form of the maiden dressed in an attire from imperial eagles from an imperial koro-

23 1

& #34; • ¡Г"

Fig. 4. The drawing to Peter II's crowning

ache on the head also it was used in emblems of 1728 earlier. Their religious component was that in them the symbolical Russian Empire was kneeling to an altar on which fire smoked. The emblem of 1728 on which the image Russia does not admire an altar is given in the appendix, however this symbolical composition almost completely matches the description of 1738 (fig. 4) & &. As it was noted, in

the emblems prepared for Peter II's crowning the maiden's symbol in different options was used. Then academicians, making the invention of feyerverochny representation on January 28, 1738, considered or used F. Prokopovich's developments and X. Goldbach 1728. In "vectorial" fireworks of 1738 there were no strict canons of a crowning of 1728, however religious etiquette formulations remained.

In Anna Ioannovna's reign the images of a prayer before an altar were widely used in symbolics. However in coronation fireworks of the 1730-1750th mainly secular national symbolics was applied.

The humility, humility, kindness, quiet reign as the values opposed to the military past remained in the 30-50th of the 18th century. If in the 1730th of an allegory of a prayer before altars continued to be used, then after Elizabeth Petrovna's ascent on a throne the ethical dominants fireworks changed. It occurred, it is obvious because the empress wished to identify herself with the male monarch reigning in the secular, educated state. Cultural images of Education and an allegory of wealth, luxury, generosity, joy, pleasure very quickly forced out the religious subject popular in the end of the 1720th - the 1730th from fireworks.

1 Maggs B. W. Firework Art and literature: Eighteenth - Centure Pyrotehnics. The Slavonic and East European Review. Vol. LIV. No. 1, January. 1976; Geldern J. The Ode as a Performative Genre/Slavic Review. Vol. 50. 1991 No. 4; Uorpshan P. Scenarios of the power. Myths and ceremonies of the Russian monarchy. M,
2004T. 1; V.Yu. Proskurina. Myths of the empire: Literature and the power during Catherine II's era. M, 2006.

Short interpretations of an oznacheniye of images//Symbols and emblemat. M, 1995. Page 57.

3 PFARAN. Razr. XII. Op. 2. Unit hr. 28/1.

RGADA. T. 156. On. 1. Unit hr. 246. L. 18, 20. It is published for the first time.

5 N.I. Pavlenko. Peter II. M, 2006.

The Russian state archive of ancient acts (further - RGADA). T. 156. On. 1. Unit hr. 246. L. 21.


The St. Petersburg branch of Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences (further - PFARAN). F.Ya.Ya. Shte-lina. Unit hr. 77. L. 1.

to RGADA. T. 156. On. 1. Unit hr. 246. L. 18. 1 RGADA. T. 156. Op. 1. Unit hr. 246. L. 20.

V.I. Zhmakin. Crownings of the Russian emperors and empresses. SPb., 1898. Sankt-St. Petersburg sheets. 1738 SPb., 1738. Page 40-41. 12 RGADA. T. 156. Op. 1. Unit hr. 246. L. 20.

Albert Castillo
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